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EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

THINGS APPEARING TO EAFH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT

  Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety. We, human beings, have thought various ways to transcend it. This is an aspect of the human history. However, not a decisive way to transcend it has hit us. The decisive way will be explained a little later in this book.
  Materials, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, neural systems, neural functions, neural cells, neural cells' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, vacuum, the space itself, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves". In contrast, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Appearing Things". They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. Accordingly, they are called Appearing Things in these books. An appearing thing's existing or being premised to exist can be called a thing's "Appearing". Things excluding the time are completely divided into THINGS IN THEMSELVES and APPEARING THINGS. That is, there are no remains or overlaps after they are divided.
  Now, only one thing can make sure that only one group of things exist at only one time. For example, the sight of my personal computer, my hands striking its keyboard, my desk, the walls, and the windows are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking the keyboard is appearing on an auditory sensation, feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, moderate hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation, to me, who am the writer of this book, at present, and I can make sure that they exist. In that only one thing can make sure that only one group of things exist at only one time, the only thing that can make sure can be called "I", the only time can be called the "Present", and the only one group of things whose existence can be made sure of can be called the "Things Appearing to Me at Present" or the "Group of things Appearing to Me at Present". A thing appearing to me at present's existing can be called a thing's "Appearing to Me at Present". THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT are included in APPEARING THINGS. A thing's appearing to me at present is included in a thing's appearing. I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist.
  Now, each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time, or it is premised that each thing can make sure each group of things exist at each time. For example, when you and I look at each other and talk; I can make sure that the sight of your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, and it is premised that you can make sure that the sight of my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation and my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exist. In that each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time or it is premised that each thing can make sure that each group of things exist at each time, each thing that make sure can be called "Each of Us", each time can be called the "Then Present", and each group of things whose existence can be made sure of can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present" or a Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present. A thing appearing to each of us at the then present's existing or being premised to exist can be called a thing's "Appearing to Each of Us at the Then Present". THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT include THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT and are included in APPEARING THINGS. A thing's appearing to each of us at the then present includes a thing's appearing to me at present and is included in a thing's appearing. Each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist or it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist.
  Now, it cannot be made sure whether or not any THINGS IN THEMSELVES exist. For example, the sight of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it, and so on are appearing on a visual sensation, the sound of striking it is appearing on an auditory sensation, and feeling of the keyboard is appearing on a somatic sensation, to me at present, and I can make sure that they exist, but they are only sights, sounds, feeling, and so on, that is, APPEARING THINGS and are not THINGS IN THEMSELVES, and I can no way make sure whether or not they in themselves exist. Moreover, it cannot be made sure whether or not any APPEARING THINGS, excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, exist. For example, when you and I look each other and talk, I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation and your voice appearing to me at present on an auditory sensation exist, but I cannot make sure whether or not my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation or my voice appearing to you at present on an auditory sensation exists.
  However, it is premised that THINGS IN THEMSELVES exist. For example, it is unthinkable that all things in the world are no more than illusions. Moreover, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS, excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, exist. Moreover, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT, excluding THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can see my face like I can see yours.
  In contrast, as far as THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT are concerned, it is not that it is premised that they exist, but that I can make sure that they exist. For example, I, who am the writer of this book, can make sure that the sight of my personal computer, its keyboard, and my hands striking it appearing to me at present on a visual sensation, and so on exist. Moreover, it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. For example, when you and I look at each other, I think that you can make sure that my face appearing to you at present on a visual sensation exists like I can make sure that your face appearing to me at present on a visual sensation exists. After all, I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. However, when we always divide those two cases, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, those are also called "Its being premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist" in these books.
  Moreover, it is premised that a large number of THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist continuously for hours. For example, from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night, the sights of the rising sun, my town, living things including human beings, the setting sun, streetlights, and so on, their sounds, the images of the things which I will write in this book, and so on have been appearing and will be appearing continuously to me who am the writer of this book. A large number of THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called the "Things Appearing to Me" or the Group of Things Appearing to Me. In addition, it is premised that a large number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT do so. A large number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT which are premised to exist continuously for hours can be called "Things Appearing to Each of Us" or a Group of Things Appearing to Each of Us. For example, things appearing to each of the diurnal animals on the earth from waking up in the morning till falling asleep at night are included in them. THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME contain THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT, and THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US contain THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT. The former is the continuity of the latter.
  Moreover, it is premised that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME are caused directly by several parts of the neural system and their functions, which are included in the individual body and its functions, which are included in THINGS IN THEMSELVES. For example 1, it is premised that things appearing to me on a visual sensation are caused directly by the neural group's excitement and transmission from the retinae through optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes. For example 2, it is premised that things appearing to me on a somatic sensation like the pain, hotness, coldness, and so on of the skins, bones, tendons, and so on are caused directly by the neural group's excitement and transmissions from them through sensory nerves, spinal cords, and brain stems to somatosensory areas on temporal lobes. The several parts of the neural system and their functions which are premised to cause THE APPEARING THINGS TO ME directly can be called "My Phenomenological Neural System". In addition, the individual body and its functions containing my phenomenological neural system can be called "My Body". However, mere bodies cannot be called animals or human beings, much less the self. Those words imply some appearing things. Accordingly, my body and THE THINGS APPARING TO ME are called "My Self" or "I" in these books. In addition, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US are caused in the same way. The several parts of the neural system and their functions which are premised to cause THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US directly can be called "Each Phenomenological Neural System". In addition, the individual body and its functions containing each phenomenological neural system can be called "Each Body". In addition, each body and the things appearing to each of us which are premised to be caused directly by each phenomenological neural system contained in each body can be called "Each Self", or "Each of Us".
  So far, the following group (A) and group (B) have been distinguished.

Group (A)
I, the present, the things appearing to me at present, the things appearing to me, my phenomenological neural system, my body, my self

Group (B)
each of us, the then present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, things appearing to each of us, each phenomenological neural system, each body, each self

In a kind of classification, the following are true.

