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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES

    This "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" can be called "this book". This book, "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" can be called "These Books". These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as a chapter of the book. These books as a book can also be called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE". These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" can be called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or These Books.

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

THINGS IN THEMSELVES AND THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Things excluding the time are completely divided into the two groups of things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena which will be explained below. That is, there are no remains or overlaps in this division.
    Material things, material functions, bodies, bodily functions, nervous systems, nervous functions, neurons, neurons' excitements and transmissions, molecules, atoms, nuclei, neutrons, protons, electrons, universal gravitation, electrostatic force, magnetic force, vacuum, the space in itself, and so on can be called "Things in Themselves".
    Sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing as Mental Phenomena", Things Appearing as Phenomena, Things Appearing, or Appearing Things. They can also be called "Phenomena" or Mental Phenomena. However, we need to distinguish things appearing on sensations, things appearing as images, things appearing to me, things appearing to you, things which appeared in the past, things which will appear in the future, things appearing to me at present, things appearing to each of us at the then present, and so on. By using the words of "Things Appearing" and so on, we can distinguish them more easily than by using those of "Phenomena" and so on. Accordingly, they are mainly called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)" in these books.
    things appearing as mental phenomena consist of things appearing on sensations and things appearing as images. Things appearing on sensations include things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations. For example, a sight is a thing appearing on a visual sensation, and a sound is a thing appearing on an auditory sensation. Things occurring to me, things which are thought, expected, remembered, and imagined are included in things appearing as images. The details of appearing things will be explained in the chapter "THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA."
    The space in itself is included in things in themselves. The space appearing (as a mental phenomenon) is included in appearing things. For example, in things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, a part of the space is appearing to me at present in front of my personal computer.
    The time in itself is included in things in themselves. The time appearing (as a mental phenomenon) is included in appearing things. It is signs and words like number lines, chronologies, and so on appearing as images. However, like it is premised that the time as the frame of things in themselves exists, it is premised that the time as the frame of appearing things which is different from the time appearing (as a mental phenomenon). That is, the time is not completely divided into the two groups of things in themselves and things appearing as mental phenomena. Accordingly, the explanation was done earlier that things "excluding the time" are completely divided into the two groups.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND THEIR PROPERTIES

    That a thing {has spatial extent or is a point, a line, or a plane} can be called the thing's being "Spatial", and that a thing {has temporal extent or is a moment} can be called the thing's being "Temporal".
    While things excluding the time are completely divided into things in themselves and appearing things, things excluding space and time are completely divided into spatial and temporal things and their properties which will be explained below.
    The things which are spatial and temporal, that is, the things which {have spatial extent or are points, lines, or planes} and {have temporal extent or are moments} can be called "Spatial and Temporal Things". For example, material things, bodies, nervous systems, neurons, sights, and sounds are spatial and temporal things.
    Each spatial and temporal thing has some things which are not spatial. The things which a spatial and temporal thing has and which are not spatial can be called the "Properties" of the spatial and temporal thing, the Properties which the spatial and temporal thing has, the things which the spatial and temporal thing has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the spatial and temporal thing. For example, universal gravitation is one of the properties which every material thing has. Excitements and transmissions are one of the properties attributed to every neuron.
    The things which every spatial and temporal thing has as properties can be called the properties "Attributed to Every" spatial and temporal thing. Every spatial and temporal thing has spatial relative positions, temporal relative positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties, and so they are the properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing. Moreover, for example, universal gravitation is one of the properties attributed to every material thing, and excitement and transmission is one of the properties attributed to every neuron.
    Spatial positions and temporal positions are only relative. When the relativity do not need to be emphasized, spatial relative positions can be called "Spatial Positions", and temporal relative positions are called "Temporal Positions".
    Moreover, most properties of spatial and temporal things have some things which are not spatial. For example, universal gravitation, which is one of the properties attributed to every material thing, has direction and quantity. Excitement and transmission, which is one of the properties attributed to every neuron, has frequency and duration. The things which a property of a spatial and temporal thing has and which are not spatial can be called the Properties of the property, the Properties which the property has, the things which the property has as Properties, or the Properties attributed to the property. For example, universal gravitation has direction and quantity as properties of the property. A neuron's excitement and transmission has frequency and duration as properties of the property. Moreover, each of the properties (1) of a spatial and temporal thing often has some properties (2), and each of the properties (2) sometimes have some properties (3), and the same are repeated. Then, (1)(2)(3) and so on can be called First Properties, Second Properties, Third Properties, and so on. For example, universal gravitation is a first property, and its direction and quantity are second properties. A neuron's excitement and transmission is a first property, and its frequency and duration are second properties. When spatial and temporal things are looked over, it turns out that most first properties have some second properties. It is often unclear whether a property is a first one, a second one, or so of a spatial and temporal thing. For example, as for the universal gravitation of a material thing, it is also thinkable that its mass is one of its first properties, that its universal gravitation is one of the properties of its mass, and that its universal gravitation is one of its second properties. However, in most cases in both our daily life and science, it does not matter whether a property is a first, second, or so one. Accordingly, without serious problems, first properties, second ones, third ones, and so on can be called Properties simply.
    Things in themselves and things appearing (as mental phenomena) include their own spatial and temporal things and their own properties respectively.

spatial and temporal thingsproperties
things in themselvesspatial and temporal things in themselvesproperties of spatial and temporal things in themselves
things appearing
as mental phenomena
spatial and temporal things appearing
as mental phenomena
properties appearing as mental phenomena


    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves. Material things, bodies, nervous systems, and neurons are included in spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things in themselves can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things in Themselves or Properties in Themselves.
    Every spatial and temporal thing in itself has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes as properties in themselves. They are properties in themselves attributed to every spatial and temporal thing in itself. Moreover, spatial and temporal things in themselves excluding vacuums have mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties in themselves. Material functions, bodily functions, nervous functions, and neurons' excitements and transmissions are included in properties in themselves.
    Neither the space in itself nor the time in itself is included in spatial temporal things in themselves or in their properties. However, spatial and temporal positions and durations, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes are included in the properties of spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    The spatial and temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, and ideas are spatial and temporal things appearing. It turns out that the example enumerated earlier was their example. However, properties appearing, which will explained below, are included in things appearing.
    The properties of spatial temporal things which are included in things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the Properties of Spatial and Temporal Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena) or Properties Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). Every spatial and temporal thing appearing has spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes as properties appearing. They are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing. It turns out that they are not only properties in themselves attributed to every spatial and temporal thing in itself but also appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing. Moreover, for example, colors as qualities and brightness as a quantity are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, high-low as a quality and loudness as a quantity are appearing properties attributed to every spatial and temporal thing appearing on an auditory sensation.
    In such ways, not only spatial and temporal things appearing but also their properties appear. For example, colors and brightness appear on a visual sensation, and high-low and loudness appear on an auditory sensation. Simply, we see colors. Accordingly, the words of "properties appearing" will be used more often than those of "properties of spatial and temporal things appearing" from now on.
    In contrast, mass, universal gravitation, and so on are not properties appearing but properties of material things included in things in themselves. They do not appear in a sense, but they are represented as languages, numerical formulae, and so on in another sense. When we look over things in such a way in the second sense, we find that light's wavelength is represented as colors, that sound's is represented as tone, and so on.

WHOLES AND PARTS

    The space has the spatial whole and parts. The time has the temporal whole and parts. For example, the time has the eternity as the temporal whole and has the past, the present, and the future as temporal parts. The whole of the space and that of the time in a true sense are endless. However, a part of them can be looked upon as the whole. For example, a day has the time for 24 hours as the temporal whole and has the morning and the afternoon as temporal parts.
    A spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole, spatial parts, the temporal whole, and temporal parts. For example, a neuron has its cellular membrane and its contents as the spatial whole and has a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal as spatial parts. Things appearing on a visual sensation have the continuity of sight from awakening to falling asleep as the temporal whole and has day sights and night ones as temporal parts.
    While a spatial and temporal thing has the spatial whole and parts and the temporal whole and parts, a property has the whole and parts of its own which are different from them. The latter are not as clear as the former. For example, excitement and transmission which is a property of a neuron has postsynaptic transmission, excitement, presynaptic transmission, and pause as parts of a property, and they are not as clear as a neuronal body, dendrites, and an axon which are spatial parts of a neuron.

the wholeparts
spacethe spatial wholespatial parts
timethe temporal wholetemporal parts
a spatial and temporal thingthe spatial whole
the temporal whole
spatial parts
temporal parts
a propertythe whole of the propertyparts of the property


    However, sentences will be complicated if spatial, temporal, and properties' wholes or parts are always distinguished and specified. Accordingly, in these books, unless specially necessary, it is omitted what kind of the whole or parts it is.

THINGS

    There are some recognition in a narrow sense which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" of some properties in the beginning of every mental function like recollections of images, perceptions, associations, mental emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on. Accordingly, animals including human beings can recognize in a broad sense only what already has some properties. Accordingly, every common noun designates a thing which already has some properties. For example, the word "water" has designated a thing which has being the most clear and being the most fluid as properties since before the discovery of the distinction between solids, liquids, and gases and of the elements of hydrogen and oxygen. Accordingly, including things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, properties, first properties, second properties, and so on what already have some properties can be called "Things". For example, a property of a spatial and temporal thing which already has some properties can be called a property. Things include things in themselves, things appearing as mental phenomena, spatial and temporal things, and properties which were explained earlier.

NECESSARY PROPERTIES

    Moreover, everything has some properties without which it is not looked upon that thing any longer in our daily life and science. For example, a neuron which does not have the ability to excite or transmit as a property is not looked upon as a neuron any longer. The properties without which a thing is not looked upon as that thing any longer in our daily life and science can be called the "Necessary" Properties of or for the thing. For example, the necessary properties of a neuron are being enclosed in cellular membrane, containing some genes, consisting spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal, and having the ability to excite and transmit. However, being a cell, having a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon, and having the ability to excite and transmit are also the necessary properties of a neuron. In such a way, necessary properties can be represented in various ways. Making a dictionary is representing the necessary properties of things in various ways. Accordingly, there are various dictionaries.
    When a thing's necessary properties are caused, the thing has already been caused or generated. When a thing's necessary properties continue, the thing continues. That a thing keeps its necessary properties and gets or loses some other properties is looked upon as the thing's "Changing" or being changed.
    A thing's losing some of its necessary properties is looked upon as the thing's being "Changed into" another thing, "Disappearing", or "Dying". For example, a neuron's losing its ability to excite and transmit is looked upon as the neuron's being changed into another kind of cell, a useless cell, or dying.
    When a thing causes some other things, it is directly or indirectly, often indirectly that it does so. For example, it is directly that plants' photosynthesis causes oxygen. It is indirectly through digestion, absorption, synthesis of protein, and so on that water and food cause animal bodies. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, unless specially necessary, such words will be omitted in these books.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

MATERIAL THINGS

    The spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of some particles like molecules, ions, atoms, neutrons, protons, electrons, and so on can be called "Material Things". For example, spatial and temporal things in themselves which consist of particles like molecules, ions, and so on and which have being enclosed in cellular membrane, containing genes, consisting spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal, and having the ability to excite and transmit as necessary properties can be called neurons, and they are included in material things.
    Genes, cellular membranes, cells, neurons, nervous systems, bodies, and so on also consist of particles like molecules, ions, and so on. Though they are described as living, having life, or so, they are included in material things. Simply, they are only material things. In bodies, though we look upon nervous systems as special things which have mind, spirit, or so, they are included in bodies and in material things.
    Vacuums are also penetrated by some particles like photons. Vacuums have spatial positions and temporal positions as properties. Also about the properties like mass, universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on, vacuums can be looked upon as having those properties whose quantities are zero ones. In contrast, the space cannot be looked upon as having such properties. Vacuums are different from the space. Accordingly, vacuums are included in material things in these books. When material things are defined in such a way, they are the same as spatial and temporal things in themselves.
    Material things have not only spatial positions, temporal positions, qualities, quantities, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes but also mass, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on as properties. They are properties attributed to every material thing.

FUNCTIONS

    As was defined earlier, when a material thing has some properties and some of the properties have some properties, the former properties can be called first properties, and the latter can be called second properties.
    Every material thing has some first properties (F) each of which has the following second properties of (a) and (b).

(a) The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties' being caused or changed.
(b) The whole or part of each of the properties (F)'s being caused or changed causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties directly or indirectly.

    The first properties (F) of a material thing each of which has the second properties of (a) and (b) can be called the material thing's "Functions", the Functions which the material thing has, the things which the material thing has as Functions, the Functions attributed to the material thing, or Functions or Material Functions simply.
    This is a strict definition. The second properties of (a) and (b) can be simplified a little more as follows.
    As was explained earlier, when a thing causes or changes some other things, it do so directly or indirectly, often indirectly. However, if the words "directly or indirectly" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, the words are usually omitted in these books, and they are omitted here, too.
    In addition, unless anything is caused or changed, it does not causes or changes any other things, and so strictly, the words "by …' being caused or changed" and "…'s being caused or changed" are necessary. However, because such a representation will complicate sentences, the words are usually omitted in these books and are omitted here, too.
    Then, (a) and (b) are simplified as follows.

(a') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.
(b') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.

    Simply, the first properties (F) of a material thing each of which has the second properties of (a') and (b') can be called the material thing's Functions, the Functions which the material thing has, the things which the material thing has as Functions, the Functions attributed to the material thing, or Functions or Material Functions simply.
    Moreover, if the words of "being caused or changed" and "causing or changing" were always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed and causing or changing are also called Being Caused and Causing in these books. Then, (a)(b) are more simplified as follows.

(a'') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) is caused by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.
(b'') The whole or part of each of the properties (F) causes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties.

    Every material thing has universal gravitation as a property. The whole of its universal gravitation is changed by the wholes of all the other material things', and the whole of its universal gravitation changes the whole of all the other material things'. Accordingly, every material thing has universal gravitation as a function, and it is included in functions. Every neuron has excitement and transmission as a property. The whole or part of its excitement and transmission are caused by the whole of some other neurons' or sensory cells', and the whole of its excitement and transmission causes the wholes or parts of some other neurons', muscle cells' excitement and contraction, or secretory cells' excitement and secretion. Accordingly, every neuron has excitement and transmission as a function, and they are included in functions.
    The functions which material things, bodies, nervous systems, or so have can be called material functions, bodily functions, nervous functions, or so. Functions and material functions are the same. (Material) functions include bodily functions and nervous functions. Human functions include walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Again, the whole or part of a function is caused or changed by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties and causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things and properties. After all, the other material things and properties by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a function is caused or changed indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other material things and properties by the wholes or parts of which the whole or part of a neuron's excitement and transmission is caused, they include some other neurons or sensory cells' excitements and transmissions (excluding those of directly preceding cells because they do so directly), photons, sound waves, physical or chemical stimuli, and what cause or change them, and so they are endless. In addition, the other material things and properties the wholes or parts of which a function causes or changes indirectly are endless, and we cannot enumerate all of them. For example, when we enumerate the other material things and properties the wholes or parts of which the whole of a neuron's excitement and transmission causes or changes, they include some other neurons' excitement and transmission, muscle cells' excitement and contraction, secretory cells' excitement and secretion (excluding those of directly following cells because they are done so directly), sensations, memories, voluntary movements, involuntary movements, and what are caused or changed by them, and so they are endless. In our daily life and science, the self-evident of such endless things are omitted. In addition, the excessively indirect are omitted. Also in these books, they have been omitted and will be omitted. For example, when neurons' excitements and transmissions are explained, the supply of oxygen and glucose is omitted as self-evident. In addition, when animals' functions are explained the photosynthesis by plants are omitted as excessively indirect ones. Of course, they are vital for the existence of the individuals and the species of living things, but their explanation is omitted as self-evident or excessively indirect.
    As was explained earlier, every property has the whole and parts of its own, and functions are included in properties. Accordingly every function has the whole and parts of its own. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission has postsynaptic transmission, exceeding of threshold, excitement, presynaptic transmission, pause as parts of functions.

NEURONS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Nervous systems are not composed only of neurons. They are composed of neurons, neuroglial cells supporting them, various membranes, cerebrospinal fluid, and so on. Neurons can exist and function by their support, above all, neuroglial cells'. All the same, the most important for mental functions are neurons' sets' excitements and transmissions.
    A neuron consists spatially of a neuronal body, a lot of dendrites, and an axon diverging into a lot of small ones at its terminal.
    Sensory cells include not only sensory cells in skins, bones, striated muscles, mucous membranes, and so on in a narrow sense but also visual cells, auditory cells, taste cells, and so on in these books.
    Muscle cells include striated muscle cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiac muscle cells. Secretory cells include endocrine cells and exocrine cells.
    A neuron stretches an "Axon" long, the axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and many "Axonal Terminals" come most close to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In this way, one axon diverges one after another into a lot of small ones, and so one neuron comes close to not always one but sometimes more than one neuron, muscle cell, or secretory cell.
    Though a sensory cell does not have such long processes as a neuron has as an axon, a sensory cell stretches some processes, such processes diverge into a lot of small ones, and many terminals come most close to a lot of parts of the cellular membranes of some neurons. Such a process of a sensory cell is also called an Axon, and such terminals are also called Axonal Terminals, in the same way as a neuron's are called so, in these books.
    An axonal terminal (1') of a neuron (1) which stretches its axon and come close to another neuron (2), the part of the cellular membrane (2') of (2) which (1') come close to, and the cleft between (1') and (2') can be called a "Synapse", and such a cleft can be called a "Synaptic Cleft". By the way, synaptic clefts are not full of air but full of intercellular fluid. Of course, the inner part of a cell is full of intracellular fluid.
    In each of such synapses, when many neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminal (1') to the synaptic cleft, they bind to a lot of receptors on the part of cellular membrane (2').
    In such ways, a neuron or a sensory cell comes close to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells and forms a lot of synapses. That can be called a neuron or a sensory cell's "Joining" to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells. In addition, a neuron, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell has some other neurons or sensory cells come close to itself and has them form a lot of synapses. That can be called a neuron, a muscle cell, or a secretory cell's "Being Joined" to by some other neurons or sensory cells. After all, a neuron is joined to by some other neurons or sensory cells, and joins to some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells.
    Some other neurons or sensory cells by which a neuron is joined to can be called the neuron's "Directly Preceding Neurons", and some other neurons, muscle cells, or secretory cells which a neuron join to can be called the neuron's "Directly following Cells". After all, a neuron is joined to by some directly preceding cells, and joins to some directly following cells. In such a way, one neuron is joined to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and joins to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    The above is so when a neuron is made a center. In contrast, the following is so when a synapse is made a center.
    In each of a lot of such synapses, the cells whose axonal terminal release neurotransmitters can be called "Presynaptic" Cells, and their material things, functions, or so can be called Presynaptic Material Things, Presynaptic Functions, or so, and the cells whose receptors on their membranes are bound with by those neurotransmitter can be called "Postsynaptic" Cells, and their material things, functions, or so can be called "Postsynaptic" Material Things, Postsynaptic Functions, or so.
    In every cell including neurons, almost constantly, making its cellular membrane a border, the voltage where the intracellular part is negative when the reference point is put in the extracellular part.
    Each neuron (N) has the following function [1]-[4].