I ⊂ each of us
the present ⊂ the then present
the things appearing to me at present ⊂ things appearing to each of us at the then present
the things appearing to me ⊂ things appearing to each of us
my phenomenological neural system ⊂ each phenomenological neural system
my body ⊂ each body
my self ⊂ each self

However, in group (A), it is not that it is premised that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist but that I can make sure that they exist. in contrast, in group (B), it is not that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist but that it is premised that they exist and that it is premised that each of us can make sure that they exist. In such a way, premises are essential from the starting point in group (B). In contrast, the starting point of group (A) is free from premises and is the only thing that can be made sure exists. This possibility of making sure of their existence is particular to group (A) and is only in group (A). However, excluding it, whatever is in group (A) is also in group (B). Accordingly, from now on, group (A) and (B) will not be distinguished. In addition, each phenomenological neural system, each body, or each self is also called the Phenomenological Neural System, the Body, or the Self in these books. In addition, as was defined earlier, that I can make sure that THE THINGS APPEARING TO ME AT PRESENT exist, and that it is premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist is called "Its being premised that each of us can make sure that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist" in these books.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

  As was explained above, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH of US are caused directly by the phenomenological neural system contained in the body, that is, several part of the neural system and their function. In other words, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH of US are not caused and do not exist if the phenomenological neural system does not exist or function. Actually, the heart in the body, the brain stem in the neural system, or so stops functioning irreversibly, and as a result the phenomenological neural system stops functioning irreversibly, and as a result APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US stop being caused and existing irreversibly. For example 1, the heart stops irreversibly, the blood flow stops irreversibly, that of the brain also stops, APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US stop being caused irreversibly. For example 2, by definition, brain death causes the same while some parts of the body including the heart and excluding the central neural system exist and function. Most human beings have already recognized brain death as death. That the body never exists or functions well enough to cause any THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US can be called the "Body's Death" or the Body's Being Dead. In addition, the body's getting dead can be called the Body's Dying. It is premised that the body's death brings it about that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US are never caused and never exist. The body's death and the fact that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US never exist which the body's death is premised to bring about can be called the "Self's Death" or the Self's Being Dead. In addition, the self's getting dead can be called the self's Dying. It is premised that the body's death brings it about that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US is never caused and never exist, and the self's death implies it. When the self is dead, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US and THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT which they contain never exist, and that each of us can never make sure that any THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist.
  The self dies sooner or later. Each of us, human beings, has the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. It is the ultimate anxiety. We, human beings, have thought various ways to transcend it. This is an aspect of the human history. However, not a decisive way to transcend it has hit us. However, the decisive way to transcend it is in the things which have already been explained and are about to be explained below.

THE DECISIVE WAY TO TRANSCEND THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

  In the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, what it is about is sometimes mistaken for the body's death. The body is included in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, and the body's death is only a change of some THINGS IN THEMSELVES. None of us have any anxiety only about such a change of some THINGS IN THEMSELVES. Each of us has anxiety not only about the body's death but also about the fact that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US never exist which it brings about. That is, each of us has anxiety not about the body's death but about the self's death. That is because we, human beings, have already recognized the brain death as death and fear it as much as the traditional cardiac death. In addition, that is because, in our daily life and medicine, what is called "consciousness" is respected, and its loss is taken seriously. More precisely, as was explained earlier, THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US contain THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT, each of us has anxiety about the fact that the latter never exist. More precisely, each of us has anxiety about the fact that we are never able to make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist. For example, when we wake up to find the sunlight through the window, we sometimes make sure that we are alive. The anxiety about self's dying sooner or later is also the anxiety about the inability to do so.
  However, it is premised that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist, and that each of us can make sure that they exist.
  In addition, the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later contains the anxiety about space and time's being endless and accordingly about there's being endless time after the self's dying. However, because of the very endlessness, in the space which has endless space and time, an infinite number of materials similar to the animal bodies including the neural systems on the earth exist and function forever. For example, even the living things having the same genes that you have are generated in the endless space. It is premised that such an infinite number of materials cause an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT forever. It is premised that an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist forever, and that an infinite number of each of us can make sure forever that they exist.
  In addition, APPEARING THINGS are sometimes confused with THINGS IN THEMSELVES in the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. The former are quite different from the latter, above all, spatially and temporally.
  First, temporally, in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, there are some temporal distances among the bodies which are premised on causing some groups of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US. Of course, there are often the temporal distances of a billion or more years. For example, when I died a billion years ago and some animals where some APPEARING THINGS are caused are generated on another planet, there are temporal distances of a billion years between my body and theirs. In contrast, in APPEARING THINGS, the time of no APPEARING THINGS' existing is only a moment. This is just like falling fast asleep and waking up. Sound sleep for hours and for a billion or more years make no difference. More precisely, the time of no APPEARING THINGS' existing is more a moment than any sleep is because the latter involves some dreams. For example, when I died a billion years ago and an animal where some APPEARING THINGS are caused are generated on another planet, as soon as the sight of the earth lightened by the sun disappears, that of the planet lightened by another fixed star is appearing.
  Second, spatially, in THINGS IN THEMSELVES, there are some spatial distances among the bodies which are premised to cause some groups of APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US. For example, there is a spatial distance of its diameter between two person's bodies that live on the opposite sides of the earth, and there are spatial distances of light years among the stars where some animals can be generated. However, if anything needed to move among them, the time of the movement would be a moment, as was explained above. In addition, in APPEARING THINGS, it is premised that APPEARING THINGS TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist just in front of us, and that each of us can make sure that they exist just in front of us. For example, when I see stars light years far away, just like I do so, some animals having visual sensations on some planets of some of those fixed stars see the one which we call the sun. In addition, in APPEARING THINGS, the thing to which An APPEARING THING spatially appears appears. It is easier to understand when it is called the appearing center of the world. The thing to which APPEARING THINGS spatially appear in APPEARING THINGS can be called the "Appearing Center of the World". As a result, it is the same as "each of us" defined earlier. It seems to be at the head in the vertebrates on the earth. For example, things appearing on an visual sensation with both eyes seem to appear to the deep place between the both eyes in the head. In THINGS THEMSELVES, there are spatial distances of inches or more among such heads, as was exemplified above. However, in the appearing things, any head or any portion of a body is the same appearing center of the world, that is, each of us. For example, just like my head is the appearing center of the solar system for me, for an animal generated on a planet in another system light years far way, the head or another portion of his or her body is the appearing center of the latter system.
  In these ways, in APPEARING THINGS, there are no spatial and temporal distances as there are in THINGS IN THEMSELVES.
  In summary, in appearing things, there are no spatial and temporal distances as there are in things in themselves. It is premised that things appearing to each of us at the then present exist, and that each of us can make sure that they exist. In the space which has endless space and time, it is premised that an infinite number of things appearing to each of us at the then present exist forever, and that infinite number of each of us can make sure forever that they exist. Knowing these is the decisive way to transcend the ultimate anxiety about the Self's dying sooner or later. That is all.
  Those who have died transcending that anxiety have known this way vaguely and intuitively. Such vagueness and intuition should not be criticized. In contrast, if too metaphorical and symbolic explanations were added to this way, it would be misunderstood and that anxiety might get more serious. However, the way which has just been explained may be difficult to understand. Accordingly, metaphorical explanations will be added to this way in the following paragraphs.
  The following is a slightly metaphorical but simple and decisive explanation. That we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that each of us lives forever with loss of memory repeated. It is true that every time each body dies, the neural system dies, the image's sources which have been generated, memorized, and stored disappear, and loss of memory, that is, forgetting all is caused. It is true that a part of the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later is that about loss of memory. However, loss of memory is the only thing that animals having memories need to accept. We do not need to accept anything other than loss of memory. Each of us forgets all and lives again. Again, that we are borne, die, are borne, and repeat the same is equal to that each of us lives forever with loss of memory repeated.
  The following is not decisive, but it may help understand the way. Its being premised that each of us can make sure that THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT exist transcends all the things including THINGS IN THEMSELVES and space and time. There seem to be spatial and temporal distances of light years between some groups of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT. However, such seeming distances are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up. Each of us becomes each of us in a moment whether they are light years far away or inches close. For example, you will be me when you die, and I will be you when I die. Not only light years are nothing, but also inches or centimeters are nothing. In addition, an infinite number of animals having sensations or more in the past have already become me.
  Though those are only metaphorical explanations, I hope that they help us to understand the way explained earlier. Though metaphorically, the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later which have been explained in this chapter can be called "Being Borne (Again) and Living (Again)" or the "Endless repetition of life and death" metaphorically.