[1]Postsynaptic Transmission
    The neurotransmitters which are released from the axonal terminals of N's directly preceding cells into the synaptic clefts bind with the receptors on N's membrane, N's intra-extracellular voltages changes, and such voltages are summed including subtraction. This can be called N's "Postsynaptic Transmission" from its directly preceding cells or N's "Being Transmitted" to by its directly preceding cells.

[1-1]Exceeding of the Threshold
    Some sums of N's intra-extracellular voltages exceed a certain threshold toward their decrease and reversal. This can be called N's "Exceeding of the Threshold" or Exceeding the Threshold.

[1-2]Misfire
    Not a sum of the voltages exceeds the threshold. This can be called (N)'s "Misfire" or Misfiring.

[2]Excitement
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] in [1] is caused, the voltages' changes exceeding the threshold spread around the neuronal body and the axon as if they burst. This can be called N's "Excitement", Exciting, or being Excited.

[3]Presynaptic Transmission
    The voltages' changes exceeding the threshold reach the axonal terminals of N, and the neurotransmitters are released from the axonal terminals into the synaptic clefts between N and its directly following cells. This can be called N's "Presynaptic Transmission" or "Transmitting" to its directly following cells.
(Moreover, [1]-[4] can be caused in each of N's directly following cells, [1]-[4] can be caused in each of its directly following cells, and the same can be repeated.)

[4]Pause
    Only for milliseconds(thousandths of a second), (N) is not able to excite, but it is able to after milliseconds. That can be called N's "Pause" or "Pausing".

    The above [1-1][2][3][4] can be called N's "Excitement and Transmission" or "Exciting and Transmitting".
    Let the directly preceding cells of a neuron (N) be A,B…, and let its directly following cells be X,Y…. A,B…'s [3]s and N's [1] can be called the transmission from A,B… to N or A,B…'s transmitting to N. N's [3] and X,Y…'s [1]s can be called the transmission from N to X,Y… or N's transmitting to X,Y…. Even if A,B… transmit to N, N does not always excite and transmit. When N's [1] end up with misfire [1-2], N does not excite or transmit. In contrast, when not [1-2] but exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, N always excites and transmits, except that something unusual happen like its axon is cut and like its neurotransmitters are depleted.
    A sensory cell is excited by some photons, sound waves, physical and chemical stimuli, and so on and transmits like a neuron. This can be called a Sensory Cell's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting.
    A muscle cell excites and contracts by being transmitted to by some neurons. This can be called a Muscle Cell's Excitement and Contraction or Exciting and Contracting.
    A secretory cell excites and secretes by being transmitted to by some neurons. This can be called a Secretory Cell's Excitement and Secretion or Exciting and Secreting.
    When the properties which are common to all of them are explained, neurons, sensory cells, a muscle cells, and secretory cells are explained as neurons, and neurons' excitements and transmissions, sensory cells' excitements and transmissions, muscle cells' excitements and contractions, and secretory cells' excitements and secretions are explained as neurons' excitements and transmissions in these books.
    In addition, the words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", and so on designate a concrete and countable function which each neurons or neuronal group has. For example, if there are a hundred neurons, there can be a hundred or less of excitements and transmissions at once. Accordingly, those words are used as countable nouns in these books.
    After all, a neuron can be transmitted to by not always one but sometimes more than one directly preceding cell and can transmit to not always one but sometimes more than one directly following cell.
    The whole of [1-1][2][3][4] or the part of [1-2] of a neuron's excitement and transmission is caused by the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] of some directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, and the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] of a neuron's excitement and transmission causes the wholes of [1-1][2][3][4] or parts of [1-2] of some directly following cells' excitements and transmissions. Accordingly, neurons' excitements and transmissions are functions.
    A neuron's excitement and transmission as a function has each of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as a part of a function. A neuron's excitement and transmission as a function consists of [1-1][1-2][2][3][4] as parts of a function.
    Like whether a neuron excites and transmits or ends up with misfire [1-2], some functions are alternative ones. In contrast, the functions like universal gravitation, potential energy, kinetic energy, and so on are not alternative ones.
    In some functions, only a part is sometimes caused, like a neurons sometimes ends up with misfire [1-2]. In addition, it is probable that none of the other material things or functions which the whole can cause are caused only by a part's being caused. For example, in neurons' excitements and transmissions, none of the wholes or parts of directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused only by misfires' being caused.
    Not only the whole of [1-1][2][3][4] but also, at least, each part like [2][3] is a function. That is because, [2] is caused by [1-1], [2] causes [3], and [3] causes [1-1] or [1-2] of some of its directly following cells. In such a way, in some functions, some parts are functions, too.
    When the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, the following [2][3][4] are caused, and the whole of the excitement and transmission is caused. Even if a neuron is transmitted to by some of its directly following cells, when [1-1] is not caused, the following parts are not caused, the whole is not caused, and it ends up with misfire [1-2]. If its axon was cut or if its neurotransmitters were depleted, its presynaptic transmission [3] would not be caused even if [1-1] is caused. However, the neurons which do not have any ability to transmit in such a way do not satisfy the necessary properties of neurons and can no longer be looked upon as neurons.
    The above [1-1][2][3][4] is one excitement and transmission continuing for milliseconds (thousandths of a second). This can be called a neuron's "One (Super-short-term) Excitement and Transmission" or a neuron's Exciting and Transmitting Once (for Super-short time). Practically, once it is caused, it is repeated at a certain frequency of hundreds times a second continually for seconds. Such a repetition can be called a neuron's "Short-term (Continual) Repetition" of excitement and transmission or "Repeating (Continually) for Short Time" excitement and transmission. However, such a repetition can also be called a neuron's Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting, and the words of excitement and transmission usually designate such a short time continual repetition in these books. Short-term continual repetitions need to be clearly distinguished from long-term intermittent repetitions as will be defined later.

NECESSARY FUNCTIONS, OBJECTS, PARTS, CAUSES

    As was defined earlier, the properties without which a thing is not looked upon as that thing can be called the Necessary Properties of or for the thing. For example, an excitement and transmission is a necessary property of a neuron, and a neuron which cannot excite and transmit cannot be looked upon as a neuron. Moreover, every material thing has some functions as necessary properties. The functions which a material thing has as necessary properties can be called the Necessary Functions of or for the material thing. For example, every neuron has excitement and transmission as a necessary function.
    Moreover, a function (first property) has a necessary property (second property) of its whole or part's causing or changing the wholes or parts of some other material things or functions. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission has a necessary property of its whole's causing the wholes or parts of some directly following cells' excitements and transmissions. In such a function's necessary property of its whole or part's causing or changing the wholes or parts of some other material things or functions, the other material things or properties can be called the function's "Necessary Objects". For example, the necessary objects of a neuron's excitement and transmission are its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions.
    Moreover, in a function, there is a part which is essential for the wholes or parts of its necessary objects to be caused or changed and which causes necessary objects the least indirectly in it. Such a part can be called the function's "Necessary and Direct Part". For example, if a neuron's [3] is not caused, none of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused. In addition, it causes them directly, far from the least indirectly in the neuron's excitement and transmission. Accordingly, the presynaptic transmission [3] is the necessary and direct part of a neuron's excitement and transmission.
    By the way, a function's necessary and direct part and its whole are sometimes the same. For example, they are the same in universal gravitation.

DECISIVE PARTS OF FUNCTIONS

    However, in each of some functions, when a certain part of the function is caused or changed, its necessary and direct part is also caused or changed, and the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, when its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is caused, its presynaptic transmission [3] is also caused, and the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused. Such a certain part can be called the function's "Decisive" part. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is its decisive part, and presynaptic transmission [3] is its necessary and direct part. Like this example, they are not always the same.
    The whole, decisive part, and necessary and direct part of a function are sometimes the same. For example, they are so in universal gravitation.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

    In a function, that its necessary and direct part is not caused or changed, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are not caused or changed cannot be called the function's functioning. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, practically that its exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, and as a result that none of the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused cannot called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning. Accordingly, that the necessary part of a function is caused or changed and as a result that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused or changed can be called the function's "Functioning to" its necessary objects. For example, in a neuron's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission [3] is caused, practically that its exceeding of threshold [1-1] is caused, and as a result that the wholes or parts of its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions are caused can be called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning to its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions. In addition, when the necessary objects are self-evident, a function's functioning to its necessary objects can be called the function's Functioning simply. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning to its directly following cell's can be called the neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning simply. In addition, a function's functioning can also be called the function's Being Caused. That is, the words of a function's being caused designate its functioning. In addition, when the necessary functions concerned which material things concerned have are self-evident, a function's functioning to its necessary objects can be called a Material Thing's Functioning to its necessary objects or to some other Material Things. For example, a neuron's excitement and transmission's functioning to its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions can be called the neuron's functioning to its directly following cells.

FUNCTIONS' TIMELY FUNCTIONING

    However, a function functions by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties' being caused or changed. When they are not caused or changed, no functions function. Rather, we are relieved by this. For example, if the neurons which are the directly following cells of sensory cells excited and transmitted without being transmitted to by them, sensations would be chaotic. When such a fact needs to be emphasized, functions' functioning is called their "Timely" Functioning in these books.

MATERIAL THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    A material thing and the properties including functions which the material thing has can be called the "Material Thing and its Material Functions", the Material Thing and its Functions, or the Material Thing in these books. A body and the properties including functions which the body has, a nervous system and the properties including functions which the nervous system has, or so can be called the "Body and its Bodily Functions", or the Body and its Functions, or the Body, the "Nervous System and its Nervous Functions", or the Nervous System and its Functions, or the Nervous System, or so. That is, the words of material things, bodies, nervous systems, and so on sometimes imply their properties including functions.
    When the above have been defined so, the words "material things and their functions" designate all things in themselves excluding space and time.
    A material thing's existing or a material thing and its functions' existing implies its functions' timely functioning. However, when functions' timely functioning needs to be emphasized, a material thing's existing can be called the material thing and its functions' "Existing and Functioning" or the material thing's Existing and Functioning. The same usage is used for a body and its bodily functions, nervous system and its nervous functions, and so on. For example, though the following is a rough description, a neuron's being generated, maturing, and exciting and transmitting when it is transmitted to are the neuron's existing and functioning.

POSSIBILITIES

    The possibility of a material thing or a function's existing, being caused, or functioning can be called the Possibility of the material thing or the function.
    The possibility of a material thing or function contains that of some other material things and functions. For example, the possibility of a neuron's exciting and transmitting contains that of some directly preceding cells' exciting and transmitting, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on.

SITUATIONS AND THE NATURE

    Living things, living functions, animals, animal functions, individuals, individual functions, human beings, human functions, and so on will be defined later. Before they are defined, the nature and situations will be defined.
    As was explained above, the possibility of a material thing or function contains that of some other material things and functions. Such other material things and functions can be called the "Situation" of or for the material thing or function. In addition, the situation for some living things and their living functions can be called the "Nature" of or for the living things. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the photosynthesis by plants, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to some other animals, and so on are the nature for a species of animals. The nature of some living things contains some other living things and living functions. For example, the nature for human beings contains a lot of other animals, plants, microorganisms, and their functions. In addition, the nature for some of a species of living things includes some other living things of the same species and their functions. For example, the nature for human individual includes some other human beings and their interpersonal functions. It may be unnatural that such a nature as contains a lot of other human beings and their functions is called some nature. Accordingly, such can be called a Situation again.
    However, it is impossible to enumerate all the material things and functions contained in the nature or a situation. For example, when we enumerate all the material things and functions contained in the nature of a neuron's excitement and transmission, it contains some of its directly preceding cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen, glucose, and so on, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so on, and they are endless.
    In addition, it is impossible to enumerate all the material things and functions that a material thing or a function can causes or changes. For example, when we enumerate the material things and functions which a neuron's excitement and transmission can causes or changes, they include its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions, the consumption of oxygen, glucose, and so on, sensations, memories, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, interpersonal functions, other persons' interpersonal functions, the society, the history, the nature, and so on, and they are endless.
    Accordingly, in our daily life and science, out of them, those which are not self-evident are enumerated, and the others are omitted. In addition, excessively indirect material things or functions are omitted. All the books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET have done and will do the same. For example, the supply or consumption of oxygen, glucose, and so on, the palpitation of the heart, the respiration, the digestion and absorption of food, the chain of food, and so on will be omitted when we explain neurons' excitements and transmissions.

ABILITIES

    In contrast to possibility, we can distinguish the possibility of a material thing's or a function's existing, being caused, or functioning which it has as a property and which is intrinsic to it. It can be called the "Ability" or "Capability" for the material thing or the function to exist, to be caused, or function or of its existing, being caused, or functioning, the Ability or Capability of the material thing or the function, the Ability or Capability which the material thing or the function has, the thing which the material thing or the function has as an Ability or a Capability, the Ability or Capability attributed to the material thing or the function, or the "Activity" of the material thing or the function. Because a material thing or a function's ability is the possibility which it has as a property and which is intrinsic to it, it does not contain the abilities or possibility of any other material things or functions. For example, the activity (ability) of a neuron to excite and transmit is having a lot of receptors in its postsynaptic cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and axon, joining tightly to its directly following cells, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and so on. It does not contain the activity of its directly preceding cells to excite and transmit, the ability for the body to supply oxygen and glucose, or so.
    The abilities of human functions include the ability to walk upright on two legs, to run alike, to do the crawl, the butterfly, and so on, to speak words, to write words, to think, to memorize, to calculate, to play, to study, to work, and that of interpersonal functions.
    The increase of the ability of a material thing or a function can be called the "Activation" of the material thing or the function or the material thing or the function's being Activated.
    When the main necessary function which a material thing has is self-evident, the ability, activity, activation, or so of the function can be called those of the material thing. For example, the ability (activity) of a neuron's excitement and transmission can be called the ability (activity) of the neuron.

ACTIVITIES OF NEURONS

    A little more closely, the activity (ability) of a neuron('s excitement and transmission) is having a lot of activated receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and an axon, joining tightly to its directly following cells, releasing a lot of activated neurotransmitters from its axonal terminals, and so on. In this way, not only neurons but also neurotransmitters and receptors have their activities. Their activities are the abilities to change the intra-extracellular voltage when they are bound.
    A neuron's activity is decreased temporarily for seconds by the short-term continual repetition which was explained earlier, that is, simply, excitement and transmission. However, the activity is increased by the short-term continuous repetition's being repeated intermittently in the long time from seconds to years. In contrast, the activity is decreased without such repetition. This is the substance of the importance of repetition in learning which is experienced in our daily life and science. Such a long-term intermittent repetition of short-term continuous repetition can be called a neuron's excitement and transmission's "Long-Term Intermittent Repetition" or Being Repeated intermittently in a long time. A neuron's activity is increased by such repetition and is decreased by little or no repetition. Mainly, such repetition increases the ability of memory as will be explained later and the habits as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".

PROMOTIONS⇔RESTRAINTS

    The words of "excitement and transmission", "transmission", "activity", and "activation" explained earlier, "promotion" and "restraint" which will be explained below, and so on designate concrete and countable functions which each neuron, neuronal group, or so has. For example, for a neuron, if there are ten directly preceding cells, there can be ten or less promotions or restraints, and when the sum of the voltages caused by them exceeds a certain threshold, the neuron excites and transmits. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.
    By the whole or part of a function [P]'s being caused or changed, when the possibility of the wholes or parts of some other material things or functions' being caused or changed gets larger, the function [P] can be called the "Promotion", Prompt, Promoting Function, or Prompting Function for the other material things or functions or the function [P]'s Promoting or Prompting the other material things or functions.
    In contrast to promotions, by the whole or part of a function [R]'s being caused or changed, when the possibility of the wholes or parts of some other material things or functions' being caused or changed gets smaller, the function [R] can be called the "Restraint" or Restraining Function on the other material things or functions or the function [R]'s Restraining the other material things or functions.
    Promotions and restraints are often made clear in interpersonal relations and the society. For example 1, some violence can restrain some human beings' functions. That is a kind of violation of liberal right. However, by restraining the violence which restrains some human beings' functions, some force can prevent them from being restrained. That is a kind of protection of liberal right. For example 2, some power can promote human existence and functions by supplying water and food, medicine, information, and so on. That is a kind of security of social right. For example 3, in each animal body, when a group of endocrine secretory cells secretes a kind of hormone exceedingly, another group secretes another kind of hormone which restrains its secretion. For example 4, also in each nervous system, there are promoting transmissions and restraining ones, as will be explained below.
    When a neuron's transmission [PT] promotes its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions through reducing intra-extra-cellular voltage and through facilitating exceeding of the threshold, [PT] can be called the Promoting Transmission, Promotion, Prompting Transmission, or Prompt for its directly following cells or the neuron's Promoting or Prompting its directly following cells.
    In contrast to promoting transmissions, when a neuron's transmission [RT] restrains its directly following cells' excitements and transmissions through increasing intra-extra-cellular voltage and through making exceeding of the threshold difficult, [RT] can be called the Restraining Transmission or Restraint on its directly following cells or the neuron's Restraining its directly following cells.
    The neurons' transmissions which release GABA's as neurotransmitters are restraining transmissions, and most of the others are promoting transmissions. Practically, because one neuron releases only one kind of neurotransmitters, neurons can be divided clearly into promoting ones and restraining ones.
    A neuron is often joined to by more than one directly preceding cell and sometimes gets a mixture of promoting and restraining transmissions. Usually in such a case, when a neuron has got more promoting ones, it excites and transmits, and when it has got more restraining ones, it does not excite or transmit. However, more strictly, the sum of the voltages caused by them is the question.
    The restraints in nervous systems are important for pain's reduction, sleep, and rest. Simply, we cannot endure pain or rest or sleep well without restraints. In addition, the restraints on powers are the main purpose of democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

    In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, its necessary part's not being caused or changed can be called the function or the material thing's "Stop" or Stopping. A function's stop includes that its necessary part is not caused and that some other parts are caused. Of course, it includes that no parts are caused. For example, a neuron's stop includes that its postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused but that its presynaptic transmission [3] is not caused, that is, that its misfire [1-2] is caused. Of course, it include that even its misfire [1-2] is not caused.
    Functions' stops, above all, neurons' stops are very important. As will be explained in the chapters below, because some of the actually joining neurons in a neuronal group excite and transmit and the others stop, it is premised that the subtle quantities in sights, sounds, pain, and so on appear. If all the neurons in a neuronal group either excited and transmitted or stopped, sights would be completely white or black in all the visual field, sounds would be piercingly loud or deadly silent in all the high-low, and the pain would be terribly severe or boringly senseless in all the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendon. In addition, because some of the actually joining neurons in a neuronal group excite and transmit and the others stop, it is premised that what is called form or shape appears. For example, so that a tree can appear on a visual sensation, the neurons which transmit the sky need to excite and transmit at the highest density, those which transmit the parts of the tree which get sunlight need to at higher density, and those which transmit its shadow need to at lower density.
    In such a way, most functions' stops can be looked upon as functions. Functions' stops which are looked upon as functions are included in functions in these books.
    As was explained earlier functions include restraints. That some functions restrain some other functions and that the latter stop can be called the former's stopping the latter. For example 1, that a neuron releasing the neurotransmitters of GABA restrains its directly following cells and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter. For example 2, that democratic systems and separations of powers restrain despotism and that the latter stop is the former's stopping the latter.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

    That a part of a function which can cause or change its necessary part is caused or changed can be called the function's "Arousal" or Arising. A function's arousal includes that its necessary part is not caused or changed and that another part is caused or changed, and so it overlaps with a stop. Simply, it is probable that a function stops even if it arises. A function's arising does not always mean its being caused. For example, that a neuron's postsynaptic transmission [1] is caused is its excitement and transmission's arising. Even if [1] is caused, when the misfire [1-2] is caused and when the exceeding of the threshold [1-1] is not caused, presynaptic [3] transmission is not caused, and the neuron does not excite or transmit and does stop.
    The following is the most important example of arousals. As will be explained later, though a lot of images' sources arise, a limited number or less of them are recollected. This is the substance of our daily thought that we cannot think of two or more things at once.
    The following is the case as long as neurons' excitements and transmissions and some other living functions are concerned. If no pause [4] was caused and if the presynaptic transmission [3] was caused, the neuron could transmit to and function to its directly following cells. However, it is impossible for [1-1][2][3] to be caused and for [4] not to be caused. Actually, the whole of [1-1][2][3][4]'s being caused is a neuron's exciting and transmitting, transmitting, and functioning. Simply, they are the same.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

    In contrast to a function's arising, a function's not arising, that is, that neither its necessary part nor the parts which can cause it is caused or changed can be called the function's "Complete" Stop or Completely Stopping.
    In contrast to a function's complete stop, a function's arising and not functioning, that is, that some of the parts that can cause its necessary part is caused or changed and that its necessary part is not caused or changed can be called the function's "Incomplete" Stop or Stopping Incompletely.
    Though the word of "incomplete" may make a bad impression, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", each of us need to stop the functions falling into a vicious circle not completely but incompletely in order to decrease the habits falling into a vicious circle.

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

LIVING THINGS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    The material things which have the property of synthesizing some macromolecules like proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, that of consisting of them, and that of reproducing some material things which have the same necessary properties as they have can be called "Living Things". For example, a gene has the property of synthesizing proteins and nucleic acid, that of consisting of them, and that of reproducing itself, and is not only an important part of a larger living thing but also a living thing itself. Living things include genes, cells, individuals, and so on.
    The functions which living things have can be called Living Functions. Living functions include biogenesis, reproduction, growth, aging, death, making groups, spontaneous mutation, and evolution.
    A living thing and its properties including functions can be called a "Living Thing and its Living Functions", a Living Thing and its Functions, or a Living Thing.
    A living thing and its functions' existing and functioning can be called its "Living" or "Life". A living thing and its function's coming to exist and function can be called its "Being Borne" or "Birth", and its coming not to exist or function can be called its "Dying" or "Death". For example, not only individuals but also cells which compose individuals are dying sooner or later.
    Living things are included in material things, and living functions in material functions. However, material things excluding living things can also be called Material things, and material functions excluding living functions can also be called Material Functions.

INDIVIDUALS

    There are some living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things. The living things which can be living things when they are spatially separated from the other living things can be called "Individuals". Most animals like insects, fishes, birds, horses, cows, dogs, cats, monkeys, human beings, and so on which are found in our daily life are individuals.

BODIES AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    There are some individuals whose functions of sensations or images' recollections are premised to cause some things appearing as mental phenomena and which have motor functions. Such individuals can be called "Bodies" or "Animals". For example, it is premised that things appearing on a visual sensation are caused by a neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, the limbs, the eye balls, and the tongue, and so on can move, and an individual having such functions is a body or an animal.
    Organs, tissue, cells, nervous systems, neuronal groups, neurons, and so on are parts of a body.
    The functions which bodies have can be called Bodily Functions or Physical Functions. Bodily functions include expansion and contraction of hearts, blood vessels, and lungs, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, muscular groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, involuntary movements, voluntary movements, sensations, memories.
    A body and its properties including functions can be called a "Body and its Bodily Functions", a Body and its Functions, or a Body.

ANIMALS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS

    Bodies can be called "Animals", Animal Bodies, or Animal Individuals, too, and bodily functions can be called Animal functions, too. However, in our daily life, the word of bodies is used for the contrast with minds or spirits and does not imply them or things appearing as mental phenomena. In contrast, the word of animals and that of human beings can imply them. Accordingly, a body and its functions and the things appearing as mental phenomena which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called an Animal and its Animal Functions, an Animal and its Functions, or an Animal. That is, the word of animals and their functions are different from that of bodies and their functions in that the former sometimes implies things appearing as mental phenomena.

HUMAN BEINGS AND HUMAN FUNCTIONS

    Bodies which belong to the species of "Homo sapience" can be called "Human Beings", Human Bodies, or Human Individuals, and the functions which human beings has can be called "Human Functions", and a human being and its properties including functions can be called a "Human being and its Human Function", a Human Being and its Functions, or a Human Being. Moreover, for the same reason explained in the above section, a human being and its functions and the things appearing which some parts of them are premised to cause can be called a "Human Being and its Human Function", a Human Being and its Functions, a Human Being, a Human Individual, an Individual, an Individual Person, a person, or Each of Us. That is, the words of human beings and their function sometimes imply thing appearing as mental phenomena.
    Human functions include the bodily functions enumerated earlier and walking upright on two legs, running alike, doing the crawl, butterfly, and so on, speaking words, writing words, calculating, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions.
    Material things include living things, living things include bodies ( = animals), and bodies include human beings. Material functions include living functions, living functions include bodily functions ( = animal functions), and bodily functions include human functions. Material things and their functions include living things and their functions, living things and their functions include bodies and their functions ( = animals and their functions), bodies and their functions include human beings and their functions.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    An organ which consists of neurons, sensory cells, and neuroglial cell, cerebrospinal fluid, dura maters, pia maters, arachnoid membranes, and so on which support neurons and sensory cells can be called a "Nervous System" or Neuronal System. Not only central nerves systems but also peripheral nerves ones and autonomic nerves ones are included in nervous systems, and not only neurons and neuronal groups but also sensory cells, sensory group, and sensory organs are included in nervous systems in these books.
    The following can be called "Neuronal Groups"

UNITARY NEURONAL GROUPS

    A group of neurons where neuronal bodies assemble into what is called a nucleus and the axons bunch into what is called a nerve can be called a "Unitary Neuronal Group".
    Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group is joined to by some neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called each unitary neuronal group's Being Joined to by some other neuronal groups. Each neuron in a unitary neuronal group joins to some other neurons in some other unitary neuronal groups. This can be called each unitary neuronal group's Joining to some other neuronal groups.

SENSORY GROUPS

    Though a sensory cell does not have such a long process as a neuron has as an axon, it joins to some neurons and has an ability to transmit to them in the same way as a neuron does.
    A group of sensory cells can be called a "Sensory Group".
    A sensory group joins to some unitary neuronal group in the same way as a unitary neuronal group does. Such sensory cells are included in neurons, and such sensory groups are included in unitary neuronal groups in these books.
    However, not a neuronal group joins to any sensory groups. A sensory group is metaphorically a starter in a complex neuronal group as will be defined in the following sections.

COMPLEX NEURONAL GROUPS

    Linear neuronal groups, diverging neuronal groups, converging neuronal groups, and pairs of neuronal groups which will be explained below, and the mixtures where some of them joins to some others or are joined to by some others can be called "Complex Neuronal Groups".

LINEAR NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [A] joins to another unitary neuronal group [B], [B] joins to another unitary neuronal group [C] and when the same are repeated, [A][B][C]… can be called a "Linear Neuronal Group".

NEURONAL WAYS

    When a unitary neuronal group or sensory neuronal group [A] joins to another unitary neuronal group [B], [B] joins to another unitary neuronal group [C], [C] joins to another unitary neuronal group, a muscle group, or a secretory group [D], when [A][D] have important functions like sensations, memories, and movements, and when [B][C] do not have any functions other than excitements and transmissions, [B][C] can be called the "Neuronal Way" from [A] to [D].
    However, some neuronal ways can diverge or converge in the following ways. Such neuronal group are included neuronal ways in these books.

DIVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [A] joins to unitary neuronal groups [B][B'] whose number is as large as or larger than [A]'s, when [B][B'] joins to unitary neuronal groups [C][C'][C''] whose number is as large as or larger than [B][B']'s, and when the same are repeated, [A][B][B'][C][C'][C'']… can be called a "Diverging" Neuronal Group. In addition, neuronal groups diverging wildly can be called Diffusing ones.
    For example, the neuronal groups which individual images' sources which are being generated go through, which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", are diverging neuronal groups, and the neuronal groups which impulses go through, which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", are diffusing neuronal groups.

CONVERGING NEURONAL GROUPS

    When a unitary neuronal group [Z] is joined to by unitary neuronal groups [Y][Y'] whose number is as large as or larger than [Z]'s, when [Y][Y'] are joined to by unitary neuronal groups [X][X'][X''] whose number is as large as or larger than [Y][Y']'s, and when the same are repeated, [Z][Y][Y'][X][X'][X'']… can be called a "Converging" Neuronal Group.
    For example, the neuronal groups from the unitary neuronal groups which store individual images' sources to the neuronal groups which replay sources which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES" are converging neuronal groups. Accordingly, though a lot of individual images' sources arise, a limited number or less of them are recollected.

PAIRS OF NEURONAL GROUPS

    In each of most nervous systems, there are some pairs of neuronal groups, and the two neuronal groups composing each pair are symmetrical though some parts of them cross and some join to each other. For example, in each of most vertebrates' nervous systems, there is a pair of neuronal groups from the retinae via optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes though the pair crosses. Such pairs of neuronal groups are included in neuronal groups and in complex neuronal groups in these books.
    As will be explained later, it is premised that a pair of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions and some processing functions cause things appearing beyond sensory organs. For example, your face appearing to me on a visual sensation with both eyes seems to be in the position beyond my eyes. In contrast, when I close my right eye, your face appearing on a visual sensation with my left eye seems to be in the position of my left eye. In addition, because there is a pair, an individual which suffer disorder in one of the pair sometimes maintains life. That is true of not only nervous systems but also eyes, ears, lungs, kidneys, limbs, testicles, ovaries, and so on. In addition, because neuronal groups compose a pair also in the cerebrum, the dominant hemisphere is questioned. For example, in a right handed person, the left hemisphere is often dominant. In this case, even if the right one suffers some disorder, mental and bodily functions sometimes do not suffer serious disorder.

NEURONAL GROUPS

    The above unitary neuronal groups, complex neuronal groups, and the mixtures where some of them joins to some others or are joined to by some others can be called "Neuronal Groups".

SERIES OF ACTUALLY JOINING NEURONS

    In a complex neuronal group, not all the neurons join directly or indirectly. If all did so, for example, a spot in the retina might become all the field in the visual area on the occipital lobe.
    In a complex neuronal group, the neurons which actually join directly or indirectly can be called a "Series of Actually Joining Neurons".

SELECTIVE NEURONAL GROUPS Retaining Spatial Positions

    When a complex neuronal group is cut in round slices, it turns out that each series of actually joining neurons has a spatial relative position in the slices as a property. Unless neurons join to or are joined to by in one-to-many way or in many-to-one way again and again and unless what is called each nerve is tangled, the spatial relative position of each series of actually joining neurons is retained to a degree. Otherwise, for example, it is premised that some things appearing on visual sensations would be distorted. For example, a circle might become a curve like an amoeba.
    In addition, in such a neuronal group, it is retained at such spatial relative position whether each series of the actually joining neurons excites and transmits or stops, that is, selectivity. That selectivity is subtle. Such a subtle selectivity also decides density. For example, some parts of the neuronal cell in the shadows of a person's face excite and transmit at law density and those of that in the highlight excite and transmit at high density.
    From the beginning, if all the neurons excited and transmitted or stop in the neuronal groups which were involved in sensations and memories, things appearing on visual sensations would be all highlights or all darkness, things appearing on auditory sensations would be all maximum sounds or all absolute silence, and there would be no sensations or memories.
    When such selectivity needs to be emphasized, neuronal groups retaining spatial positions can be called "Selective Neuronal Groups" (Retaining Spatial Positions). In addition, the contrary can be called "Non-Selective" Neuronal Groups.
    Selective neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions are one of the necessary properties of neuronal sources of appearing things which will be explained later. Otherwise, for example, other than the above, it is premised that the spatial positions and arrangements of some pain on the skins appearing on a somatic sensation are confused, and that we cannot tell where the pain are. In such ways, neuronal groups causing sensations and recollections of images need to be selective ones.
    In contrast, neuronal groups which cause smooth muscles' contractions or endocrine glands' secretions do not need to be selective ones. However, practically, they are also selective though they are not as selective as the former. That is because, embryologically, the genesis of neuronal groups where axons are tangled is harder work.

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS

    The functions which a nervous system has can be called "Nervous Functions". Nervous functions include neurons' excitements and transmissions, neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, sensations, and memories.
    It is premised that some parts of a nervous system and its functions directly cause things appearing as mental phenomena, and more in detail that some parts of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions cause them.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Even if a neuronal group excite and transmit, some series of actually joining neurons in the neuronal group excite and transmit, and the others do not excite or transmit, that is, stop. This can be called the neuronal group's excitement and transmission. In contrast, that all the series in it stop can be called the neuronal group's stopping.
    The presynaptic transmissions of the neurons which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, an anchor in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal groups' Presynaptic Transmission or Transmitting.
    Postsynaptic transmissions of the neuronal cells which belong to the unitary neuronal group which is, so to speak, a starter in a complex neuronal group can be called the complex neuronal groups' Postsynaptic Transmission or Being Transmitted.

NEURONAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In every neuronal group, the differences among the times of series of actually joining neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are of milliseconds (thousandths of a second). Such a neuronal group's excitement and transmission can be called the neuronal group's "Instant" Excitement and Transmission or Exciting and Transmitting Instantly.
    In a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, the temporal positions, arrangements, and changes of the series of actually joining neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are retained.
    In addition, in a neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are retained.
    Neuronal groups' instant excitements and transmissions are one of the necessary properties of neuronal sources of things appearing. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, the limbs' movement of a running animal of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs backward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs forward and so on appearing on a visual sensation might become that of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs forward then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs backward and so on.

NEURONAL GROUPS' ACTIVITY

    The activities or activations of the neurons in a neuronal group can be called the Neuronal Group's Activity or Activation. Such neuronal groups' activations and activities make memorizations and storages in memories possible, as will be explained later.
    In addition, such activations and activities are also selective. For example, a part of shadow is activated at law density, and a part of highlight is activated at high density.

THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

APPEARING THINGS AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, images, ideas, colors, brightness or darkness, high-law and loudness of sounds, and so on can be called Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). Things appearing as mental phenomena's existing or being premised to exist can be called things' Appearing (as Mental Phenomena). For example, the display of my personal computer, its keyboard, my hands striking it are appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, the sounds of striking the keyboard are appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears, and slight hunger is appearing on an autonomic sensation to me, a writer of this book, at present.
    The words "things appearing" sometimes designate sights, images, and so on and sometimes designate things in themselves like material things, bodies, and so on which are premised to be represented as appearing things. The words "things appearing" designate the former, that is, sights, images, and so on in these books. For example, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction which are premised to be represented as sights are not appearing things, but sights are appearing things.
    The words "things' appearing" sometimes designate sights, images, and so on's existing or being premised to exist and sometimes designate their being represented as sights, images, and so on. The words "things' appearing" designate the former in these books.
    The whole of appearing things appears, and its parts appear. For example, though its periphery is vague, the whole of things appearing on a visual sensation appears as what is called a visual field. Of course, its central part appears clearly. Accordingly, the whole or parts of appearing things can be called the " Appearing Whole" or "Appearing Parts". In addition, the appearing whole or appearing parts can be called Appearing Things.
    Qualities like colors, high-low, and so on, quantities like brightness-darkness, loudness-silence, and so on, spatial positions, temporal positions, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, their changes are the properties of appearing spatial and temporal things, and they appear. As was explained earlier, they are appearing properties, and they appear.
    Those apply to the following words.

(1) Words like "properties appearing", "the appearing time", "the whole's appearing", and so on where the word "things appearing" and "things' appearing" are replaced by other words
(2) Words like "things appearing on a sensation", "things appearing as an image", and so on where the modifiers like "on a sensation", "as an image", and so on are attached to the verb "appear"
(3) Words like "things which appeared to me in the past", "things' which will appear to me in the future", and so on where the tense in a broad sense of the verb "appear" is changed

BASIC KINDS OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    The following are basic kinds of things appearing as mental phenomena.