THE ULTIMATE DESIRE POSSIBLE TO SATISFY BEYOND LIFE AND DEATH

  However, we are not satisfied only with having sensations. We want to have memory, feeling, desire, ego, thinking, and so on. However, as long as animals having sensations, their nature, and the nature where they can evolve exist and function, they are certain to evolve to animals having the above functions. The seeming spatial and temporal distances among such APPEARING THINGS are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up.
  However, all the living things including human beings on the earth will be extinguished someday at most with the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. It can be called the "Natural Ending". If some human beings could immigrate to another planet or a planet of another fixed star and survive, many human beings and most living things would die, and those immigrants would evolve to another direction in another environment, and we could not look upon it as the existence of "human beings" or "living things".
  However, in the space which has endless space and time, an infinite number of materials similar to the living things on the earth exist forever, by an infinite number of functions similar to the evolution on the earth, an infinite number of materials similar to animals having sensations or more on the earth exist and function forever, and it is premised that such functions cause an infinite number of THINGS APPEARING TO EACH OF US AT THE THEN PRESENT forever. The seeming spatial and temporal distances between such APPEARING THINGS are nothing like falling fast asleep and waking up.
  However, many human beings want to be borne again and to live again as human beings or as evolved ones on the earth at least till the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, don't they? This is the ultimate desire possible to satisfy beyond life and death. This can be called the "Ultimate Desire". It is possible for us to satisfy beyond individuals and beyond generations because of the following. There are spatial and temporal distances of light years between the stars or systems where some living things can be generated. Accordingly, while the living things in a star or system hardly affect the living things in another star or system, in the same star or system including the earth, every living thing affects all the other living things that will be borne after it is borne in some ways. Of course, it can affect them to prompt their extinction before the natural ending, but it can also affect them to prompt their existence.

THE ABOLITION AND PREVENTION OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

  However, we, human beings, can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth by nuclear weapons and immutable gene means which will be explained below before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, that is, the natural ending. It can be called the "Artificial Ending" in contrast to the natural one.
  A weapon involving some changes of atomic nuclei like nuclear fission or fusion induced by the human beings can be called a "Nuclear Weapon". When a certain number or more of some subgroups of nuclear weapons are used in some situations, all the living things including human beings on the earth are extinguished.
  A gene manipulated by human beings which can replicates itself and cannot undergo any spontaneous mutations can be called an "Immutable Gene", and a means which involves some immutable genes can be called an "Immutable Gene Means". The traditional genes have been able to undergo some spontaneous mutations, and the traditional gene means only submit to the natural selections. In contrast, it is possible that immutable genes do not undergo any spontaneous mutations, and that immutable gene means involving such genes do not submit to the natural selections, reproduce themselves endlessly, and drive out and extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth.
  Human beings can extinguish all of the living things including human beings by nuclear weapons and immutable gene means. The nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means can be called "Totally Destructive Means".
  When a species of living things other than human beings prosper, the prosperity destroys its nature, and the destruction makes it decline or extinguish itself. The decline makes its nature revive and the species and some other species exist, or the extinction makes some other species exist. This can be called the "Cycle of Prosperity and Decline". However, we, human beings deviate from this cycle. That is because the nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means can destroy the genes of living things on the whole of the earth. Accordingly, human beings can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth before the aging or death of the earth or the sun. Human beings need to abolish and to prevent totally destructive means totally, that is, nuclear weapons and immutable gene means in order to satisfy the ultimate desire possible to satisfy beyond life and death.
  "Deterrence theory", "nuclear umbrella", and so on assume that the insiders or the persons in charge of totally destructive means are rational enough to control these means. However, first, it is possible that these insiders or the persons in charge are not rational enough, or that they go irrational. For example, some of them can think of suicide and can jump off a operation center like jumping off a building. Second, there can be some accidents of those means including running wild, breakdowns, aging, and some disorders by natural disasters that are beyond human rationality. Third, some outsiders can intrude into those means and make them run wild. Those who support or accept those means overlook these three possibilities.
  It is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. If it were possible, its possibility is much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing them. We, human beings, do not need to cope with aliens' invasion or the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun but only need to dispose of ourselves and our own means. Simply, we do not need to care others but only need to care ourselves.
  The details of totally destructive means will be explained in "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