(s)In general, Things Appearing on a Kind of Sensation, and in each individual, things Appearing on a Sensation

(s1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation or things appearing on visual sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation
    Sights, colors, brightness, written words, and so on
(s1-1)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with one eye or things appearing on visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with one eye
    Sights which are planar and are localized to one eye
(s1-2)In general, things appearing on the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes
    Sights which are cubic and are beyond both eyes
(s2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation or things appearing on auditory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation
    Sounds, voices, high-low, loudness, spoken words, and so on.
(s2-1)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with one ear
    Sounds which are spatial points and are localized to one ear
(s2-2)In general, things appearing on the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears
    Sound sources which are cubic and are beyond both ears
(s3)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation or things appearing on olfactory sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation
    Smells, fragrances, odors, and so on
(s3-1)In general, things appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or things appearing on olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
    Smells which are planar and are limited to one nasal cavity
(s3-2)In general, things appearing on an olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavities or things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    Smell sources which are cubic and are beyond both nasal cavities
(s4)In general, things appearing on a balancing kind of sensation or things appearing on balancing sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a balancing sensation
    Dizziness, appearing acceleration, appearing rotation, and so on
(s5)In general, things appearing on a taste kind of sensation or things appearing on taste sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a taste sensation
    Tastes, sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness, and so on
(s6)In general, things appearing on a somatic kind of sensation or things appearing on somatic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on a somatic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on
(s7)In general, things appearing on an autonomic kind of sensation or things appearing on autonomic sensations, and in each individual, things appearing on an autonomic sensation
    Pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on

(i)In general, things appearing as a kind of sensory image, a kind of sensory image, and in each individual, things appearing as a sensory image or a sensory image

(i1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image, the visual kind of sensory image, things appearing as visual sensory images, or visual sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image or a visual sensory image
(i1-1)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye, the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye, things appearing as visual sensory images as if with one eye, or visual sensory images as if with one eye, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image as if with one eye or a visual sensory image as if with one eye
(i1-2)In general, things appearing as the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes, the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes, things appearing as visual sensory images as if with both eyes, or visual sensory images as if with both eyes, and in each individual, things appearing as a visual sensory image as if with both eyes or a visual sensory image as if with both eyes
(i2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image, the auditory kind of sensory image, things appearing as auditory sensory images, or auditory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image or an auditory sensory image
(i2-1)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear, the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear, things appearing as auditory sensory images as if with one ear, or auditory sensory images as if with one ear, and in each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image as if with one ear or an auditory sensory image as if with one ear
(i2-2)In general, things appearing as the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears, the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears, things appearing as auditory sensory images as if with both ears, or auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and each individual, things appearing as an auditory sensory image as if with both ears or an auditory sensory image as if with both ears
(i3)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image, the olfactory kind of sensory image, things appearing as olfactory sensory images, or olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image or an olfactory sensory image
(i3-1)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity, the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity, things appearing as olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, or olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, and in each individual things appearing as an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity or an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity
(i3-2)In general, things appearing as the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities, the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities, things appearing as olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, or olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, things appearing as an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities or an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities
(i4)In general, things appearing as the balancing kind of sensory image, the balancing kind of sensory image, things appearing as balancing sensory images, or balancing sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a balancing sensory image or a balancing sensory image
(i5)In general, things appearing as the taste kind of sensory image, the taste kind of sensory image, things appearing as taste sensory images, or a taste sensory image, in each individual, things appearing as a taste sensory image or a taste sensory image
(i6)In general, things appearing as the somatic kind of sensory image, the somatic kind of sensory image, things appearing as somatic sensory images, or somatic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as a somatic sensory image or a somatic sensory image
(i7)In general, things appearing as the autonomic kind of sensory image, the autonomic kind of sensory image, things appearing as autonomic sensory images, autonomic sensory images, and in each individual, things appearing as an autonomic sensory image or an autonomic sensory image

    Simply, things occurring to me, past things remembered, future things expected, unreal things imagined, and so on are images.
    When the word "images" is used, visual sensory images occur to us, but auditory sensory images, olfactory sensory images, and so on also appear. For example 1, when a person who is not present here occurs to us, his or her face appears as a visual sensory image, his or her speaking words appear as an auditory sensory image, and his or her touch appears as a somatic sensory image. In addition, his or her smell with that of tobacco, alcohol, perfume, or so sometimes appears as an olfactory sensory image. For example 2, when some events on the next day in school or office are expected at home, its buildings and people appear as a visual sensory image, their words and the sound of chimes appear as an auditory sensory image. From the beginning, we think with some visual and auditory sensory images of words. Otherwise, we could not think without writing words or speaking words aloud.
    Things appearing on a sensation which is premised to be caused by the nervous function which contains the excitements and transmissions of some sensory nerves in a narrow sense and which does not contain those of any autonomic nerves can be called Things Appearing on a Somatic Sensation. In contrast, things appearing on a sensation which is premised to be caused by the nervous function which contains those of some autonomic nerves is called a Thing Appearing on an Autonomic Sensation in these books.
    Things appearing on autonomic sensations are the vaguest of all things appearing on sensations. However, for example, palpitation and dyspnea appear on an autonomic sensation. Things appearing as autonomic sensory images are the vaguest of all the appearing things. However, for example, palpitation and dyspnea appear even a little as an autonomic sensory image together with some visual or auditory sensory images of the words of palpitation and dyspnea.
    The above are the most basic things appearing as mental phenomena, and the following are comparatively basic things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Strictly, palpitation, dyspnea, and so on contain not only some things appearing on an autonomic sensation but also some things appearing on a somatic sensation which accompany the chest's expansion and contraction, and are not pure things appearing on an autonomic sensation, but each of them is looked upon as one thing appearing on sensations. A thing appearing on sensations which consists of things appearing on more than one kind of sensation and which are looked upon as one thing appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a complex sensation".
    However, when a thing appearing on a complex sensation contains some things appearing on an autonomic sensation, it is also called a Thing Appearing on the Autonomic Kind of Sensation or a Thing Appearing on an Autonomic Sensation in these books. That is, the words "a thing appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation" or a thing appearing on an autonomic sensation sometimes designate a thing appearing on a complex sensation containing some things appearing on the autonomic kind of sensation. The reason why things appearing on an autonomic kind of sensation are given priority to in such a way will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    Things appearing on a visual sensation with one eye, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, things appearing on an auditory sensation with one ear, and so on are respectively homogeneous in a sense. For example, all things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes have colors and brightness as properties and are cubic and beyond both eyes. They are homogeneous in that sense. In contrast, things appearing on an autonomic sensation and things appearing as an autonomic sensory image are not homogeneous, and they are heterogeneous. For example, palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea do not resemble one another at least, they are far from homogeneous. Each of the former are premised to be caused by a single function. For example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are premised to be caused by a pair of neuronal groups' excitement and transmission from both the retinas to both the optic nerves (they cross here) to both the visual areas, and they can be looked upon as one function. In contrast, the latter cannot be premised to be caused by a single function. Accordingly, as far as things appearing on an autonomic kind of sensation and things appearing as an autonomic kind of sensory image are concerned, also in each individual body, the plural forms like things appearing on autonomic "kinds" of "sensations" or on autonomic sensations are sometimes used in these books.

THINGS APPEARING ON THE SAME KIND OF SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE

    Though a visual sensory image is not as clear as things appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though an auditory sensory image is not as clear as things appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter, and the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so on. For example, though another person's face appearing as a visual sensory image is not as clear as his or her face appearing on a visual sensation, the former resembles the latter, though another person's voice appearing as an auditory sensory image is not as clear as his or her voice appearing on an auditory sensation, the former resembles the latter. That is because both things appearing on visual sensations and visual sensory images have colors and brightness as necessary properties, and because both things appearing on auditory sensations and auditory sensory images have high-law and loudness of sounds as necessary properties, and the same are repeated. The things appearing on sensations and the sensory images which have the same necessary properties which are different only in clearness in such a way can be called Things Appearing on the Same Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image in general, and in particular, Things Appearing on the Visual Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, Things Appearing on the Auditory Kind of Sensation and Sensory Image, and so on.
    It is in things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image that things appearing on a sensation and things appearing as a sensory image are alike. It is not beyond the same kind that they are alike. For example, a thing appearing on a visual sensation and a thing appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike, at all. Another person's face appearing on a visual sensation and his or her voice appearing as an auditory sensory image are not alike, at all.

THINGS APPEARING ON PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    Some pleasure and displeasure almost always appear on sensations. For example, the pain on the skins appears on a somatic sensation, and palpitation, dyspnea, hunger or repletion, thirst, and nausea appear on autonomic sensations, and they are pleasure or displeasure. For example 1, moderate hunger is sometimes pleasure, and excessive hunger is often displeasure. For example 2, though excessive palpitation and dyspnea are always displeasure, moderate palpitation and dyspnea are sometimes pleasure as expectation. Each of (s3)-(s7) has such pleasure and displeasure as properties. Each of (s3)-(s7) which has some pleasure and displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensations in particular.
    The pain, itches, hotness, coldness, and so on in the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, and so on are included in things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure somatic sensation. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by sensory nerves in a narrow sense. Those in the mucous membranes, digestive systems, circulatory systems, and so on, and palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. That is because those tissues or organs are reached mainly by autonomic nerves.
    Excluding things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations, things appearing on sensations are things appearing on pleasure and displeasure sensations. They are psychologically important because they have pleasure and displeasure. Neither things appearing on visual sensations nor things appearing on auditory sensations are things appearing on pleasure and displeasure sensations. For example, eyes' pain and ears' pain are things appearing on somatic sensations, things appearing on autonomic sensations, or metaphors. Though things appearing on visual sensations and things appearing on auditory sensations have no pleasure or displeasure, because the visual sensory image and the auditory sensory image which are caused from them occupy most of the sensory image, they are psychologically important. After all, the former are important for emotions, and that latter are so for memories, perceptions, associations, and thinkings.
    Things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation has some spatial and temporal parts where pleasure is dominant and some other spatial and temporal parts where displeasure is dominant. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is dominant can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is dominant can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation".
    After all, we can decide whether a thing is pleasure or displeasure only according to how the animal and its functions function to it. As will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", the autonomic sensations which cause impulses are pleasure ones.

THINGS APPEARING ON SENSORY ORGANS ⇔ THINGS APPEARING BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    Each of (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) is a point, planar, or cubic, does appear on its own sensory organ, and does not appear beyond it. For example, when each of us closes the right eye, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with the left eye is planar, does appear on the left one, and does not appear beyond the left one. (s1-1)(s2-1)(s3-1)(s4)(s5)(s6)(s7)(i1-1)(i2-1)(i3-1)(i4)(i5)(i6)(i7) each of which is a point, planar, or cubic, does appears its own sensory organ, and does not appear beyond it can be called "Things Appearing on Sensory Organs".
    Each of (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) is cubic and does appear beyond its own sensory organ. For example, when each of us opens both the eyes, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is cubic and does appear beyond both the eyes. (s1-2)(s2-2)(s3-2)(i1-2)(i2-2)(i3-2) each of which is cubic and does appear beyond its own sensory organ can be called "Things Appearing Beyond Sensory Organs".
    In things appearing on their sensory organs, the spaces where appearing things appear are the same as those where their own sensory cells are distributed. For example, the space where things appearing on a somatic sensation appear are the same as the skins, striated muscles, bones, and tendons where sensory cells in a narrow sense are distributed.
    However, things appearing on auditory sensations with one ear, things appearing as auditory sensory images with one ear, things appearing on balancing sensations, and things appearing as balancing sensory images are only points spatially. The reason why they are so is that the spatial positions and arrangements of their sensory cells represent not those in the body but sounds' high-low and some other qualities.

SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL THINGS AND PROPERTIES APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As was explained earlier, things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into spatial and temporal things and properties appearing as mental phenomena. For example, the sight of a tree is a spatial and temporal thing appearing on a visual sensation, and it has colors and brightness as properties. A little more closely, the appearing spatial and temporal things of leaves of the tree have the color of green as a property, those getting the sunlight directly has that of bright green, and those in the shadow which are not getting the sunlight directly have that of dark green as a property.
    In things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image, appearing spatial and temporal things are alike, and appearing properties are alike. For example, in things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, colors appearing on a visual sensation and colors appearing as a visual sensory image are alike.
    Properties appearing on visual and auditory sensations do not include any pleasure or displeasure. Properties appearing on olfactory, balancing, taste, somatic, and autonomic sensations include some pleasure and displeasure. Properties appearing as sensory images do not include any pleasure or displeasure. For example, what seem to be pleasure and displeasure in mental emotions like anxiety, fear, and so on are the pleasure or displeasure which things appearing on autonomic sensations have as properties, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    All appearing things including individual images, complex images, and so on as will be explained later are spatial and temporal things or their properties, and this explanation is sometimes omitted in these books.

THINGS APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY AND THINGS' APPEARING INTENSELY OR FAINTLY

    Every spatial and temporal thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has quantity like brightness or darkness, loudness or silence, distance, size, intensity, clearness or vagueness, and so on as properties, and such quantity appears. The quantity which a spatial and temporal thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has as a property and which appears can be called "Quantity Appearing". It can also be called "Intensity Appearing". In addition, an appearing thing whose appearing quantity is large or small can be called a "Thing Appearing Intensely or Faintly". A thing appearing intensely or faintly's appearing can be called the Thing's Appearing Intensely or Faintly.
    Some kinds of appearing quantity affect some animal functions and their quantity intensely. Such kinds will be enumerated below. They are also represented by the words "intensely or faintly".

○Brightness
This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image have.
○Distance or closeness
This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing beyond sensory organs, that is, everything appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image with both eyes, everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image with both ears, and everything appearing on the olfactory kind of sensation and sensory image with both nasal cavities have.
○Loudness
This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which everything appearing on the auditory kind of sensation and sensory image.
○Intensity
In a narrow sense, this word represents a kind of appearing quantity which pain, hotness, coldness, and so on appearing on somatic sensations, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, and so on appearing on autonomic sensations have. In a broad sense, brightness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image can be looked upon as the intensity of light, and loudness appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image, as the intensity of sounds. As was explained earlier, this word is also used to designate other quantity appearing.
○Clearness
    This word represents a kind of quantity appearing which every appearing thing has. In things appearing on a visual sensation, the periphery is vague and the central part is clear. In general, things appearing on somatic sensations are clearer than things appearing on autonomic sensations. In general, things appearing on sensations are clearer than things appearing as sensory images. Clearness appearing can be likened to the resolution of photographs. Usually, the larger the number of sensory cells in retinae is, the larger clearness is like the larger that of photodetector is, the larger resolution is. In addition, if the lenses of a person's eyes suffer from cataract, the clearness declines like if the lens of a camera gets dirty, the resolution declines.
〇Spatial size
    Things appearing on the visual kind of sensation and sensory image and things appearing on the somatic kind of sensation and sensory image have clear spatial sizes. For example 1, in things appearing on visual sensations with both eyes, we can guess the size of things in front of us. For example 2, in things appearing on somatic sensations, we can guess the size of skin lesions on our backs from that of its pain or itch. However, some other appearing things have spatial sizes though they are vague. In things appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears and on an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities, sound and smell sources appear, and their sizes appear, too. For example 1, we find that the sound source of a chorus is larger than that of a soloist even if we close our eyes. For example 2, in a human being, smell sources in things appearing olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities are very vague, but maybe some other animals can smell the sizes of their natural enemies. In addition, the spatial sizes in things appearing on autonomic sensations are vague, too. However, for example, the inflammation on the whole of the stomach's mucous membrane would be felt differently from that on a small part.
〇Temporal duration and frequency
    These are important in things appearing as images. For example, the images which cause anxiety appear vaguely but persistently and frequently, and these persistence and frequency annoy us.

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

THINGS APPEARING AS INDIVIDUAL IMAGES = INDIVIDUAL IMAGES

    In a sensory image, some spatial and temporal parts which already have some properties usually appear while being separated from the other parts, come closer, go further, and fade out, and some of them sometimes fuse into one and get separated again. For example, in a visual sensory image, a certain person's body which has the spatial arrangement of the head, trunk, arms, and legs as a property appears while being separated, comes closer, goes further, and fades out and sometimes fuses with the background and gets separated again. In a sensory image, the spatial and temporal parts which already have some properties and which usually appear while being separated from the other parts, come closer, go further, fade out, sometimes fuse, get separated again, and repeat the same can be called "Things Appearing as Individual Images", Individual Images, Thing Appearing as Individual Sensory Images, and Individual Sensory Images in general and Things Appearing as Individual Visual Images or Individual Visual images, Things Appearing as Individual Auditory images, Individual Auditory images, and so on in particular. For example, a certain person's face appearing as an individual visual image, a certain tool appearing as an individual visual image, and a certain word appearing as an individual auditory image are included in individual images. From now on, the words "an individual image" will usually be used for simplification. They are general words, and individual images include individual visual images, individual auditory images, and so on.
    As will be explained later in the chapter "MEMORIES", some properties of the neuronal sources just sensed are recognized and the part containing those properties is cut and an individual image' s sources is generated. Accordingly, each individual image's sources already has some properties.
    Every individual image is a particular thing which is explained in "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS."

THINGS APPEARING AS IMAGES = IMAGES

    Things appearing as complex images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations, which will be explained in the following sections, can be called "Things Appearing as Images" or "Images".

THINGS APPEARING AS COMPLEX IMAGES = COMPLEX IMAGES

    More than one individual image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' faces appearing as individual visual images with both eyes, their spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images with both ears, and so on. More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images and things appearing on sensations can be called "Things Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, Things Appearing as an Image, an Image, or a Group of Individual Images.
    Moreover, more than one complex image appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images, individual images, and things appearing on sensations, and the same are repeated. For example, human beings appearing as complex images, apes appearing as complex images, and so on appear spatially and temporally closer than birds appearing as complex images, fishes appearing as complex images, and so on. That is because human beings are more similar to apes than birds, fishes, and so on, and because modern people know biological classification, evolutionism, and so on. {More than one complex image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other complex images, individual images, and things appearing on sensations} and {complex images which repeat this and which become a more and more complex one} can be called "Things Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, Things Appearing as an Image, an Image, or a Group of Complex Images.
    Every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images or some complex images. After all, every complex image consists spatially and temporally of a lot of individual images.
    A complex image usually consists of more than one kind of individual sensory image. For example 1, a particular person appearing as a complex image consists of his or her faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as individual auditory images, and so on. For example 2, a general human being appearing as a complex images consists of a lot of particular persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, spoken words "human", "being", "Homo", "sapiens", and so on appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.
    However, one or two kinds of individual sensory image are usually dominant in a complex image. Above all, in human beings, individual visual images and individual auditory ones are dominant. For example, individual visual images of numerical formulas are dominant in complex images in mathematical or physical thinking, and the auditory ones of spoken words are dominant in complex images in daily thinking. The complex images where individual visual images are dominant, where auditory ones are dominant, or so can be called "Visual Complex Images", "Auditory Complex Images", or so. When they have been defined so, it can be said that complex images are visual images or auditory images in human beings.
    Complex images are the substance of what is called "Ideas." About particular things and general things, please refer to "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS." The things which have temporal extent of more than seconds, general things, functions, and so on all appear as complex images, and do not appear on sensations, as sensory images, or as individual images. What are called abstract things appear as complex images, too. For example, a certain person which has a temporal extent of years appears as a complex image consisting of his or her faces and bodies appearing as a lot of individual visual images, his or her spoken words and names appearing as a lot of individual auditory images, and so on. General human beings appear as a complex image consisting of a lot of certain persons' faces and bodies appearing as individual visual images, certain spoken words "human", "being", "Homo", and "sapiens" appearing as individual auditory images, erect bipedalism appearing as individual visual images, and so on. Universal gravitation as a function appears as a complex image consisting of the arrows representing vectors appearing as individual visual images, spoken words "Universal" and "Gravitation" appearing as individual auditory images, and so on.

SENSORY IMAGES AND COMPLEX IMAGES

    Both each sensory image and each complex image consists of individual images. However, the former does so on the basis of whether they are visual, auditory, or so, and the latter does so on the basis of spatial and temporal closeness. The former is like what is made by slicing the latter which is in unity and makes what is called sense, and the former makes no sense by itself. It is the latter that is important for feelings, desires, egos, thinkings, and so on which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and the former can almost be ignored there. In addition, the latter are important for our daily life, literature, and art. However, the former cannot be ignored in this book, which explain memories in the final chapter. That is because, at the final stage of a memory, individual visual images are replayed by the visual kind of replay and comprise a visual sensory image, individual auditory images are replayed by the auditory kind of replay and comprise an auditory sensory image, and the same applies to individual olfactory images, individual balancing images, and so on.

THINGS APPEARING ON PERCEPTIONS

    Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations appear spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images, complex images, and parts appearing on sensations. For example, a particular person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes, his or her faces appearing as visual complex images with both eyes, and his or her names appearing as auditory complex images with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer than the other particular persons' or the background appearing on a visual sensation. Some complex images and some spatial and temporal parts appearing on sensations which appear spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images, complex images, and parts appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing on a Perception".
    All things appearing on sensations are endless and chaotic. An individual image which is generated by a part of a sensory image having some properties' being cut out is not endless and gets out of chaos. However, all things appearing on sensations, all sensory images, and all individual images are momentary things and particular things. In contrast, some complex images are continuous things. In addition, some complex images are general things like general human beings. In addition, some complex images are abstract things like liberty. When a part appearing on a sensation fuses with some complex images, that part gets out of chaos as a thing appearing on a perception. For example, the part of another person's face appearing on a sensation is not a face, a person, or a human being. Simply, we cannot recognize him or her. When that part fuses with his or her face appearing as a complex image, that part gets out of chaos as his or her face appearing on a perception. Simply, we can recognize him or her. More simply, we can look at, listen to, and feel things well by overlapping images with things appearing on sensations.