REDUCING THE PAIN WHICH HUMAN BEINGS CAUSE AS IN GENERAL AS POSSIBLE

  Of course, animals including human beings have not only pleasure but also displeasure. Human beings have not only bodily or physical displeasure like aches, hotness, coldness, and so on but also mental displeasure like fear, anxiety, grief, loneliness, and so on. However, the word of "Pain" would be more familiar to us in daily life than that of "Displeasure". In addition, that of Pain as an uncountable noun designates not only bodily but also mental displeasure. Accordingly, the uncountable noun "Pain" is often used to designate bodily and mental displeasure in these books.
  Human beings also cause and suffer intentional and persistent pain by abuse, violence, war, despotism, torture, and so on. A lot of us think that we have more pain than pleasure, and some think that we have only pain. In such pain, it is sometimes the largest desire to be borne and to live again as another individual. Such a desire sometimes leads to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the ultimate desire which were explained earlier, but it sometimes leads to the following.
  As soon as the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the endless repetition of life and death are explained in the above chapter, we may be suffering the anxiety about suffering endless pain by the very endless repetition. If only human beings and animals on the earth suffered pain and if the pain ended up with the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun, we would suffer a lot of pain until such an ending. the anxiety about suffering such endless or a lot of pain may be no less severe than that about the self's dying sooner or later.
  In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, first, some of us deny the endless repetition of life and death and construct another what is called world view, philosophy, or religion. However, the endless repetition of life and death is a fact of life. Then, we need to reduce pain as in general as we can.
  In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, second, some of us actively seek or passively accept the extinction of human beings or the means which can cause it, that is, totally destructive means before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. A few seek it actively, but more than are expected accept it passively. However, the pain caused by totally destructive means is persistent and severe. For example, if nuclear weapons should extinguish us, we would suffer tens of thousands times more pain than hiroshima and nagasaki suffered in the summer of 1945. In addition, the radiation which nuclear weapons generate destroy or change our genes, and cause the persistent pain of the anxiety about carcinogenesis, infertility, and so on and that of the grief when they come true. Moreover, before the extinction, we suffer the anxiety about the possibility of the extinction including the death of THE SELF and its family, friends, boy or girl friends, and so on. The totality of the pain which is caused directly by totally destructive means and the pain of the anxiety about the possibility of the extinction is no less severe than that of the pain which we suffer until the natural aging or death of the sun or the earth. Those who accept the extinction of human beings or totally destructive means overlook such pain.
  In the anxiety about suffering endless or a lot of pain, third, some of us recognize not only the pain of human beings but also that of living things like that by the struggle for existence in evolution, that in food chain, and so on, and actively seek or passively accept the extinction of living things or totally destructive means. Few seek it actively, but more than are expected accept it passively. However, the struggle for existence, food chain, and so on are necessary for the existence and evolution of living things including human beings. Simply, if it were not for them, we as exist now would not exist. In contrast, totally destructive means deviate from the cycle of prosper and decline which was explained earlier and evolution can cause the extinction of living things including human beings before the aging or death of the earth or the sun. In addition, the pain which animals excluding human beings cause and suffer is not as persistent as that which human beings causes and which animals including them suffer. For example, the pain of a herbivore killed by a carnivore is far less persistent than the carcinogenesis caused by the radiation generated by nuclear weapons. Of course, the pain caused by despotism, war, massacre, torture, and so on is severe and persistent.
  From the beginning, we cannot know as whom or what we will be borne when we are bone and live again in the repetition of life and death on the earth. We will sometimes be borne as herbivores, carnivores, fishes, insects, worms, and so on. Many of us do not want to be borne as such animals. When we think of such things, it may not always be arrogant to hope the extinction of living things. However, in such animals, emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on, thinking, egos, and so on are nothing or thin. Accordingly, though the time when we live as them is not equal to falling asleep and waking up and to a moment, it is equal to dreaming and a very short time. In contrast, can we feel that it is a short time when we are borne as human and are suffering, for example, war, oppression, and so on? Then, we, human beings need to reduce pain which we cause as in general as possible. For example, in slavery, because masters will sometimes be borne as slaves, not only the latter but also the former need to abolish it, and in despotism, because the persecutors will sometimes be borne as the persecuted, not only the latter but also the former need to restrain it.
  On those grounds, we, human beings, need to reduce the pain which we cause as in general as possible. By the way, we do not need to increase pleasure. Pleasure can be pursued freely both by human beings and by living things. Simply, each of us does not need to intervene in the pleasure of other persons or living things. Again, human beings need to reduce the pain which they cause as in general as possible.
  It is not completely impossible. Really, we, human beings, have even a little reduced the causes of pain. For example 1, we have even a little enlarged and deepened liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and have even a little reduced the causes of pain like oppression, despotism, and so on. For example 2, we have even a little enlarged and deepened social security. For example 3, we have even just a little worked on the preservation of the nature. The total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means, that is, nuclear weapons and immutable gene means is the most difficult, but it is not completely impossible.
  Again, in the anxiety about endless or a lot of pain, we tend to accept extinction or totally destructive means. That is, such pain tends to reduce the ultimate desire and the desire to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. Though the reduction of pain is itself a purpose, also in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to satisfy the ultimate desire, we need to reduce pain as in general as possible.
  From the beginning, it is too empty that we seek or accept the extinction of human beings or living things or totally destructive means in order to end endless or a lot of pain. In addition, it is too painful that we exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while enduring a lot of pain. In contrast, each of us can have such a desire as follows. Each of us can have the desire to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing the pain which we cause as in general as possible. This desire is worth calling the ultimate desire.
  On those grounds, with the above definition modified, the desire to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing the pain which we cause as in general as possible can be called the Ultimate Desire Possible to Satisfy beyond Life and Death. There is a consistent kind of egoism in it. It is in order for each of us to live freely when each of us is borne and lives again that each of us reduces pain and exists. Each of us needs to live only for each of us. Each of us does not need to live for others and should not do so. For example, the emotions or thought for the sake of states or nations lead to war, totally destructive means, and so on. Again, each of us needs to live only for each of us.

NEEDLESSNESS OF TOTALLY DESTRUCTIVE MEANS

  Totally destructive means are needless for any purposes after twenty-first century when the technology concerning missiles, satellites, reconnaissance, and so on are developed. When they are developed, we can achieve all the purposes of war, invasion, defense, and so on only by attacking and destroying the governments or armed forces excluding the general citizens of the states or regions of the seeming enemy with their accuracy. In some states or regions where they are yet to be developed, some extensive and random destructive means seem to be necessary because of their underdevelopment, that is, their inaccuracy. However, such seeming necessity is only temporary because they are certain to be developed anywhere soon. For example, supposing that some states have developed not only nuclear weapons but also spy satellites and accurate missiles, that other states are developing nuclear weapons and missiles, and that the latter are about to attack the former with them, the former can destroy the latter's governments and armed forces restrictively with the technologies other than nuclear weapons. That is, the former do not need to use any nuclear weapons. Moreover, when the latter develop more technologies, they, too, do not need to use any nuclear weapons. That is because all the latter need to do is attack and destroy the former's governments and armed forces restrictively with the developed ones excluding totally destructive means.
  If the governments or armed forces of any states want to invade any other states, all that the former need to do are reconnoiter the latter, to detect the main facilities of the latter governments and armed forces, and to destroy them with some missiles involving no totally destructive means.
  If the governments and armed forces of the states being invaded or some international organizations want to defend their states, all that they need to do are do the same things as was explained above against the governments and armed forces invading them.
  Of course, there can be mutual retaliation. However, when it destroy the main facilities of the governments and armed forces invading and being invaded, the others can exist.
  If the governments and armed forces of some states or some international organizations want to stop the fierce violence of some despots, all that the former need to do are do the same things against the latter.
  In order to minimize the damage to general citizens in the above situations, it is necessary that they do not live close to the facilities of governments and armed forces.
  The surface government and armed forces can be detected. Though submarines in the bottoms of the sea, satellites and spaceships in the space, and underground facilities can hardly be detected, they cannot be detected or dealt with by totally destructive means or any means. That is, totally destructive means are useless and unnecessary also in these situations.
  In addition, what is called terrorism can be caused in general cities, and so using the totally destructive means against it equals to a mass suicide.
  As was explained earlier, "Deterrence theory", "nuclear umbrella", and so on do not function. As was explained earlier, that is because the accidents which human beings cannot foresee can happen, because the insiders or the person in charge of them can lose the rationality to control them, and because some outsiders can intrude into them.
  In addition, as was explained earlier, it is only a fiction that some aliens' invasion will extinguish living things including human beings on the earth. Moreover, it is only a fiction that nuclear weapons repel invading aliens. If it were probable, its possibility is much smaller than that of human beings' extinguishing living things including them.
  If "deterrence", "mutually assured destruction", and so on were necessary, it would be enough to destroy only the government and military. General citizens do not need to be involved. In order to destroy only the former, missiles, satellites, and so on which are not loaded with any totally destructive means are enough. Though the former in submarines, satellites, and so on cannot be destroyed, they cannot even with totally destructive means. Also for that reason, they are unnecessary. If the latter, that is, general citizens alienate the former and if the latter do not live near the former, destroying only the former get easier.
  On those grounds, totally destructive means are unnecessary for any purposes.
  If weapons are necessary, the conventional ones or advanced ones which involve no totally destructive means are enough. Above all, the superpowers have enough ones, and so each of those which hold totally destructive means can abolish its own even one way without waiting and seeing the others. Such a one way abolition is the decisive way to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
  Of course, the negotiations and pressures for the abolition and prevention of totally destructive means are necessary. Holders of powers hardly give up theirs. That is the same about public powers and totally destructive means. Accordingly, general citizens need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law, and with them, citizens need to make public powers to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. In the first half of the twenty-first century, those need to be done, above all, in and among the three superpowers.
  In the first half of the twenty-first century, it can be said that only the three superpowers need to be aimed at. That is because when the three abolish and prevent the totally destructive means, the others will do the same. Moreover, when two of the three do, the other of the three will do, and the others will do.
  In the early twenty-first century, out of the three superpowers, one is clearly not democratic and separative, another is not enough. When they are democratized and separated, they need to abolish their totally destructive means. Then, the other will do the same. In addition, at the end of the cold war, we had needed to cut nuclear weapons at least.
  It is because of the nature of the human society that totally destructive means are researched, developed, hold, and used in spite of the needlessness which have been explained in this chapter, and so we need to restrict them, as will be explained in the following chapter.