A LIMITED NUMBER OR LESS OF IMAGES

    In a time of tenths of a second or less, a limited number or less of images appear, some of them appear intensely, and others appear faintly. For example, when each of us thinks of the self, its images appear intensely, the images of some other persons who it has much to do with appear faintly. That is the substance of some parts of what is called "Consciousness."
    However, the limited number is not determined by species or individuals but varies in situations. For example, when some images appear very intensely, the number gets small. For example, when a boy or girl friend appears, it is smaller than when ordinary people appear.

THINGS APPEARING ON ASSOCIATIONS

    In a time of tenths of a second or more, some things appearing on perceptions and some complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, the latter and some other complex images appear spatially and temporally closer, and the same are repeated. Complex images which continue in such a way are included in complex images. However, in complex images in a time of tenths of a second or more, temporal closeness is more important than spatial closeness, and that limited number is not important. The complex images that continue in a time of tenths of a second or more can be called a "Thing Appearing on an Association". For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the windows appearing on a perception and our town appearing as an image appear closer, the latter and our office or school appearing as an image appear closer, and the latter and the people belonging to it appearing as images appear closer, and the same are repeated. Those images are a thing appearing on an association.
    Anyway, things appearing on associations are included in complex images.

Things Appearing as Images = Images

    Now we have the following three groups.
Group (1) Things appearing as complex images = Complex images
Group (2) Things appearing on perceptions
Group (3) Things appearing on associations
(1)(2)(3) contain (1), and the most important for memories, emotions, egos, and thinkings are (1). In addition, if the words "complex images, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on associations", are always used, sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, (1)(2)(3) are also called Things Appearing as Images or Images in these books. That is, the word "images" designate complex images, things appearing on perceptions, or things appearing on association in these books. Such simplification causes no problems in these books.

WORDS APPEARING AS IMAGES = LANGUAGE APPEARING AS IMAGES = LINGUAL IMAGES

    In human beings, some written words and signs appear not only in things appearing on visual sensations but also in things appearing as visual images, some spoken words appear not only in things appearing on auditory sensations but also in things appearing as auditory images, and Braille appear not only in things appearing on somatic sensations but also in things appearing as somatic images. The written words and signs appearing as visual images, the spoken words appearing as auditory images, Braille appearing as somatic images, and so on can be called "Words Appearing as Images", "Language Appearing as Images", or "Lingual Images".
    Some short isolated words appear as individual images, some short words, many long ones and some short phrases appear as complex images, and some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations. For example, the sentence "some short phrases, many long ones, clauses, and sentences appear on associations" appear on an association.
    The more lingual images are generated, the more complex and rich general images get.

INTENSITIES OF IMAGES

    Every image has intensity as a property as an average of the intensities of the individual images or parts of things appearing on sensations which it consists of. For example, when each of us thinks of human beings as individuals, their images appear more intensely than the images of the society or nature.

COMPOSITION OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon consists of some things appearing on sensations or some individual images. For example, every complex image consists of a lot of individual images, and everything appearing on a perception consists of some parts appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images. In addition, as was explained earlier, sensory images consist of individual images.
    Things appearing as mental phenomena include things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images, things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on associations, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, things appearing on thinkings, and so on. In them, things appearing on sensations consist of things appearing on sensations, sensory images, individual images, complex images, and things appearing on associations consist of a lot of individual images. Things appearing on perceptions, things appearing on emotions, things appearing on egos, and things appearing on thinkings consist of some parts appearing on sensations and a lot of individual images.

A CONTINUITY OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    As long as each of us is awake or is dreaming, something appearing as mental phenomena appears continuously. If we closed our eyes completely, we could hear something. If we could close our eyes and ears completely, we could feel our hands, masks, or so blocking them. If nothing appearing on visual, auditory, or somatic sensations appeared, hunger or thirst could appear on autonomic sensations. If nothing appearing on sensations appeared, some images would appear continuously as long as each of us is awake or is dreaming. Such a continuity can be called a "Continuity of Appearing Things" or a "Continuity of Images". It is the substance of what is called a "Continuity of Consciousness", "Stream of Consciousness", and so on.
    When each of us {is asleep and is not dreaming} or is unconscious, no appearing things appear. However, as long as each of us wakes up or dreams again and has memories, appearing things are looked upon as intermittent. For example, when each of us wakes up in the morning, the happenings of the previous day appear as images.

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

NERVOUS FUNCTIONS CAUSING THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused by something in itself. For example, everything appearing on a visual sensation is premised to be caused by the photons which reach the retinae, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on.
    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused directly by some parts of nervous system and their functions. However, it is hard to distinguish parts causing it directly and those causing it indirectly. Accordingly, the parts of the nervous system and their functions which are premised to cause something appearing as a mental phenomenon directly and indirectly can be called the "Nervous Function Causing the Thing Appearing as a Mental Phenomenon". For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on are the nervous function causing things appearing on a visual sensation.
    In addition, the nervous function causing things appearing on a sensation can be called a "Sensation", and those causing things appearing as a sensory image can be called the "Recollection of a Sensory Images" or a "Recollection".
    These words imply something appearing as a mental phenomenon in our daily life. For example, when we use the word "sensation", not only eyes, ears, or nerves but also sights, sounds, touches, and so on occur to us. Accordingly,

(S) a sensation and the things appearing on the sensation which it causes
(I) the recollection of a sensory image and the sensory image which it causes

can also be called

(S)a Sensation
(R)the Recollection of the Sensory Image ( = a Recollection)

    The following is a detail.

[nf] The nervous function causing appearing things
  [s]In general, a kind of sensation, and in each individual, a sensation
    [s1]In general, the visual kind of sensation or visual sensations, and in each individual, a visual sensation
      [s1-1]In general, the visual kind of sensation with one eye or visual sensations with one eye, and in each individual, a visual sensation with one eye
      [s1-2]In general, the visual kind of sensation with both eyes or visual sensations with both eyes, and in each individual, a visual sensation with both eyes
    [s2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation or auditory sensations, and in each individual, an auditory sensation
      [s2-1]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with one ear or auditory sensations with one ear, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with one ear
      [s2-2]In general, the auditory kind of sensation with both ears or auditory sensations with both ears, and in each individual, an auditory sensation with both ears
    [s3]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation or olfactory sensations, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation
      [s3-1]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with one nasal cavity or olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with one nasal cavity
      [s3-2]In general, the olfactory kind of sensation with both nasal cavity or olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, an olfactory sensation with both nasal cavities
    [s4]In general, the balancing kind of sensation or balancing sensations, and in each individual, a balancing sensation
    [s5]In general, the taste kind of sensation or taste sensations, and in each individual, a taste sensation
    [s6]In general, somatic kind of sensation or somatic sensations, and in each individual, a somatic sensation
    [s7]In general, autonomic kinds of sensations or autonomic sensations, and in each individual, autonomic sensations
  [i]In general the recollection of a kind of sensory image, and in each individual, the recollection of a sensory image
    [i1]In general, the recollection of a visual kind of sensory image or recollections of visual sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image
      [i1-1]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image as if with one eye or recollections of visual sensory images as if with one eye, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image as if with one eye
      [i1-2]In general, the recollection of the visual kind of sensory image as if with both eyes or recollections of visual sensory images as if with both eyes, and in each individual, the recollection of a visual sensory image as if with both eyes
    [i2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image or recollections of auditory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image
      [i2-1]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image as if with one ear or recollections of auditory sensory images as if with one ear, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image as if with one ear
      [i2-2]In general, the recollection of the auditory kind of sensory image as if with both ears or recollections of auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and in each individual, the recollection of an auditory sensory image as if with both ears
    [i3]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image or recollections of olfactory sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image
      [i3-1]In general, the recollection of the olfactory kind of sensory image as if with one nasal cavity or recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image as if with one nasal cavity
      [i3-2]In general, the recollection of an olfactory kind of sensory image as if with both nasal cavities or recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, the recollection of an olfactory sensory image as if with both nasal cavities
    [i4]In general, recollection of a balancing kind of sensory image or recollections of balancing sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a balancing sensory image
    [i5]In general, the R^recollection of the taste kind of sensory image or recollections of taste sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a taste sensory image
    [i6]In general, the recollection of the somatic kind of sensory image or recollections of somatic sensory images, and in each individual, the recollection of a somatic sensory image
    [i7]In general, the recollections of autonomic kinds of sensory images or recollections of autonomic sensory images, in each individual, recollections of autonomic sensory images

    Some of them will be supplemented below.
    Things appearing on autonomic sensations cannot be premised to be caused by a unitary function, nor can things appearing as autonomic sensory images. Accordingly, as far as they are concerned, also in each individual, the plural forms like autonomic "kinds" of "sensations" are used in these books.
    As was explained earlier, in things appearing as mental phenomena, some "complex" sensations can be recognized. Also in things themselves, they can be. Above all, complex sensations which involve the excitements and transmissions of both autonomic nerves and sensory ones in a narrow sense can be. However, the complex sensations which involve some autonomic nerves' excitements and transmissions are also called Autonomic Kinds of Sensations or Autonomic Sensations in these books. That is because, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", autonomic sensations are important parts composing feelings, desires, and egos, and because a function involving some subtle autonomic sensations can compose them.
    [s1]-[s7] are sensations which are basic to vertebrates including human beings. In animals excluding vertebrates, the distinction between [s6]somatic sensations and [s7]autonomic sensations is vague. It is in terrestrial vertebrates that [s2]auditory sensations and [s3]balancing sensations are clear. There can be some other sensations. For example, some reptiles have a kind of sensation which uses infrared rays, and some dolphins or whales have a kind of sensation which uses echoes. The explanations of such special sensations will be omitted in these books.
    Sensations excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. In the phylogenesis, ontogenesis, and individual aging of sensations, somatic, autonomic, taste, and olfactory ones precede and survive the others. Accordingly, every animal having some sensations has some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
    Recollections of images get clear in some mammals, above all, in human beings.
    Though the word "recollection" often designates remembering some past events in our daily life, it designates not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
    In the same way as was explained earlier about things appearing as images, the words of recollections of images or recollections can designate recollections of complex images, perceptions, or associations in these books.
    Every animal's nervous system on the earth is separated from the others', and no animal's neuronal groups join to, transmit to, are joined to by, or are transmitted to by any others'. Accordingly, it is premised that nothing appearing to any others appears to me. For example, though your face is appearing to me on my visual sensation, my face appearing to you on your visual sensation never appears to me. In other words, if the nervous systems of I and any other animals were intermingled, something appearing to them could appear to me, and vice versa. Then, I could see, hear, or feel what you do so, and vice versa. Your pain could be mine not metaphorically but in a real sense. However, as far as the living things on the earth are concerned, such things will not happen. That is because they never join to, are joined to by, transmit to, or are transmitted to by one another.

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND MEMORY

    Visual sensory images resemble things appearing on visual sensations, auditory sensory images resemble things appearing on auditory sensations, and the same applies to olfactory sensory images, balancing sensory images, and so on. In such a way, the kinds like visual things, auditory things, and so on have already been recognized on the stage of things appearing as mental phenomena.
    Moreover, because of the similarity of a sensory image to things appearing on the same kind of sensation, we can guess that between

(1) a sensation

and

(3) the recollection of the same kind of sensory image

there are

(2) some nervous systems and their functions which are caused or changed by (1) and which cause or change (3),

and that (1)(2)(3) compose a small nervous system in the nervous system of an individual, and (1)(2)(3) are continuous. While (1)(3) cause some appearing things directly, (2) do not do so directly. (2) can be called a Kind of Latent Memory or a Latent Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Latent Memory or the Visual Latent Memory, an Auditory Kind of Latent Memory or an Auditory Latent Memory, and so on. (2)(3) can be called a Kind of Memory or a Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of Memory or a Visual Memory, the Auditory Kind of Memory or an Auditory Memory, and so on. (1)(2)(3) can be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or a (Continuous) Sensation and Memory in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or a Visual (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Memory or an Auditory (Continuous) Sensation and Memory, and so on.
    Moreover, in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, there exist and function its own source, replay, and processing functions in a broad sense which will be explained later. For example, there are visual source, visual replay, and visual processing functions in a broad sense in the visual kind of continuous sensation and memory.
    Of course, the details of memories will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES". In addition, not only each kind of memory but also the integration of different kinds of memories will be explained in it.

SOURCES OF THINGS APPEARING AS MENTAL PHENOMENA

    Everything appearing as a mental phenomenon is premised to be caused by making something in itself a source. Something in itself which is premised to cause a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon by being made a source can be called the "Source" of the thing appearing as a mental phenomenon. In addition, in general, the source of things appearing on a sensation can be called the Sensation's Source, and in particular, a visual sensation's source, an auditory sensation's source, and so on. In addition, the source of things appearing as a sensory image, a thing appearing as an individual image, a thing appearing as an image, or so can be called the sensory Image's Source, the individual image's Source, the Image's Source, or so. For example, the source of things appearing on a visual sensation, that is, a visual sensation's source is the photons which reach the retinae, the material things and their functions which reflect, permeate, and refract the photons reaching the retinae, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on. Moreover, the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon is also called the "Thing" in these books. That is, the word "things" sometimes designate the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon in these books.
    It is premised that nothing appearing as a mental phenomenon is caused only by sources. It is premised that nothing appearing would be caused if no nervous functions replayed or treated sources. It is only nervous functions that can replay or treat nervous functions. A part of a source needs to be nervous functions so that nervous functions can replay or treat it. The part of the source of a thing appearing as a mental phenomenon which is nervous functions can be called the "Neuronal Source" of the thing appearing (as a mental phenomenon). For example, the neuronal group's excitement and transmission from the retinae to optic nerves to visual areas on occipital lobes, and so on is the neuronal source of things appearing on a visual sensation.
    Every neuronal source is a neuronal group's excitement and transmission or activation and activity. The details will be explained later.
    Anyway, some neuronal groups need to be generated and to exist so that their excitements and transmissions, activities, and so on can function. The functioning of the neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities as a neuronal source can be called the neuronal source's "Going", Coming, or Flowing through the neuronal groups. The following are the examples of the neuronal groups which some neuronal sources go through. In a visual sensation, the neuronal group from the retinae to optic nerves, crossing, to visual areas on occipital lobes. In an auditory sensation, the neuronal group from the inner ears to acoustic nerves, not crossing, to auditory areas on the temporal lobes. In a somatic sensation, the neuronal group from the skins, bones, striated muscles, or tendons to sensory nerves in a narrow sense, crossing, to sensory areas in a narrow sense on parietal lobes.
    In addition, when the neuronal group which neuronal sources go through diverge or converge, the neuronal sources can diverge or converge, too. When they diverge, one neuronal source can cause more than one identical one. When they converge, some of them can disappear. In addition, when the neuronal group which a neuronal source go through has a disorder, at least a part of it can disappear.
    The sensory group's part of a neuronal source can be called the "Sensory Group's Source", and it is different from sensations' sources which were defined earlier. Sensory groups' sources are included in neuronal sources. The following are the examples of some sensory groups' sources. In a visual sensation's source, the sensory group's excitement and transmission in the retinae. In an auditory sensation's source, that in the inner ears. In a somatic sensation's source, that in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons.
    The part of a source excluding the neuronal source can be called the "Material and Bodily Source". The following are examples of material and bodily sources. In a visual sensation's source, light sources→photons→material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction→photons. In an auditory sensation's source, sound sources→the frequency and amplitude of their vibration→sound waves. In a somatic sensation's source, pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons.
    In such ways, some material and bodily sources includes bodily functions. For example, an autonomic sensation's source includes the blood concentration of oxygen, that of glucose, and osmotic pressures. They are premised to cause dyspnea, hunger, and thirst respectively.
    It is premised that some parts of a material and bodily source are represented as things appearing as mental phenomena, that the other parts are not, and that the neuronal source is not. As for neuronal sources, simply, I have never seen my brain or nerves directly. Though I sometimes have a slight headache, what is represented as it is the stretch or vibration of the blood vessels, and it is not a neuronal source but a part of the material and bodily source. As for material and bodily sources, unless I look at the sun directly, it is not seen. In such a way, we rarely see light sources in the daytime. In contrast, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are premised to be represented as things appearing on visual sensations, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are premised to be represented as things appearing on auditory sensations, and skins' inflammation are premised to be represented as things appearing on somatic sensations. The parts of a material and bodily source which are premised to be represented as things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Reproducible Source" of the things appearing as mental phenomena. For example, material things' reflectance, transmittance, and index of refraction are visual sensations' reproducible sources, the frequency and amplitude of material things' vibration are auditory sensations' reproducible sources, and pressure to, heat to, and inflammation in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are somatic sensations' reproducible sources.

THE SAME KIND OF CONTINUOUS SENSATION AND SENSORY IMAGE'S SOURCE

    As will be closely explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, some parts of the sensation's source are recognized and cut out, and the individual images sources are generated. In other words, closely, some parts of the sensation's source and the individual images' sources are continuous, and largely, the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are continuous. For example, in a visual kind of sensation and memory, the visual sensation's source and the visual sensory image's source are continuous, and in an auditory kind of sensation and memory, the auditory sensation's source and the auditory sensory image's source are continuous. Accordingly, in things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image, it is premised that the sensory image is similar to things appearing on the sensation though the former are not as clear as the latter are. For example, a person's face appearing as an individual visual image is similar to the person's face appeared on a visual sensation in the past. The sensation's source and the sensory image's source which are continuous in such ways in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory can be called the "Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source" in general, and in particular, a Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, an Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, and so on.

THE NECESSARY PROPERTIES OF NEURONAL SOURCES

    The following are the necessary properties of neuronal sources.

(1) SELECTIVE NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In a selective neuronal group's excitement and transmission, which were explained earlier, the spatial relative positions and arrangements of actually joining neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. It is premised that the "forms" or "patterns" of things are maintained in things appearing as mental phenomena by this property. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, some things appearing on visual sensations would be distorted, and more concretely that a ball looks like an amoeba.
    In addition, in a selective neuronal group's excitement and transmission, some actually joining neuronal cells excite and transmit, and the others do not. Therefore, it is premised that subtle brightness or darkness in sights, loudness or quietness in sounds, strength or weakness in pains, and so on appear. Each of such appearing quantities is premised to be caused by concentration of a neuronal group's excitement and transmission. It is necessary for some actually joining neurons in a neuronal group to excite and transmit and for the others in it not to excite or transmit so that some concentration can be caused.

(2) NEURONAL GROUPS' INSTANT EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    In every neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission which was explained earlier, the temporal relative positions, temporal arrangements, and their changes of actually joining neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. Otherwise, it is premised that, for example, the limbs' movement of a running animal of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs backward, then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs forward, and so on appearing on a visual sensation sometimes become that of forelimbs forward and hindlimbs forward, then forelimbs backward and hindlimbs backward, and so on.
    In addition, in every neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission, the frequencies of neuronal cells' excitements and transmissions are retained. The qualities of material and bodily sources are converted into the frequencies of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions by sensory groups, and such qualities as frequencies are retained in neuronal groups' instant excitements and transmissions.