FIVE NECESSARY RESTRICTIONS ON, BY, AND FOR HUMAN BEINGS

  Human beings have the five troubles below in the natural state of the human society, and so they need to impose the five restrictions below on the whole or some parts of their society.
  First, violence like murder, injury, theft, and so on rampant and get organized or sophisticated more and more. Accordingly, we have provided crimes and penalties in the law, decided whether innocent or guilty and, if guilty, penalties in courts, and executed them.
  Second, political powers including armed forces center on a few people, and the holders of them tend to oppress general citizens and to run wild to wars, massacres, and so on. Accordingly, in order to prevent them from oppressing us and running wild, we have restricted them by way of democratic systems, separations of powers, and so on.
  The first and second restrictions can also be looked upon as the protection of liberal rights or of political rights.
  Third, economic power including gold, money, land, resources, workers, machinery center on a few people and cause economic inequality and the contradiction of the capitalistic economy in the modern society like monopoly, depression, unemployment, and so on. Accordingly, in order to dissolve them, no matter which economic system is adopted, more or less, we have arranged the systems and human and material resources which secure labor rights, intervene in the economy, redistribute wealth, and promote social security.
  More closely, the first restriction is that on human beings by the holders of political powers or by general citizens, the second is that on the holders of the political powers or the holders of economic powers who give bribes to them or cooperate with them by general citizens, and the third is that on the holders of economic powers or the holders of political powers who take bribes from them or cooperate with them by general citizens or those who have little economic powers. The first, second, and third troubles and restrictions are clear in the human history. For example, the third trouble has been clear since the nineteenth century, and there was an extensive conflict between two economic systems in the twentieth century. Though the two restrictions below are not as clear as the above three have been, they are getting clear.
  Fourth, science and technology, industries, and human lives make progress, they are led by political and economic powers, and they together destroy the nature and harm our health. That has been clear since the latter half of the twentieth century. Accordingly, in order to preserve the nature and our health, we are already regulating public and private enterprises and our lives more or less.
  The third and the fourth restrictions can be looked upon as the security of social rights or of rights to live in a narrow sense.
  Fifth, as was explained earlier, by way of nuclear weapons and immutable gene means, that is, totally destructive means, we, human beings, can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth before the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun. This fifth trouble and restriction are different from the fourth above, that is, the destruction and preservation of the nature for the following reason. The forth trouble goes on slowly and does not deviate from the cycle of prosper and decline which was explained earlier. That is, if human beings destroy the nature, they decline, and the nature will revive. In contrast, totally destructive means can destroy genes of living things on the whole of the earth in a short time and can extinguish all the living things including human beings on the earth. In addition, while the fourth restriction can range directly from political and economic powers to general human lives, the fifth restriction is not imposed directly on any general human lives. Accordingly, the forth and the fifth are different.
  Science and technology and industries will make progress even if left alone. The holders of political and economic powers will prompt and take advantage of them even if left alone. Above all, they prompt and take advantage of those resulting in weapons. Accordingly, we cannot attribute totally destructive means only to World War U, the Manhattan Project, the Cold War, and so on. If it had not been for them, and if left alone, nuclear weapons could be developed sooner or later. In addition, immutable gene means will be. From the beginning, the fifth restriction on this fifth trouble is necessary. This fifth restriction is necessary, like the second restriction, above all, on the holders of political powers including armed forces or the holders of economic powers who give bribery to them or cooperate with them.
  Of course, the self-restraint by scientists and technologists are necessary. However, the restrictions of them by others are necessary, too. However, above all, the restriction on the holders of political and economic powers who prompt and take advantage of them are necessary.
  In the natural state of the human society, even if left alone, first, violence will happens and be organized and sophisticated more and more, second and third, political and economic powers will center to a degree to a few people, and fourth and fifth, science and technology, industries, human lives will make progress, and holders of powers prompt and take advantage of them. Accordingly, together with their organization, concentration, and progress, democratic systems, separations of powers, social security, the preservation of the nature, and the abolishment and prevention of totally destructive means need to progress.
  However, not only they need to progress, but also at least the first, second, and third restrictions have progressed to a degree, and the fourth is progressing a little. For example, if liberal rights, democratic systems, and separations of powers had not progressed even to the degree of the modern world, a lot of us would suffer more pain like oppressions, wars, massacres, slavery, torture, and so on, or would not exist from the beginning. Accordingly, not only the first to fourth troubles but also the first to fourth restrictions can be the nature of the human society. Moreover, not only the fifth trouble but also the fifth restriction can be its nature. That is because it is the nature of all animals including human beings to reduce pain, and because it is that of some species of animals including human beings not only to seek powers but also to counter them.

RIGHT TO EXIST IN GENERAL

  The ultimate desire, that is, the desires to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible, is also a desire of each of us who lives at present. The pain of the anxiety and fear about the ultimate desire's being unsatisfied, that is, the anxiety and fear about a lot of pain and about the extinction of living things including Self and its family's death is serious. In addition, those who suffer such pain include each of us who lives at present. On these grounds, it is a right for each of us to satisfy the ultimate desire. The right for each of us to satisfy the ultimate desire can be called the "Right to Exist in General" or the Right to General Existence.
  Human rights are divided into liberal rights and social rights which will be explained in "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and this right to exist in general. What is called right to life, right to live, right to exist, or right to existence is included in social rights. Liberal rights are rights of individuals at the then present. Social rights are rights of individuals and groups like families, companies, unions, and so on at the then present. Because the right in general is the right to reduce the anxiety and fear explained above, it is a right of individuals at the then present. If some totally destructive means should be used, it would be the violation of not only the right to exist in general but also liberal and social rights. We do not need to insist that the right to exist in general is a right of not only individuals at the then present but also living things including human beings at present and in the future. Under democratic systems, if the majority of general citizens in a certain state or nation or region admit it as a right, it is a right.
  This right does not always need to be written clearly in the written law. Even if it is not admitted as a right, the law and systems to realize its contents need to be arranged. Under democratic systems, they are arranged if the majority of general citizens in a certain state or nation or region admit them.

SECURING THE EXISTENCE

  For human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible can also be called the "Existence" simply, and a little more closely, the Existence of Living Things Including Human Beings, Existing until the Natural Ending, Existing While Reducing Pain, and so on. Those words designate for human beings to abolish and prevent totally destructive means and for living things including human beings to exist until the natural aging or death of the earth or the sun while reducing pain as in general as possible in these books.
  Desiring such an existence is the ultimate desire explained earlier, and the right to seek it is the right to exist in general explained earlier. However, it does not always need to be admitted as a right. It needs to be realized. Realizing it can be called "Securing the Existence" simply, and a little more closely, Securing the Existence of Living Things including Human Beings, Securing the Existence in General.

THE SYSTEMS TO SECURE THE EXISTENCE

  First, the constitutional law in each state needs to provide that the state should secure the existence, that the public power endeavor to secure it in the state, and that the public power endeavor to secure it in cooperation with the other public powers in the other states in the international society.
  Second, in each state, we need to arrange the law and systems to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
  Third, though private powers can prompt totally destructive means, collective violence, and the destruction of the nature, it is public powers and the complexes of public and private powers that can prompt them the most, and so we need to enlarge and deepen democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law which can restrict them.
  Fourth, in the international society or world, some international or world organizations need to be made up, need to provide these first to fifth in their charters, and need to practice inspection, supervision, and so on, above all, in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means.
  Fifth, the despotism, corruption, and so on of such international or world organizations need to be restricted, and so we need to seek and arrange some democratic systems, separations of powers, and rule of law on the international or world level.

ENLARGING AND DEEPENING LIBERAL RIGHTS, SOCIAL RIGHTS, DEMOCRATIC SYSTEMS, SEPARATIONS OF POWERS, AND THE RULE OF LAW

  Human beings have the habits of tending to control the others and try to do so, and, in order to control, tend to gain, enlarge, hold, and use what are called "powers" like positions, armed forces, money, and so on. The largest and the strongest of powers are what are called "public" powers in states or nations. It is public powers that have led wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. In addition, the complexes of public powers, enterprises, scientists, and so on, that is, what are called "military-industrial complexes" prompt them. Anyway, public powers are at the center of those powers.
  In addition, the struggles for public powers in each state or nation and the frictions among public ones in the international society cause wars, massacres, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on.
  From the beginning, not we, general citizens, but some holders of powers at whose center public ones are have researched, developed, held, and used totally destructive means and will struggle to do it from now on. Again, citizens have not done it and will not do it. Far from doing it, most citizens have not been informed of their doing it and will not be informed from now on. In addition, though citizens are informed of wars, massacres, and so on whether we hope so or not, it is not we but some holders of powers at whose center public ones are that have launched them. Powers at whose center public ones are will cause almost all disaster including wars, massacres, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means unless they are restricted.
  On those grounds, in order to secure the existence, we need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law, and by way of these systems, need to restrict public powers themselves and the cohesion among powers, to separate public powers, and to make the separated ones to restrict one another. Of course, we need to do so in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights which are traditional.
  Liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law can be called "Democratic and Separative Systems". In democratic and separative systems, democratic systems are systems where citizens restrict public powers comparatively directly. In contrast, separations of powers are systems where citizens separate the public power into several ones and make them restrict one another. The rule of law is a system where the judicial power restrains the administrative and legislative powers from violating the constitutional law and restrains even the violation of the rights of minorities by the majority of the people. For example, if the president or the parliament restricts the rights of a minority and even if the majority of the people support that, as long as the constitution provides freedom of life, body, thought, religion, speech, and so on and equality under the law, no judges in the judicial power can decide for such president, parliament, or majority. Separations of powers and the rule of law are very useful systems when democratic systems do not function to restrict public powers by means of dirty elections, manipulations of public opinions, and so on.
  It sometimes seems that democratic and separative systems are inefficient and do not satisfy daily desires and lives effectively, and that autocracy, despotism, and so on are more efficient and satisfy them more effectively. However, such seemingness is only temporary. The latter restrict liberal and social rights and sacrifice daily desires and lives sooner or later. General citizens have suffered a lot of such restrictions and sacrifices in the human history.
  In addition, in both ancient and modern times, some seeming democratic systems have run wild to despotism and caused wars, massacres, and so on. However, they have been caused by mere democratic systems which accompanied no or little separation of powers or the rule of law, and that by insufficient democratic ones. For example, they have been caused by unconstitutional legislation, only one election or dirty election or referendum, and so on. We need to enlarge and deepen not temporary democratic systems but steady democratic ones and separative ones and the rule of law, that is, democratic and separative systems.
  Not that democratic and separative systems are perfect, but that we need to enlarge and deepen them. It is not in the least that we should abandon them because traditional democratic and separative systems could not restrict wars, totally destructive means, and so on. However, even old ones which have not been enlarged and deepened yet are much better than autocracy, despotism, and so on. For example, some of the former suffer the manipulation of public opinions, but the latter do oppression rather than manipulation, and manipulation is better than oppression. In this way, even primitive democratic or separative systems are better than the latter. Moreover, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems extensively and deeply enough to nullify the possibility of autocracy, despotism, and so on's emerging. The very nullification of the possibility of their emerging is the primary function of democratic and separative systems. The way to enlarge and deepen them will be explained in "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".
  In addition, when some autocracy, despotism, and so on are overthrown, non-democratic and non-separative systems often replace them after all. In order to prevent that, we need to prepare enlarged and deepened democratic and separative systems.
  Again, in order not only to secure the existence but also to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, in order to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems. In addition, war, civil war, terror, and so on prompt the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means. Accordingly, we need to restrict them in order to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. Of course, we need to restrict them in order to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives. In order to restrict them, we need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems and to restrict autocracy, despotism, and so on.
  Moreover, from now on, a kind of totalitarianism which displays the pretext of the existence of the whole of the human beings or living things may gain power. This kind of totalitarianism destroys democratic and separative systems and run wild, and so, after all, it does not function for liberty or for the existence of human beings or living things. We need to enlarge and deepen democratic and separative systems also in order to restrict this kind of totalitarianism.

DAILY DESIRES

  An individual's emotion and thinking having the following properties(1)(2) can be called a "Daily Desire" or Daily Desire for the Self.

(1)Most of it is occupied with emotion for the sake of the self.
(2)Even if it involves some emotion or thinking for the sake of any things other than the self, it only involves the emotion or thinking for the sake of what are close like families, friends, boy or girl friends, neighbors, schools, offices, hometowns, and so on.

For example, wanting to play, to make money easily, to have good food, to love one another, to drink with friends, to talk with friends about human lives, to keep healthy, and to live long, wanting his or her family and friends to be healthy and to live long, hating being bound, and wanting to be free are daily desires. In addition, an individual's existence and functions which satisfy his or her daily desires can be called a "Daily Life".
  Daily desires and lives in themselves never cause totally destructive means or a lot of pain which were explained earlier. Even if the former cause the latter, they do so by being changed by halfway thought which will be explained below.