(3) A SENSORY GROUP'S CONVERSION FROM A MATERIAL AND BODILY SOURCE INTO A NEURONAL SOURCE

    At the beginning of a sensation's neuronal source, some functions of the sensory group convert the material and bodily source's quality like waves' frequencies into the frequency of the neuronal group's excitement and transmission, and they convert its quantities like waves' amplitudes into the concentration of the neuronal group's excitement and transmission. Such a conversion can be called the Sensory Group's "Conversion" from the material and bodily source into the neuronal source or the Sensory Group's Converting the material and bodily source into the neuronal source. For example, in a visual sensation, the sensory group in the retinae converts colors into the frequency of the neuronal group's excitement and transmission and converts brightness into its concentration.

(4) SELECTIVE AND SPECIALIZED NEURONAL GROUPS' ACTIVATIONS AND ACTIVITIES AND EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS

    Only when transmitted to with a certain frequency, some neurons excite and transmit with that frequency, are activated, retain the activities, and will excite and transmit with that frequency next time they are transmitted to with that frequency. Such neurons can be called "Selective and Specialized" Neurons. In addition, a neuronal group which consists of such neurons can be called a Selective and Specialized Neuronal Group.
    As will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES", some images' sources need to be memorized and stored so that they can be recollected after a while. Some sources are not only sensed or recollected but also memorized and stored. Some qualities of material and bodily sources are converted into some frequencies of neuronal sources. Some selective and specialized neuronal groups need to be activated, to retain the activities, and to excite and transmit with that frequencies so that neuronal sources containing qualities can be memorized, stored, and recollected.
    Individual images' sources can be memorized and stored and recollected acquiredly in the above ways. In contrast, complex images' sources can be recollected in the following ways.

(5) Activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of the neuronal ways among selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources

    In order for complex images' sources to be recollected, a lot of individual images' sources need to be recollected spatially and temporally close, and to compose complex images' sources. In order for them to do so, there need to be a lot of neuronal ways directly or indirectly among selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, they need to be activated, and the activities need to be retained for a while. Then, when some of the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources or some of the neuronal ways among them excite and transmit, those neuronal ways excite and transmit, the others excite and transmit, a lot of individual images' sources can be recollected, and they can compose complex images' sources.
    In each kind of memory, the neuronal source just sensed or just recollected goes through a neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties which that neuronal source has recognized, and individual images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized and stored. Such a neuronal group diverging one after another can be called Each Kind of Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging (One After Another). In such a neuronal group, individual images' sources are classified on the basis of similarity. Those selective and specialized neuronal groups which were explained in the above section are in such a neuronal group and memorize and store individual images' sources. The more similar individual images are, the closer in the neuronal group diverging they are memorized and stored .
    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, when some properties which the neuronal source just sensed or just recollected have are recognized, the following part of that neuronal group excites and transmits, that excitement and transmission cause those of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing storing individual images' sources. After all, individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporarily close on the basis of similarity, and they compose complex images' sources. That is, similar individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporarily close, and they compose a complex image's source. This can be called a Complex Image's Source's Arousal on the Basis of Recognition and Similarity. For example, when a particular human being is recognized, a lot of individual images' sources of particular human beings can be recollected on the basis of similarity, and they can compose a complex image's source of general human beings. In such a way, first, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity compose complex images' sources. The part from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group converging one after another can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Recognition and Similarity. These neuronal ways are activated innately to a degree, and are activated more by individual images' sources' recognitions, generations, or renewals. First, the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and of the neuronal ways among them on the basis of recognition and similarity are complex images' sources.
  Second, there are a lot of neuronal ways among neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources which are beyond each kind of memory and which are different from each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another or from neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of recognition and similarity. However, such ways are not activated innately. They are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. The neuronal ways among the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which are generated or renewed temporarily close are activated. Such neuronal ways can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness. Next time some of those individual images' sources excites and transmits and arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the other individual images' sources excite and transmit and can be recollected. In such a way, individual images' sources which were generated or renewed temporarily close can be recollected temporarily close, compose a complex image's source. This can be called a Complex Image's Source's Arousal on the Basis of Temporal Closeness and Neuronal Ways.
    A lot of temporarily close things are cause and effect, and, on their basis, cause and effect are recollected as complex images or associated. For example, when a child's mother are one of those who hits her child when she gets angry, in the nervous system of the child, the neuronal ways between the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of its mother's furious face and neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources of being hit are activated. Whenever the child perceive the mother's furious face, being hit is recollected or associated. In such a way, complex images' sources can be recollected not only on the basis of recognition and similarity but also on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways.
    Neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are among individual images' sources beyond each kind of memory. Accordingly, complex images consist of different kinds of individual sensory images through them. For example, the individual visual images of the mother's furious face and the individual auditory images of her furious voice are recollected spatially and temporarily close, and they compose the complex image of the furious mother. In addition, all neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness are activated acquiredly, and they make the difference among individuals clear. Accordingly, those on the basis of temporal closeness are more important than those on that of recognition and similarity for perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on.
    Two kinds of the neuronal ways which were explained in this section, that is, those on the basis of recognition and similarity and those on that of temporal closeness can be called "Neuronal Ways among Individual Images' Sources" or "Image to Image Neuronal Ways". After all, complex images' sources are activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and of the neuronal ways among them.
    By the way, there are image to image neuronal ways (neuronal ways among individual images' sources), image to function neuronal ways, function to function neuronal ways, and image to emotion neuronal ways as important ones in these books.

(6)THE CONSISTENCY OF THE SAME KIND OF SOURCE

    In the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, its own functions as follows function.

Its neuronal source excluding neuronal ways among individual images' sources
Its replay, which will be explained later.
Its processing functions, which will be explained later.
Most of the functions involved in a memory which will be explained in the chapter "MEMORIES".

    In the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, some parts of the sensation's source are recognized and cut out, and the individual images' sources are generated or renewed, and so the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are continuous. Such continuous sensation's source and sensory image's source could be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source in general, and in particular, the Visual Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) Sensation and Sensory Image's Source, and so on. All of the same kind of continuous sensation and sensory image's source is a selective neuronal group's instant excitement and transmission (1)(2), and so in it, the neuronal source's qualities as frequencies, quantities as concentrations, spatial and temporal positions, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes are retained consistently. This can be called the "Consistency of the Same Kind of Source".

(7)THE CONSISTENCY OF DIFFERENT KINDS OF SOURCES

    In things appearing on sensations, things appearing on different kinds of sensations appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. Simply, his or her spoken words are heard from his or her mouth. In a thing appearing on a perception, some parts appearing on a kind of sensation and different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her name appearing as individual auditory images as if with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. In a complex image, different kinds of individual sensory images appear spatially and temporally closer. For example, another person's face appearing as individual visual images as if with both eyes and his or her spoken words appearing as individual auditory images as if with both ears appear spatially and temporally closer. The neuronal functions which cause such spatial and temporal closeness of different kinds of things appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Consistency of Different Kinds of Sources". It is premised to be different kinds of sensation and sensory image sources' meeting or paralleling somewhere in the central nervous system, perhaps in the parietal lobes.
    The consistency of the same kind of source and that of different kinds of sources can be called the Consistency of Sources.

    In summary, the necessary properties of neuronal sources are selective neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions, neuronal groups' instant excitements and transmissions, sensory groups' conversions, the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of selective and specialized neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and of the neuronal ways among them, the consistency of the same kind of source, and the consistency of different kinds of sources.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES

    Complex image's source has all the necessary properties of neuronal sources explained above. Above all, the activations and activities of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness are important. By them, many individual images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporally closer.
    In contrast, no sensations' sources involve any selective and specialized neuronal groups' activations, activities or any complex images' sources' arousals or recollections on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways. Also in this sense, sensations are more primitive functions of animals than memories are. However, if no sensations were generated, no memories could be generated.

REPLAYS OF SOURCES

    It is premised that nothing appearing as a mental phenomenon could be caused only by sources. It is premised that nothing appearing could be caused if no nervous functions treated and changed neuronal sources into the appearing thing. Some nervous functions which treat and change a neuronal source into something appearing as mental phenomena can be called the "Replay" of the source or Replaying the source.
    Replays are the hardest or impossible to make clear. The border between sources and replays is vague, and they overlap. It is possible that some replays begin with some sensory groups' excitements and transmissions. Then, sensory cells are as important as neurons are. Moreover, it is possible that replays are intrinsic to neurons' and sensory cells' excitements and transmissions in themselves. Moreover, it is possible that their excitements and transmissions in themselves are replays.
    As was explained earlier, the same kind of continuous sensation and memory has the same kind of continuous sensation and sensory image' source. As for replays, things are a little different. Different kinds of sensations have different kinds of replays, and different kinds of memories have different kinds of replays. Even in the same kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are different and are not continuous. For example, in the visual kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the visual sensation's source and that of the visual sensory image's source are different and are not continuous.
    However, in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, the replay of the sensation's source and that of the sensory image's source are not the same but alike, and are not in the same place but in close places. For example, in a visual kind of sensation and memory, the replay of the visual sensation's source and that of the visual sensory image's source are alike and in close places. For example, though extreme, it is possible, because of the disorders of some nervous functions, that visual hallucination is caused when the visual sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay reaches that of the visual sensation's source which is close to its own, and that auditory hallucination is caused when the auditory sensory image's source which usually reach its own replay reaches that of the auditory sensation's source which is close to its own.

PROCESSING FUNCTIONS OF SOURCES

    Some functions which process a neuronal source in some ways other than replays can be called the "Processing Functions" of the source or Processing the source.
    For example, things appearing beyond sensory organs, for example, things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes are cubic and beyond both eyes, and some neuronal functions which make them so are a processing function of a visual sensation's source. The same applies to things appearing on auditory sensations with both ears and things appearing on olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities. Though the third's being cubic and beyond both nasal cavities are vague in human beings, it must be clearer in some other animals like dogs, cats, and so on. Human olfactory sensations were more clear once upon a time, and they must have degenerated.
    It is premised that a pair of neuronal groups' excitement and transmission, the functions processing the pair, and their replay cause things appearing beyond sensory organs.

SENSATIONS' FIELDS AND IMAGES' FIELDS

    As was defined earlier, the part of the material and bodily source which is premised to be represented as things appearing as mental phenomena could be called the Reproducible Source of the appearing things. Moreover, the space of a reproducible source can be called a Reproducible Source's Space. The reproducible source's space of things appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes is what is called the "visual field". The reproducible source's space of things appearing on a sensation can be called the "Sensation's Field" in general, and, in particular, a Visual (Sensation's) field, an Auditory (Sensation's) field, and so on. In addition, the reproducible source's space of things appearing as a sensory image can be called the "(Sensory) Image's Field" in general, and in particular, a visual (sensory) image's field, an auditory (sensory) image's field, and so on.
    The following are the examples of the width and depth of sensations' fields.
○Visual field with both eyes
    The space of 180°ahead in human beings, light-years.
○Auditory field with both ears
    The space of 360° around, kilometers.
○Olfactory field with both nasal cavities
    The space of 360° around, meters in human beings.
○Balancing field
    The space of the head.
○Taste field
    The space of the tongue.
○Somatic field
    The space of the skins, bones, striated muscles, tendons, ligaments.
○Autonomic field
    The space of the mucous membranes, cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and so on.

    While the spaces of reproducible sources are included in things in themselves, they are premised to be represented as appearing things, and they appear. For example, the space containing the sea, the horizon, and the sky appears on a visual sensation with both eyes.

OVERLAPS OF REPRODUCIBLE SOURCES' SPACES

    First, in things appearing on the same kind of sensation and sensory image, the reproducible source's space of the things appearing on the sensation and that of the sensory image overlap in most of their parts. For example, when I see a person for the first time in years and when I think that he or she has grown a little older, in things appearing on visual kind of sensation and sensory image, his or her present face appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes and his or her years ago's face appearing as a visual sensory image as if with both eyes overlap. In such a way, I know his or her aging. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of the same kind source which was explained earlier.
    Moreover, in the different kinds of appearing things, some reproducible sources' spaces overlaps. For example, birds' chirps appearing on an auditory sensation with both ears are heard from the space of the forest appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes. Such overlap is caused by the consistency of different kinds of sources which was explained earlier.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES ON SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-1] visual sensations with one eye, [s2-1] auditory sensations with one ear, [s3-1] olfactory sensations with one nasal cavity, [s4] balancing sensations, [s5] taste sensations, [s6] somatic sensations, [s7] autonomic sensations, [i1-1] recollections of visual sensory Images with one eye, [i2-1] recollections of auditory sensory images with one ear, [i3-1] recollections of olfactory sensory images with one nasal cavity, [i4] recollections of balancing sensory images, [i5] recollections of taste sensory images, [i6] recollections of somatic sensory images, and [i7] recollections of autonomic sensory images, the reproducible source's space is the same as the sensory group's source's space, that is, the space where the sensory group exists and functions. [s1-1]-[s6] can be called Sensations "on Sensory Organs", and [i1-1]-[i6] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images as if on a Sensory Organ.

SENSATIONS AND RECOLLECTIONS OF SENSORY IMAGES BEYOND SENSORY ORGANS

    In each of [s1-2] visual sensations with both eyes, [s2-2] auditory sensations with both ears, [s3-2] olfactory sensations with both nasal cavities, [i1-2] recollections of visual sensory images as if with both eyes, [i2-2] recollections of auditory sensory images as if with both ears, and [i3-2] recollections of olfactory sensory images as if with both nasal cavities, the reproducible source's space is not the same as the sensory group's source's space, that is, the space where the sensory group exists and functions, and the appearing things which it is premised to cause are cubic and beyond the sensory group's source's space. [s1-2]-[s3-2] can be called Sensations "Beyond Sensory Organs", and [i1-2]-[i3-2] can be called Recollections of Sensory Images as if Beyond Sensory Organs.
    As was explained earlier, each of them is a pair of neuronal sources, whether they cross or not, nervous functions processing the pair, and the replay.

SOURCES' BEING SENSED AND BEING RECOLLECTED AS IMAGES

    A sensation source's being replayed can be called the source's "Being Sensed", a sensory image' source's being replayed, an individual image's source's being replayed, or a complex image's source's being replayed can be called the sources' "Being Recollected" as a Sensory Image, as an Individual Image, as a Complex Image, or as an Image. In addition, a perception's source's being replayed can be called the source's "Being Perceived", and an association's source's being replayed can be called the source's "Being Associated". In addition, a complex image's source, a perception's source, or an association's source's being replayed can be called the source's Being Recollected as an image.
    As was explained earlier, it is probable that neuronal sources and replays overlap. Whether or not they overlap, replays and the sources which is being replayed are premised to directly cause things appearing as mental phenomena. Accordingly, it is premised that things appearing on sensations are caused whenever their sources are sensed, and that things appearing as images are caused whenever their sources are recollected. Accordingly, that a source is sensed and that a thing appearing on the sensation is caused can be called the thing's being sensed, that a source is recollected as an image and that a thing appearing as the image is caused can be called the thing's being recollected as an image.
    In addition, the sources which were sensed milliseconds (thousandths of a second) ago or which are being sensed can be called "Sources Just Sensed", and the same can apply to Sources Just Recollected as Images. It is not sources which have not been sensed yet but sources just sensed that are recognized and generate individual images' sources. In addition, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", some sources just recollected as images cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to emotion neuronal ways, and cause some feelings, desires, egos, and so on. If sources which have not recollected yet caused them, they could be what is called unconsciousness. Accordingly, the distinction between the sources which are not sensed or recollected yet and those just sensed and recollected is important.
    By the way, images' sources are also called Images in these books. That is, the word of images sometimes designates their sources in these books.
    That the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing on a sensation intensely or faintly is sensed can be called the source's being sensed intensely or faintly, and that the source which is premised to cause a thing appearing as an image intensely or faintly is recollected can be called the source's being recollected (as an image) intensely or faintly. A neuronal source whose concentration, resolution, or extent is large or small can be sensed or recollected intensely or faintly. For example, a visual sensation's source whose concentration is large can be sensed brightly. Though some parts of a sensation's source and individual images' sources are continuous, their intensities are not always interrelated. For example, sometimes, a person who was sensed far away on a visual sensation with both eyes is close recollected as an image, and some spoken words which were sensed quietly are loudly recollected as images.

FLOWS OF SOURCES

    Neuronal sources are neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities which have the necessary properties explained earlier. Those excitements and transmissions can be looked upon as their going or flowing through those neuronal groups. Those activations and activities are their being memorized and stored and can be looked upon as their stagnating. Moreover, neuronal sources sometimes disappear when those neuronal groups have some disorders. In addition, When those neuronal groups converge, some of the sources go through, and the others disappear. When they diverge, one neuronal source sometimes generates more than one identical one. In addition, some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which can no longer be called neuronal sources diverge from some neuronal sources. In addition, in the same kind of continuous sensation and memory, the sensation's source and the sensory image's source are continuous. Such a continuous source could be called the same kind of (continuous) sensation and sensory image's source. Let us look over the first half of such continuous sources' flow, disappear, convergence, and divergence. The last half will be explained in detail in the following chapter.
    If some of sensory groups do not function, some neuronal sources are not caused and something is not sensed. For example 1, when the eyes are tightly closed, nothing can be seen. For example 2, when the retinae have some disorders, at least a part of the visual field has a defect. Even if sensory groups function, if some of the following neuronal groups have some disorders, it is probable that some neuronal source disappear and that something is not sensed. For example, if the optic nerves have some disorders owing to a pituitary tumor, at least a part of the visual field has a defect.
    Some neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions diverge from some sensation's neuronal sources and cause some reflexive or autonomic functions. As for reflexes, for example, some sensory nerves in a narrow sense diverge and join to some motor nerves, and their excitements and transmissions cause tendon reflexes. As for autonomic functions, from the beginning, autonomic nerves diverge wildly, and their excitements and transmissions cause various autonomic functions like the increase or decrease of the heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and so on.
    The following (1)(2)(3)(4)(5) can be distinguished in the flow.

(1) The part of a neuronal source which has not been sensed yet
(2) That which is being sensed, that is, being replayed
(3) That which has already been sensed and has not been recollected yet
(4) That which is being recollected, that is, being replayed.
(5) That which has already been recollected

(1)(2) is a sensation' s source. (3)(4)(5) will be explained closely in the following chapter. (5) causes feelings, desires, egos, and so on which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    Anyway, the time of (1)(2)(4)(5) is milliseconds, and that of (3) is from milliseconds to tens of years. That is because (3) can be memorized and stored.

MEMORIES

EACH KIND OF MEMORY

    The properties which a sensation's neuronal source sensed on the sensation have are recognized, the part which have those properties is cut out, and an individual image source is generated. In addition, individual images' sources generated from a sensation's neuronal source in that way, compose a sensory image' source. That is, a sensation's source and a sensory image's source is continuous. Accordingly, things appearing on a sensation and a sensory image are alike. For example, a visual sensory image is similar to things appearing on a visual sensation, and an auditory sensory image is similar to things appearing on an auditory sensation. From the beginning, the source in which a sensation's source and a sensory image's source are continuous in such a way can be called the "Same Kind of (Continuous)" sensation's source and sensory image's source in general, and the Visual Kind of (Continuous) sensation's source and sensory image's source, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) sensation's source and sensory image's source, and so on in particular. In addition, the functions treating such a continuous source can be called the Same Kind of (Continuous) sensation and memory, and the Visual Kind of (Continuous) sensation and memory, the Auditory Kind of (Continuous) sensation and memory, and so on in particular.
    Each kind of neuronal source after being sensed and the functions treating it in a broad sense can be called Each Kind of Memory. Accordingly, the following kinds of memories are possible.

[m]In general, a kind of memory, and in each individual, a memory
  [m1]In general, the visual kind of memory or visual memories, and in each individual, a visual memory
    [m1-1]In general, the visual kind of memory as if with one eye or visual memories as if with one eye, and in each individual, a visual memory as if with one eye
    [m1-2]In general, the visual kind of memory as if with both eyes or visual memories as if with both eyes, and in each individual, a visual memory as if with both eyes
  [m2]In general, the auditory kind of memory or auditory memories, and in each individual, an auditory memory
    [m2-1]In general, the auditory kind of memory as if with one ear or auditory memories as if with one ear, and in each individual, an auditory memory as if with one ear
    [m2-2]In general, the auditory kind of memory as if with both ears or auditory memories as if with both ears, and in each individual, an auditory memory as if with both ears
  [m3]In general, the olfactory kind of memory or olfactory memories, and in each individual, an olfactory memory
    [m3-1]In general, the olfactory kind of memory as if with one nasal cavity or olfactory memories as if with one nasal cavity, and in each individual, an olfactory memory as if with one nasal cavity
    [m3-2]In general, the olfactory kind of memory as if with both nasal cavity or olfactory memories as if with both nasal cavities, and in each individual, an olfactory memory as if with both nasal cavities
  [m4]In general balancing kind of memory or balancing memories, and in each individual, a balancing memory
  [m5]In general, the taste kind of memory or taste memories, and in each individual, a taste memory
  [m6]In general, the somatic kind of memory or somatic memories, and in each individual, a somatic memory
  [m7]In general, Autonomic kinds of memories or autonomic memories, and in each individual, autonomic memories

    However, the difference of the degrees of their development among species of animals is very large. In human beings, because they hear, speak, read, and write words, visual and auditory kinds are developed very much and overwhelm or replace the other kinds, and so the others hardly exist or function. Accordingly, most of the explanation in this chapter is that of visual and auditory memories. In other species, it is probable that some of the other kinds are developed more than in human beings and that olfactory memories are developed above all in some species of terrestrial vertebrates.
    Most of the functions which will be explained in this chapter function in each kind of memory. A few functions function beyond each kind. In this chapter, if there are no words like "functioning in each kind of memory", the sentences will imply it. When some functions "function beyond each kind", such words will never be omitted.
    The following words of recognition, cut, generation, renewal, memorization, storage, arousal, recollection, and so on designate countable functions each of which functions in each branch in a diverging and converging neuronal group. For example, if there are a hundred branches in a diverging neuronal group, there can be a hundred or less of memorizations, or storages. Accordingly, they are used as countable nouns in these books.
    Each memory consists of the following functions.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP DIVERGING ONE AFTER ANOTHER

    In each kind of memory, a sensation's source just sensed and some individual images' sources just recollected go through a neuronal group diverging one after another while being recognized and cut out. Such a diverging neuronal group can be called Each Kind of "Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging" (One after Another). There is one diverging memorial neuronal group in each kind of memory. Though there is one pair strictly, a pair of neuronal groups is looked upon a neuronal group in these books.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' RECOGNITIONS, CUTS, AND GENERATIONS

    In each kind of memory, not only the kind of sensation's source just sensed but also the kind of individual sensory images' sources just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another. By this, individual images' sources' recollections cause some others' recollections through recognitions, and complex images' sources and associations' sources are recollected. In addition, more detailed individual images' sources can be generated from those already generated.
    In each kind of memory, while the kind of sensation's source just sensed and the kind of individual sensory images' sources just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, some properties like frequencies, spatial arrangements, temporal arrangements, and their changes, and so on which each of some parts of them has are recognized, and those parts are classified by some neuronal functions on the basis of similarity one after another. This can be called Individual Images' (Sources') "Recognition" or Being Recognized. For example 1, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, the spatial arrangement of a mouth, a nose, two eyes, two ears, and a head which the part of a mammal's face of the visual sensation's source has is recognized, and that part is classified as a mammal's face. Next, the size of the head, the quantity of hair, and so on are recognized, and that part is classified as the face of an ape, human being, or so. For example 2, the spatial arrangement of having a head and four limbs is recognized, its temporal change of walking on two legs is recognized, the degree of doing so upright is recognized, and that part is classified as the body of an ape, human being, or so.
    In addition, in each kind of memory, while the kind of sensation's source just sensed and the kind of individual sensory images' sources just recollected go through the kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, while some properties which some parts of those sources have are recognized, and while those parts are classified one after another, some of those parts are cut out by some nervous functions. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Cut" or Being Cut Out. For example, the parts of the face and the body are cut out in the above examples.
    After recognized and cut out in such ways, individual images' sources are generated. For example, after the properties of the spatial arrangement of a mouth, a nose, two eyes, two ears, and a head, and properties of some others are recognized and after that part is cut away off the background of the sky, the forest, town, and so on, an individual image's source of a certain human being's face is generated. An individual image's (source's) recognition and cut can also be called the Individual Image's (Source's) Generation, Being Generated. An individual image's generation consists of its recognition, classification, and cut. In addition, the individual images sources which are being or has just been recognized, classified, and cut out can be called individual images' Sources Just Generated.
    More than one individual image's source can be generated from a sensation's source just sensed. For example, individual images' sources of his or her face, body, hair, clothes, shoes are generated from a certain person sensed on a visual sensation.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES

    Individual images' sources just generated are memorized and stored in the following way.
    There are some, actually, a lot of selective and specialized neuronal groups, which were explained earlier, in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another which individual images' sources just generated go through. While each of them goes through, it activates a selective and specialized neuronal group. That is, each neuron in it which excites and transmits with a certain frequency activates a neuron in a selective and specialized neuronal group which has the capability of being activated and exciting and transmitting with that frequency. This can be called the Individual Image's (Sources') "Memorization" or Being Memorized.
    While it decrease and increase by reactivation, the activity of the selective and specialized neuronal group where an individual image's source has been memorized is retained for a while. This can be called the Individual Image's (Source's) "Storage" or Being Stored.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF RECOGNITION AND SIMILARITY

    In each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, individual images' sources are recognized, cut out, memorized, and stored, and classified. Accordingly, similar individual images' sources are memorized and stored in close places. Accordingly, similar images' sources can be recollected spatially and temporally close, and can compose a complex image. For example, in the visual kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another, to a certain person's individual images' sources, other persons' are closer than other animals' are. Accordingly, the individual images' sources of human beings can be recollected spatially and temporally closer than those of other animals can. When we classify things, we sometimes use "tree structures", which have already existed and functioned in memories.

EACH KIND OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUP CONVERGING ON THE REPLAY

    When some neuronal groups memorizing and storing some individual images' sources excite and transmit, those individual images' sources proceed to the replay. This is their arousals. However, while there are a lot of neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources, there is one (pair of) replay in each kind of replay, and so the neuronal ways from the former to the latter converge. Accordingly, not all the individual images' sources arisiing reach the replay, and not all of them are replayed or recollected, and some of them sometimes disappear. Such neuronal ways converging on the replay can be called Each Kind of Memorial Neuronal Group Converging (on the Replay). In addition, each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another and memorial neuronal group converging to the replay can be called Each Kind of Memorial Neuronal Group Diverging and Converging. After all, memorial neuronal groups diverge and converge.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' (COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES') AROUSALS ON THE BASIS OF RECOGNITION AND SIMILARITY

    In each kind of memory, some properties which the neuronal sources just sensed and just recollected have are recognized, while individual images' sources are generated or renewed in the above way, the part following those recognition of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another excites and transmits, that excitement and transmission causes the neuronal group memorizing and storing some individual images' sources' on the basis of similarity, and those individual images' sources arise. This can be called individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity.
    As was explained above, in each kind of memorial neuronal group converging one after another, the more similar individual images' sources are, the closer they are memorized and stored. Accordingly, by individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity, similar individual images' sources arise spatially and temporarily close, and compose complex images' sources. Accordingly, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity can be called Complex Images' Sources' Arousals on that of them. For example, a particular human being is recognized, the individual images' sources of a lot of particular human beings arise on the basis of recognition and similarity and they compose an complex image's source of general human beings.
    Individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity make it possible for us to recognize and think of general things in advance of those of particular things. For example, it is not that this or that particular tiger is dangerous, but that general tigers are so. If we always examined whether each individual is dangerous or not, we could not survive.
    However, individual images' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity are caused only in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging, and only the same kind of individual images' sources arise through them.

NEURONAL WAYS AMONG INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF RECOGNITION AND SIMILARITY

    In individual images' sources' (complex images' sources') arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity, the part from recognitions to neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources of each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging one after another can be called "Neuronal Way among individual images' sources on the basis of recognition and similarity".
    In order for individual images' sources to be generated acquiredly on the basis of recognition and similarity, those neuronal ways need to be innately activated to a degree. However, it is probable that their activities are gained acquiredly and that such gaining influence individual images' sources' arousals.

NEURONAL WAYS AMONG THE SAME KIND OF AND DIFFERENT KINDS OF INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS

    Not only among the branches of the same kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging, but also among the branches of different kinds of them, there are some, actually, many neuronal ways. They are not activated innately but activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness when some individual images' sources are generated or renewed and memorized temporally close. Next time some of the individual images' sources arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, some others arise, too. Because they are not only among the same kind of but also among different kinds of memorial neuronal groups diverging and converging, not only the same kind but also different kinds of individual images' sources arise and can be recollected through them, and they are beyond each kind of memory. Such neuronal ways can be called the "Neuronal Ways among (the same kind of and different kinds of) Individual Images' sources on the Basis of Temporal Closeness" In addition, their being activated acquiredly can be called their (acauired) "Formation" or Being Formed (acquiredly).

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' (COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES') AROUSALS ON THE BASIS OF TEMPORAL CLOSENESS AND NEURONAL WAYS

    The neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness among the individual images' sources which are generated or renewed and memorized and stored are activated. Next time some of those individual images' sources excite and transmit and arise, those activated neuronal ways excite and transmit, and the other individual images' sources excite and transmit and arise. This can be called "Individual Images' Sources Arousals on the Basis of Temporal closeness and Neuronal Ways".
    Moreover, those individual images' sources arising temporarily close compose complex images' sources or associations' sources. Accordingly, individual images' sources arousals on the basis of temporal closeness and neuronal ways can be called Complex Images' Sources Arousals on the Basis of Them.
    For example, when a child's mother often gets angry and hit the child, in the child's nervous system, the neuronal ways on the basis of temporal closeness between the individual visual images' sources of the mother's furious face and those of being hit are activated, and the child anticipates being hit when it sees her furious face.
    Some of the things that are caused temporarily close are causes and effects. Of course, two things' being temporarily close does not always lead to their cause and effect. However, if two things are always caused temporarily close, they are cause and effect. In daily life, if they are almost always caused temporarily close, they can be looked upon as cause and effect. Anyway, individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of temporal closeness and neuronal ways lead thinkings of cause and effect and science.
    Moreover, because those neuronal ways are among different kinds of memorial neuronal group, for example, the neuronal ways between individual visual images' sources and individual auditory images' sources are activated, different kinds of individual sensory images' sources arise temporarily close, and compose complex images consisting of different kinds of individual sensory images. For example, the complex images of the mother in the above example can consist not only of the individual visual images of her furious face but also of the individual auditory images of her furious voice. Such an image with not only a face but also a voice would be more dreadful for a child.
    From the beginning, spoken words are more dominant than written words in human beings. It is important for complex images to contain some individual images of spoken words. For example, a child's complex images' containing the individual auditory images of its nickname deepens the attachment to it. If its nickname was represented as written words, the attachment would not deepen.

IMAGE TO IMAGE NEURONAL WAYS

    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of recognition and similarity and neuronal ways among them on that of temporal closeness can be called Neuronal Ways among Individual Images Sources or Image to Image Neuronal Ways.
  By the way, the spatial closeness of individual images' sources composing complex images' sources is secured by the consistency of sources in the necessary properties of neuronal sources explained earlier. All the necessary properties of neuronal sources are surely necessary for complex images to be caused. However, the most important of them is the following.

(1) The activations and activities of selective and specialized neuronal group memorizing and storing individual images' sources
(2) The activations and activities of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of recognition and similarity
(3) The activations and activities of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness.

    Moreover, the most important of (1)-(3) is (3) because they form the difference among individuals acquiredly and because they make it possible for human beings to think of cause and effect.

FUNCTIONS BEYOND EACH KIND OF SENSATION AND MEMORY

    After all, individual images' sources' recognitions, generations, renewals, memorizations, and storages, and individual images' sources' arousals on the basis of recognition and similarity function only in each kind of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging and function not beyond but in each kind of memory. In contrast, the activations, activities, excitements, and transmissions of the neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness function among not only the same kind of but also different kinds of memorial neuronal group diverging and converging and function not only in but also beyond each kind of memory.
    However, each kind of individual images' sources arising go through each kind of memorial neuronal group converging, and some of them are replayed and recollected by each kind of replay. Those arousals, replay, and recollection function not beyond but in each kind of memory.
    When we look back, we find that it is only the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness and the consistency of different kinds of sources which was explained earlier that clearly function beyond each kind of sensation and memory.

THE LOCATION OF MEMORIAL NEURONAL GROUPS

    Each kind of sensation, memorial neuronal group diverging and converging, and replay are localized to a pair of lobes in the cerebrum. For example, the visual kind is localized to the pair of occipital lobes, and an auditory kind is localized to the pair of temporal lobes.
    Neuronal ways among individual images' sources on the basis of recognition and similarity is a part of each kind of memorial neuronal group converging and diverging.
    In contrast, the neuronal ways among different kinds of individual images' sources on the basis of temporal closeness are among different lobes, and their axons are in the cerebral medulla.

INDIVIDUAL IMAGES' SOURCES' AROUSALS

    First, in each kind of memory, some properties which the neuronal sources just sensed or just recollected have are recognized, and on the basis of recognition and similarity, some individual images sources arise.
    Second, after some individual images sources arise, on the basis of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, a lot of individual images' sources arise, and complex images' sources or associations' sources arise.
    In such a way at the first stage, because some properties which not only the neuronal source just sensed but also those just recollected have are recognized and because some individual images' sources arise on its basis, recollections of images can continue as an association without perceptions.

THE MEANING OF AROUSALS

    From the beginning, the word of "Arousal" or Arising have a general meaning. That a part of a function which can cause or change its necessary part is caused or changed can be called the function's Arousal or Arising. A function's arousal includes that its necessary part is not caused or changed and that another part is caused or changed, and so it overlaps with a stop. Simply, it is probable that a function stops even if it arises. Arousals here include individual images' sources' not reaching the replay in the converging neuronal group, and not being recollected though the selective and specialized neuronal group memorizing and storing them excite and transmit. Individual images' sources' are not recollected whenever they arise. The reason will be explained in the following section.

NEURONAL GROUPS' EXCITEMENTS AND TRANSMISSIONS' DISAPPEARING

    While a neuron (u) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuron (s), even if another neuron (t) transmits to the neuron (u), the neuron (u) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuron (s) with the same frequency as that of the neuron (s), regardless of, simply, ignoring the transmission of the neuron (t). That can be called (s)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or Coming Through, and (t)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing".
    While a neuronal group (U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neuronal group (S), even if another neuronal group (T) transmits to the neuronal group (U), the neuronal group (U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neuronal group (S) with the same spatial and temporal position, frequency, concentration, spatial and temporal arrangement, and their changes as those of the neuronal group (S), almost regardless of the transmission of the neuronal group (T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or Coming Through and (T)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing".
    As was explained earlier, the neuronal group from recognitions to unitary neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources is a diverging one, and the neuronal group from them to the replay is a converging one. A converging neuronal group has a lot of synapses which can be called excitements and transmissions' "concourses". At those concourses, it is a limited number (N) of neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center that does not disappear but go through and reach their destination.

EACH KIND OF LIMITING RECOLLECTION OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    As was explained in the above section, when many neuronal groups' excitements and transmissions are caused in a converging neuronal group, a limited number (N) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center while making the others disappear, go through and reach their destination. In addition, as was explained earlier, in each kind of memory, the neuronal ways from the neuronal groups memorizing and storing individual neuronal sources to the replay converge. Those were able to be called each kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay. Accordingly, even when many individual images' sources arise, a limited number (N) of them reach the replay and are recollected at once.
    This can be explained in the following way when a reproducible source's space which was explained earlier is payed attention to. Every reproducible source's space is limited. It is a limited number of sources that can occupy such a limited space. For example 1, the reproducible source's space of a visual sensory image as if with both eyes, in a human being, is about 180°ahead in the same way as that of a visual sensation with both eyes, and when a huge complex image like a complicated human relation occupies it, the others hardly appear.
    Accordingly, in each kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay, a limited number (N) or less of complex images' sources reach the replay and recollected. This can be divided into the following two cases.

(1) When N or less of complex images' sources arise, all of them are recollected.
(2) When more than N of complex images' sources arise, N of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center are recollected.

The above case of (2) can be called a recollection's "Saturation" or Being Saturated.
    However, that limited number (N) varies depending on the situation. When large complex images' sources which consist of a lot of individual images' sources are recollected, they occupy most of the reproducible source's space, and the number N gets small. Simply, when we think complicated things, N gets smaller.
    "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" defines limiting functions in the following way.

Each element of the set of functions (F = (f1,f2,…)) can arise in a certain situation (S), and
in another situation (LS) which limits F which are actually caused to not more than a number (N), which fluctuate in another situation (FS),
in the case where not more than N of F arise (this case being C1),
all of them are caused with F's simple capability of being caused without LS (this ability or capability being A),
and in the case where more than N of F arise (this case being C2),
N of them which have the above ability (A) and have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others in LS (this ability or capability being AEO) are caused with A and AEO.
In those, the set of functions (F), the situation (LS) which limits F, and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), elements of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called the "Limited Functions" (lf) belonging LF, the situation (LS) can be called LF or lf's "Limiting Situation", and the ability in C1 (A) can be called lf's "Simple Ability or Capability of Being Caused", and that in C2 (AEO) can be called lf's "Ability or Capability of Being Caused While Excluding Others respectively.
    In those, a limited function's capability of being caused is, in C1, its simple capability of being caused (A), and, in C2, its simple capability of being caused (A) before entering LS and its capability of being caused while excluding others (AEO) in LS. Such an ability or capability can be called the limited function's "Tendency" to be caused or the "Habit" of the limited function's being caused, too.

Let us apply this to recollections of complex images.

(S-R) Situations of recollections of complex images

    Direct situations of recollections of complex images are the recognized properties which some parts of a sensation's source just sensed and some individual images' sources just recollected have. The arousals of individual images' sources begin with these recognitions on the basis of recognition and similarity and continue on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways. For example, when the building of our school or office is seen, the interpersonal relations in it are associated.

(LS-R) Limiting situations of recollections of complex images

    That each kind of memorial neuronal group from the memorizations and storages to the replay converges and that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, and the closest to the center, while making the others disappear, reach the replay are the limiting situations in recollections.