HALFWAY THOUGHT

  In contrast to daily desires and to the ultimate desire, the thinking, emotion, thought, science, religion, and so on which deviate from daily desires and which contain none of the ultimate desire can be called "Halfway Thought".

  For example, if a kind of thought gave priority to a state or nation, justice, or so over daily desires and lives and the existence, it would be halfway thought.
  Driven by the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later, some human beings (1) seek eternity, feel empty only by satisfying their daily desires, tend to get, keep, and enlarge powers, to control others, to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for the sake of certain large groups like states or nations. That is, they resort to halfway thought. Some of them (1-1) lose themselves in mere means of powers or money, and some (1-1-1) seek mere powers, and some (1-1-2) seek mere money. Though the others (1-2) do not seek mere powers or money, some of them (1-2-1) want to do something or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups, and some of them (1-2-1-1) resort to or go to war, to develop, hold, and use weapons, and totally destructive means in the modern society. (1-2) may be more troublesome than (1-1). That is because they think that they are doing something for the sake of certain large groups. There is little harm in wanting to do something and to leave something for individuals or familiar small groups, that is, in daily desires in themselves. In contrast, there can be large harm in wanting to do or to leave something for the sake of certain large groups like states or nations, that is, in halfway thought.
  Thought for the sake of each state or nation as follows is the most troublesome in halfway thought. In the human history up to now, each state or nation has been the largest, strongest, solidest, and clearest of all the groups. Though they are large, international organizations, the world, the earth, all of the human beings or living things, and so on have not been strong, solid, and clear groups. As a result, some of those who want to win honor, to do something, and to leave something for others want to do something for the sake of each state or nation and seek its power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, and some of them seek for it to hold totally destructive means.
  In addition, the holders of powers including public and private ones and their complexes have inspired, beautified, and taken advantage what little thought for the sake of each state or nation of citizens, and enlarged their powers, prompted war, despotism, and so on, and restricted and sacrificed a lot of liberty and daily desires and lives, that is, liberal and social rights. In addition, it is undeniable that thought for the sake of each state or nation at least have not restrained but accepted implicitly the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means.
  In addition, some daily desires and lives are induced, beautified, and taken advantage of by the holders of powers, are changed into halfway thought, and sometimes prompt despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means, and so on. For example, the daily desires to protect the self, his or her families, friends, boy or girl friends, and so on are changed into the pursuit of national power, defense, prosper, interests, and so on, resorting to and going to war is beautified, and the research, development, hold, and use of totally destructive means are sometimes connived. The beautification of our going to war in order to protect our families is considerably troublesome. Most of us have known that it is not for the sake of anything far from our families and have gone to war not willingly but reluctantly being forced by powers. It is necessary that we not be induced, beautified, taken advantage of, and that we think and desire of, by, and for the self.
  Even in the solidest one, a state or nation is not a single entity like an individual of human beings or other living things but a complex consisting of various elements like the general citizens, political, economic, social powers, other smaller groups, culture, resources, nature, and so on within borders. Which of those elements do we have attachments to? Most of us have attachments to our families and neighbors and the food, drink, culture, and nature of our hometowns and not in the least to political powers or their holders. It makes fool of general citizens to make such a complex consisting of various elements appear to be a single entity and to call up attachments. It is impossible and unnecessary for us to have what is called "patriotism". Simply, all that we need to do is love the self and people and things familiar to us as we do.
  In addition, we cannot find out which of the elements we need to reform by looking upon a state or nation as a single entity with various elements confused. It is often the political powers and systems that we need to reform. We do not need to reform individuals, families, cultures, and so on. If we needed to reform them, each of us could do it freely. In these ways, not in the least that states or nations are unnecessary, but that we need to reform some parts of them. A little more closely, we need to enlarge and deepen liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law also in each state in order to protect liberty and satisfy daily desires and lives and to abolish and prevent totally destructive means, that is, in order to protect liberal rights, to secure social rights, and to secure the right to exist in general.
  In halfway thought, because halfway things seem to be supreme, we can hardly see the things beyond them. For example, in thought for the sake of each state or nation, we can hardly see the international or world societies, organizations, or systems, general human beings or living things, or so. However, it is not that all of us need to see them. Even if we cannot do that, living on daily desires is much better for both existence and liberty than being taken advantage of and induced by the holders of powers and resorting to halfway thought. This is a kind of freedom of thought and of speech, too.
  In addition, many pieces of old science and technology have prompted the destruction of the nature and some of them has researched and developed totally destructive means. Of course, the self-restraint by scientists and technologists are necessary. However, the restrictions of them by others are necessary, too. However, they have also been induced and taken advantage of by the holders of political and economic powers or their complexes. Accordingly, above all, the restriction on the latter is necessary. In addition, from now on, many pieces of science including human, social, and natural science needs to take in at least human beings' deviating from the cycle of prosper and decline and nuclear weapons and the immutable gene means' having the ability to extinguish all of the living things including human beings on the earth. Some pieces of technology need to develop the means for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means. For example, it needs to develop the means for the detection and inspection of them. Moreover, if the completely defensive and safe means against totally destructive means should be developed, they would lose their value and vanish of themselves. If they could not do that, it would be necessary that human and social science like law, politics, economics, sociology, psychology, and so on seek and propose the systems for the enlargement and deepening of democratic and separative systems and for the total abolition and prevention of totally destructive means.
  However, again and again, even if we cannot do that, it is much better for us to live just on daily desires than to be induced and taken advantage of by the holders of powers and to resort to halfway thought. This is a kind of freedom of thought and of speech, too.

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

  Please review the ways to reduce a lot of pain and to abolish and prevent totally destructive means. All of the ways are also those to protect liberty and to satisfy daily desires and lives, that is, to protect liberal rights and to secure social rights. The ultimate desire and daily desires never sacrifice each other. They are not contradictory but consistent. In short, existence and liberty are consistent. Even if we are urged to pick up one of them, we need to neglect such an absurd alternative and to secure both of them.

References

DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY  A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY  PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE 

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