(FS-R) The situation where N fluctuate in recollections

    First, directly, it is the position and width at which complex images sources' excitements and transmissions occupy each kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay. Second, as a result, it is the position and width at which sources recollected as complex images occupy the reproducible source's space. Even if one complex image is recollected which occupy its space at the center and at large width, N gets small and can be one. In contrast, when complex images' sources occupy only peripheral and small space, N gets larger. For example, when one's boy or girl friends are recollected, N gets smaller, and when other persons are recollected, N gets larger.

(lf-R) limited functions of recollections of complex images

    Let the set of the complex images' sources which can arise in a certain situation (S) be G = (g1,g2,…). Then, while it can be looked upon as G's arousals that the neuronal groups memorizing and storing G excite and transmit and that G go through each kind of memorial neuronal group converging on the replay, it can be looked upon as G's being caused that G reach the replay and that G are recollected. Moreover, G are caused with the limitation by another situation (LS-R). Accordingly, G is the set of limited functions of recollections of complex images (F-R), and each of G is a limited function and is a limited function of recollections of complex images (lf-R).

(LF-R) A limiting recollection of complex images as a limiting function

    The above F-R, LS-R, and the other functions treating F-R are a limiting function, are a limiting function of recollections of complex images (LF-R), and can be called each "Kind of Limiting Recollection of complex images" or a Limiting Recollection of Complex Images or a Limiting Recollection. The other functions treating F-R in limiting recollections include each kind of replay.

THE TOTALITY OF ALL THE KINDS OF LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    However, when we only take account of each kind of limiting recollection, each complex image, which consists of different kinds of individual sensory images, is metaphorically sliced into each kind of sensory image. We need to take account of the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections in the nervous system of an individual in order to keep the original of a complex image which consists of different kinds of individual images' sources. As was explained earlier, the individual images' sources which compose a complex image's source arise both on (1) the basis of recognition and similarity and on (2) that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways. By the arousals on (2), different kinds of individual sensory images' sources arise, go through the converging parts of different kinds memorial neuronal groups, reach different kinds of replays, and are recollected in different kinds of limiting recollections. Accordingly, as the nervous functions which are premised to cause complex image in the nervous system of an individual, its source and the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections need to be enumerated.
    However, not all the kinds of recollections always reach saturation which was explained earlier. In human beings, visual and auditory kinds of memories are exclusively dominant, and the other kinds are almost nothing. Moreover, there can be complex images where the visual kind or the auditory kind is exclusively dominant, and the other kinds of recollections do not reach saturation. For example, in thinking where auditory images of spoken words are dominant, it is probable that the visual kind of recollection does not reach saturation. Such thinking could be more effective if it used visual images like graphs, too and made the visual kind of recollection reach saturation, too.
    Nonetheless, the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections consists of limiting functions, and the totality is a limiting function. The limited number (N), though it fluctuate considerably, or less of complex images are recollected at once in that totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections in the nervous system of an individual.
    In addition, though visual and auditory kinds of sensory images are dominant in human beings and though the other kinds are next to nothing, it cannot said that the other kinds never exist.
    Accordingly, in the nervous system of an individual, the part which are premised to cause complex images are their sources and the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections.

THE TOTALITY OF ALL THE KINDS OF LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES WITH INTENSITY = RECOLLECTION OF IMAGES

    As was explained earlier, each thing appearing as a mental phenomenon has quantity as a property like brightness, distance, loudness, clearness, intensity, and so on. Such quantity can be called the "Intensity" of the thing appearing or "Intensity Appearing". Also each individual image has its intensity, and also each complex image has its intensity as the average of the intensities of the individual images which compose it. It is premised that such intensity is fundamentally caused by the property of the source of the thing appearing like the density of its excitement and transmission.
    However, some intensity appearing is premised to be caused by some inevitable functions of some replays. For example, something appearing fades in, reaches its peak, and fades out. Such change of intensity is premised to be caused by some inevitable functions of replays, which is not intentional like in movies but natural.
    When we need to emphasize that replays, after all, recollections contain the functions causing the change of intensity. we can use the words of the "totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections of complex images with intensity. After all, they can be called in the following ways according to the emphasis at the time.

(the totality of) (all the kinds of) limiting recollections (of (complex) images(' sources)) (with intensity)

(complex) images' (sources') being (limitingly) recollected (with intensity)

things' being (limitingly) recollected (as (complex) images) (with intensity)

That is, the mere words of "recollections" designate the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections of complex images with intensity in the nervous system of an individual in these books. The recollections of images are at the beginning of feelings, desires, and egos, which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". The words of the recollection of images are used in their explanations. Those words designate the totality of all the kinds of limiting recollections of complex images with intensity in the neuronal system of an individual, which was defined here.

PERCEPTIONS

    In each kind of sensation and memory, the properties which some parts of the neuronal source just sensed have are recognized, some complex images' sources are recollected spatially and temporally close to those parts on the basis of recognition and similarity in the same kind of sensation and memory and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways in the same kind of and different kinds of sensations and memories. This is a perception. For example, the properties which the part of the neuronal source just sensed of a certain person's face have are recognized, the complex images' sources of that person's face in the past and those of general human beings are recollected spatially and temporally close to that part, the person is recognized as that person and recognized as a human being, and the subtle change of that person's face, for example, his or her aging is recognized.
    Moreover, the properties of some parts of those complex images' sources just recollected have are recognized, and some other complex images' sources are recollected on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, and the same are repeated. This is an association, which will be explained below.

ASSOCIATIONS

    In the time of seconds or more, some parts of the neuronal sources just sensed are recognized, on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, some complex images' sources are limitingly recollected, some parts of those complex images' sources just recollected are recognized, on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neuronal ways, some complex images' sources are limitingly recollected, and the same are repeated. Such a series of recollections is an association.
    A series of complex images recollected in an association can be looked upon as a huge complex image which is prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in complex images. In addition, an association can be looked upon as a recollection prolonged temporarily. Such can be included in recollections.
    When N of complex images are limitingly recollected in the first recollection, even if each of N is recognized and causes A of complex images' arousals and if N*A arise in the second recollection, N of them are limitingly recollected. Moreover, in the second recollection, not all the N of them are recognized and cause A of arousals, but M (N>M) of them are recognized and cause A of arousals. The complex images which are recollected in associations are limited in such a way. For example, the perceived building of school or office causes the recollection of some interpersonal relations in it, but the most important one is recognized and causes the recollection of the way to cope with it.

PERCEPTIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS

    The following (1)(2)(3) are possible as the relation of perceptions and association.

(1) An association starts from a perception.
(2) an old association is interrupted by a perception, and a new association starts from the perception.
(3) an old association is changed by a perception, and the association changed starts.

(1) seems to happen when we wake up in the morning. However, usually, because we have been dreaming when we wake up, actually, an association starts from a dream and a perception. For example, when we wake up from a dream and when we perceive our bed room, we start to doubt the reality of the dream, and start to wonder why we had such a dream, and so on. Pure (1) happens when we are suddenly awaken from deep sleep other than REM sleep or from complete loss of consciousness. However, such a state may well be looked upon as being still "stupor". (2) happens when an unexpected thing happen suddenly. For example, it happens when we are visited by an unexpected person on a holiday which had no schedule and when we start to wonder whether we should make some coffee or tea for him or her. (3) is our daily life.
    In such ways, associations do not expand unlimitedly. As long as we are awake or are dreaming, some complex images are recollected continuously, but not all of them are continuous as a clear association.

LINGUAL IMAGES

    In each human being, from the neonatal period to the senile period, many spoken words are sensed on an auditory sensation, many written words and signs are sensed on a visual sensation, and many complex images' sources of words are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected. Such sources can be called Lingual Images' Sources or Lingual Images.
    While a lot of lingual images' sources are generated, a lot of images' sources other than lingual images' are generated, and the neuronal ways among them are activated. In such a way, more and more complicated images' sources are generated, and more and more complicated recollections, perceptions, associations, thinkings, and so on are developed.
    After all, lingual images' sources are sensed, generated, some of them are recollected, and some of them are spoken, written, and transmitted. Those are "Words" or "Language".

IDEAS OR THOUGHTS

    Each of what are called "ideas" or "thoughts" like Copernican system, evolutionism, liberal right, democratic system, and so on is a huge complex image or a series of complex images as are recollected in an association. In addition, they are transmitted with long words. They are not formed only by sensations, perceptions, and memories. Their formation in individuals needs not only them but also egos and thinkings which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGS". In addition, their formation in the human society needs transmission, discussion, and so on with words, pictures, movies, and so on.

MEMORIZATIONS AND STORAGES OF COMPLEX IMAGES OR IDEAS

    If complex images or ideas were not memorized or stored, we would need to sense, perceive, memorize, think, and form them again and again from nothing. We do not need to do so. When they are recollected, associated, and thought, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which compose them and the neuronal ways among them are activated. Next time their opening parts are recognized, most of them can be recollected or associated. Those activations in themselves can be looked upon as the memorizations and storages of complex images or ideas' sources.
    However, while the recollections of small complex images or individual images are done in one recollection, those of huge complex images or ideas are done in a series of recollections, that is, in an association.

BEING FORGOTTEN

    Every neuron's and every neuronal group's activity decreases and disappears sooner or later. The activities of the neuronal groups storing the individual images' sources composing a complex image's source and those of the neuronal ways among them also decrease and disappear sooner or later. By the natural decrease or disappearance of their activities, a complex image's source's losing the capability of being recollected can be called the (complex) image's (source's) Being Forgotten or the thing's Being Forgotten.

LOSS OF MEMORY

    Because of some causes, in an animal individual, all the complex images' sources' losing the capability of being recollected irreversibly can be called "Loss of Memory", Memories' Being Lost, complete forgetting, or forgetting all.
    Only the animals having memories lose memories. The animals having no memories cannot lose them. As long as an animal exists and functions, loss of memory is rarely caused. Are brain death, vegetative state, and so on any exceptions? However, they are looked upon as death. It is clear that loss of memory is caused when the animal dies.

RENEWALS OF MEMORIES

    After a complex image's source was generated, memorized, stored, when the sensation's source or its source which caused it are sensed or recollected and recognized, its source is generated, memorized, and stored again. As a result, the neuronal groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which compose it and the neuronal ways among them are activated again. This can be called the "Renewal" of the (complex) Image('s Source) or Its Being Renewed, the Renewal of its Memory or Its Being Renewed, or Renewal of Memory. Simply, what is seen, heard, felt, and thought again and again cannot be forgotten.
    As was explained earlier, though every complex image is being forgotten, when it is renewed frequently, its activity are retained, and it is not forgotten. Renewals of Memories are important parts of memories. If there were no renewals, complex images would only be forgotten, and there would be no memories. Accordingly, not only renewals of memories are included in memories but also when renewals needs to be emphasized, memories are called Memories and Renewals in these books.

ATTENTION

    Concerning visual sensations, we can move our eyeballs, head, and go closer to a thing to see it largely and clearly. Concerning auditory sensations, though we cannot move our auricles like some other animals, we can move our head and go closer to a thing to hear its sound loudly and clearly. We can do the same concerning olfactory sensations. Concerning balancing sensations, we can change our bodies' movements and postures to reduce dizziness. Concerning taste sensations, if we do not put a piece of food into our mouth, we cannot taste it, and we can chew it well to make its taste intense and clear. Concerning somatic sensations, if we want to know a thing's touch, we can touch it, and if it is too hot or spiny, we can let go of it. Concerning autonomic sensations, though they are not as clear as somatic sensations, if we have severe palpitation and dyspnea, we should rest, if we are hungry, we should eat, and if we are thirsty, we should drink. Such voluntary movements like moving one's eyeballs, moving one's head, going closer to the source can be called Voluntary Movements "Changing Sensations".
    There is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are recognized or generated, memorized, or stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones. For example, things which are only sensed vaguely on the periphery of the visual field with no movement of our eyeballs or head are rarely done so.
    In addition, there is little possibility that any parts of the sources which are not sensed intensely or clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are overlapped with complex images, that is, perceived.
    The possibility is larger that some parts of the sources which are sensed intensely and clearly by voluntary movements changing sensations are recognized and generated, memorized, and stored or renewed as individual images or complex ones.
    However, that possibility gets much larger in the following cases. As will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", each ego can manipulate images which are being recollected in the ways of bringing them closer, transforming, combining, dissolving, and so on. The possibility is much larger that the complex images' sources which are recollected and manipulated by egos are memorized and stored or renewed and that their activities are maintained. That is because, though images are vague and transient, egos hold them steady to a degree by manipulating them.
    Even if the ego does not manipulate the complex images when they are generated, if they are recollected and if the ego manipulate them after a while, they are memorized and stored steadily. For example, after we see a person for the first time, if we think of him or her again and again like what is he or she, why he or she said such a thing, and so on, we cannot forget him or her.
    In such a way, an ego's manipulating complex images' sources can be called the ego's "Attention" to the sources or the ego's Paying Attention to the sources.

RELATIONS WITH OTHER FUNCTIONS

    Besides the memories which have been explained so far, afterimage, sensory memories, instant memories, and short-term or long-term memories can be recognized which are similar to them or are included in them. They will be explained in the following sections.

AFTERIMAGE

    Each neuron's one super-short-term excitement and transmission which compose a neuronal group's excitement and transmission continues for milliseconds (thousandths of a second). In contrast, every reproducible source changes every moment. For example, a running animal's spatial arrangement of the limbs which is included in visual reproducible sources do so. In such a way, after a reproducible source have changed or disappeared, the neuronal source continues exciting and transmitting at least for milliseconds. As a result, what is called an "afterimage" is caused at least for milliseconds.
    It is one of the most important that temporal changes are appearing at present like tracks by afterimages.

SENSORY MEMORIES

    While some parts of a neuronal source just sensed is recognized and cut out in an individual image's generation, some parts of it sometimes remains as they are without recognitions or so for tenths of a second or for seconds, and are sometimes recognized or so thereafter. This can be called a "Sensory" Memory. For example, the short words spoken by another person and sensed on an auditory sensation, which were not paid attention to, are sometimes paid attention to after tenths of a second. This is a sample of auditory sensory memories. However, only short spoken words can be paid attention to in such a way, and long spoken words cannot. In addition, only when there has been some silence after the words were spoken, they can be paid attention to in such a way. When the words has been being spoken without a pause, they cannot be paid attention to in such a way.
    A sensory memory is guessed to be caused either by a prolonged afterimage or by a specialized neuronal group's long excitement and transmission.
    Sensory memories also help temporal changes appear at present.

INSTANT MEMORIES

    While the individual image's sources which have just been generated is memorized and stored, they are recollected instantly for less than seconds and disappear. This can be called an "Instant" Memory, Instant Recollection of images, Instant Recollection, or images' Being Recollected instantly, and such images can be called Instant Images.
    By afterimages and sensory memories which were explained above and by instant memories, temporal changes are appearing at present. Simply, by comparing the past which are remaining at present and the present, we know changes. Instant memories are included in memories and recollections in these books.
    While the basic memories explained earlier are caused by way of generation→memorization→storage→arousal→recollection, instant memories can be caused either by the same way or by way of generation→arousal→recollection where there are no memorization or storage. Perhaps, both the ways function.

SHORT OR LONG MEMORIES

    After its generation, memorization, storage, and instant memory, when a complex is not attended to, the activities of the neuronal group memorizing and storing the individual images' sources which compose it and those of the neuronal ways among them decrease and disappear in a short time, maybe in seconds. When it is attended in seconds, their activities are retained, and it has the capability of being recollected after more than seconds. That is also called a "Short" or "Long" Memory. Of course, short or long memories are included in memories.
    They are what is called "what have not been attended to (what each of us has not been conscious of) are forgotten soon" or "what have been attended to (what each of us has been conscious of) are well remembered" in our daily life and science. However, each of us does not need to think of difficult things. When each of us rethinks of the perceived or recollected things, some short or long memories have already been established. For example, we never forget another person who we talk with for hours and think of again and again for days. In contrast, we do not remember all the faces of those who we pass by on the way to school or office unless they are very handsome, beautiful, or strange.
    The distinction between short and long memories is comparative. However, it is probable that long ones involve some functions which short ones do not involve.

COMPLEX IMAGES' SOURCES = IMAGES

    When the words of "complex images' sources" are always used, sentences are complicated. Accordingly, they are also called Images in these books.

ONTOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    In human beings, at delivery, the sensations excluding visual and auditory ones have been almost fully developed. In the first half of the baby period (0 to 6 months), visual and auditory ones get almost fully developed.
    From the late prenatal period, complex images' sources start to be generated, after delivery they get steadily generated. However, the memories in themselves explained so far get fully developed around the age of 3. Accordingly, we cannot remember the experiences before it. After it, not memories are developed but complex images' sources increase while they are generated, forgotten, and renewed. With aging, abilities of memories do not decrease in general. The ability to memorize reach the peak around the age of 15 and decrease slowly after it.

PHYLOGENESIS OF SENSATIONS AND MEMORIES

    In these books, by definition, animals have some sensations. In general, terrestrial vertebrates and some terrestrial arthropods have the most complicated sensations of all the animals on the earth. That is because auditory sensations cannot be much evolved underwater. In addition, some mammals have the most complicated sensations of all the vertebrates. That is because they have the largest cerebrums and sensory organs. It cannot be said that human beings have the most complicated ones. At least, human beings' olfactory ones have degenerated. In the sensations of human beings, visual ones and auditory ones are more complicated, and olfactory ones are simpler. Though the distinction between somatic sensations and autonomic ones is clear in vertebrates, it is vague in the other animals. Anyway, the functions which are premised to cause something appearing on a sensation including touches, pains, hotness, coldness, smells, tastes, and so on can be called Sensations. For example, simply, if a jellyfish or sea anemone feels anything, the function causing it is a sensation.
    At least, vertebrates have the memories which have been explained so far. Human beings have the most complicated and the richest memories, some mammals have comparatively complicated and rich ones and the other vertebrates and have simpler and poorer ones. Such simpler and poorer memories are included in memories in these books.
    Not all the animals that have sensations have the memories which have been explained. For example, though a jellyfish, sea anemone, and so on have such sensations as tactile ones, it is inconceivable that any images are recollected in them. It is conceivable that they have some memories which do not accompany any recollections. Such memories as do not accompany any recollections of images are not included in memories in these books.
    All the animals that have memories have sensations. That is because some parts of the sources just sensed are recognized and cut out, and some individual images are generated for the first time. The animals which have sensations and memories evolve from the animals which have sensations and no memories. The perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, egos, thoughts, and so on contain some recollections of images. Accordingly, the animals having such functions have sensations and memories. The animals having such functions evolve from the animals which have sensations and memories and none of such functions.
    Accordingly, sensations or sensations and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Sensations or More". In addition, sensations and memories or sensations and memories and the functions which could not exist without them can be called "Memories or More".
    The relation of recollections→perceptions→associations→feelings→desires→egos→thinkings is the same as that of sensations→memories. For example, all the animals having egos have recollections, perceptions, associations, feelings, and desires, and they evolve from the animals having such functions and no egos.
    Human beings have the most complicated memories or more of all the animals so far on the earth. Moreover, on the earth from now on, it is possible that some animals having more complicated memories or more than human beings will evolve from them or from some other animals. From the beginning, human beings can evolve, too.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS


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