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A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

BASIC WORDS

  In this book, this "A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" is also called "This Book". In addition, "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and this book are also called "These Books" in these books. This book is on the basis of the first two. Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after they are read. However, I think that the main part of this book can be understood without them. These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as a chapter of a book. These books as a book are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" in these books. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or these books in these books.
  In this book, the words of materials, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, voluntary movements, synthetic functions, emotions, impulses, egos, intentional functions, manipulations of images, thinkings, and so on designate the same things as "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
  In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because the species of living things and human beings are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designate their individuals.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions, and the whole or part of a function causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions directly or indirectly. However, when the words "being caused or changed", "causing or changing", and "directly or indirectly" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed is also called "Being Caused", causing or changing is also called "Causing", and the words "being changed", "changing", and "directly or indirectly" will be omitted in these books. In addition, it is impossible to enumerate "some other materials and functions" which a function causes and which are caused by a function. For example, a neural group's excitement and transmission causes some other neural groups' excitements and transmissions, the consumption of oxygen and glucose, muscle groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, egos, thinkings, voluntary movements, speaking and writing words, interpersonal functions, the changes of the self's and other persons' emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on, those of the society and the nature, and so on, and they are endless. Accordingly, the self-evident have been and will be omitted in all the books in "OUR-EXISTENCE.NET". For example, when a writer of OUR-EXISTENCE.NET describes a neural group's excitement and transmission, he or she writes that it is caused by some presynaptic groups' excitements and transmissions and causes some postsynaptic groups' excitements and transmissions, and omits its consumption of oxygen and glucose.

POSSIBILITIES

  The possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other materials or properties including functions are caused. For example, the possibility that a neural cell's excitement and transmission is caused includes the possibilities that some presynaptic cells excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are caused.
  The possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The quantity can be obtained through actually measured probabilities, their products, and so on.

NATURE AND SITUATIONS

  In that the possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other materials or properties including functions are caused, "some other materials or properties including functions" can be called the "Situation" of or for the material or the property including the function. For example 1, some presynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are the situation of or for a neural cell's excitement and transmission. For example 2, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to animals, human societies, parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friend, partners, children, school, office, and so on are an individual's situation. For example 3, an individual's situation which is enumerated above and Self's emotions, autonomic functions, perception, association, and so on are an ego's situation.
  In addition, the situation of a species of living things can be called the "Nature" of or for the species. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to herbivores, and so on are the nature for a species of carnivores.
  The situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function includes some other parts of and some other functions of the individual. Of course, it includes some materials and functions other than the individual's. Of the situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function, some other parts of and some other functions of the individual can be called its "Bodily Situation" or "Internal Situation", and the others can be called its "External Situation". For example, the individual's emotions, autonomic functions, perceptions, and associations are an ego's internal situation, and his or her parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friends, school or office, and so on are its external situation.

ABILITIES

  In contrast to possibilities, the possibility that a function is caused which is intrinsic to it can be called the "Ability" or "Capability" of the function's being caused, the Ability, Capability, or "Activity" of the function, those which the function has. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is being joined from some presynaptic cells, having a lot of receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and axon, joining to some postsynaptic cells, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters, and so on. In addition, when the necessary function (which was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES") which a material has is self-evident, the ability of a function can be called the Ability, Capability, or Activity of the material. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission can be called the activity of a neural cell.
  The ability has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The various ways to measure abilities have been devised. For example, the ability of an individual's memory and thinking is measured with some kinds of psychological tests.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", materials and properties including functions have some properties without which they can no more be looked upon them, and such properties can be called their Necessary Properties. For example, a neural cell which does not have the ability to excite and transmit can no more be looked upon as a neural cell, and so it is a necessary property of neural cells. In addition, when some necessary properties involve some functions, those functions can be called Necessary Functions. For example, the ability to excite and transmit involves the function of excitement and transmission, and so it is a necessary function of neural cells. By the way, generally, every function has the necessary property that its whole or part causes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions. Moreover, every function has the necessary property that its whole or part causes the wholes or parts of CERTAIN other materials or properties including functions. In that, certain other materials or properties including functions can be called its Necessary Objects. For example, though a neural cell's excitement and transmission can also cause the consumption of oxygen and glucose, that which cannot cause any postsynaptic cells' can no longer be looked upon as any neural cell's excitement and transmission, and so some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are its necessary objects. In addition, egos' necessary objects are intentional functions. In addition, in a function, the part which can cause the wholes or parts of its necessary objects directly can be called its "Necessary Part". For example, the necessary part of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is its presynaptic transmission. In addition, the necessary part of an ego involve its impulses at least.
  Now, it cannot be looked upon as a function's functioning or its being caused that its necessary part is not caused though its other part is caused, and that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are not caused. For example 1, it cannot be looked upon as a neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning that none of its exceeding of the threshold or presynaptic transmission is caused though its postsynaptic transmission is caused, and that none of its postsynaptic cells' are caused. For example 2, it cannot be looked upon as an ego's being caused that none of its pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused though its functional image is caused, that none of its impulse is caused though its pleasure and displeasure sensations are caused, or that none of its impulse reaches the cerebrums or their periphery though it is caused. Accordingly, that a function's necessary part is caused and that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused can be called the function's Functioning to its necessary objects or merely the function's Functioning or the material's functioning or merely its being caused. That is, the words "a function's being caused" designate the function's functioning to its necessary objects. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission and that at least its postsynaptic cells' post synaptic transmissions are caused is its functioning to some postsynaptic cells'.
  However, in a function which has a decisive part, when its decisive part is caused, its necessary part is caused, and the function functions. For example 1, a neural cell's excitement and transmission has its exceeding of the threshold as its decisive part, and so when it is caused, the neural cell functions. For example 2, an ego has its pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations as its decisive part, when those which have the most pleasure or the least displeasure are caused, the ego functions.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

  In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, that none of its necessary part or decisive part is caused can be called the function's "Stop" or Stopping. For example, that a neural cell's postsynaptic transmission is caused but that its misfire is caused is its excitement and transmission's stopping. Of course, that none of its postsynaptic transmission is caused is its stopping. For example 2, that its functional images are recollected but that none of them cause its impulse is an ego's stop. Of course, that none of its functional images are recollected is its stop.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

  That some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused can be called a function's "Arousal", Arising, or Beginning to Function. A function's arousal includes that none of its necessary part or decisive part is caused. That is, a function's arousal does not always mean its functioning. For example 1, in the recollection of an image, its arousal does not always mean its recollection. For example 2, in an ego, the recollection of its functional images does not always mean its functioning. Even if an ego's functional images are recollected, when they do not cause its image to emotion neural ways' excitements to transmissions, its pleasure sensations, or its impulse, that ego does not function.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

  That none of the parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part is caused can be called the function's complete stop or stopping completely. In contrast, that some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused but that its necessary part or decisive part is not caused can be called the function's incomplete stop or stopping incompletely. For example, in an ego, that its functional images are recollected but that its impulse is not caused is the ego's incomplete stop. Though the words of "incomplete" stops may make a bad impression, they are indispensable steps toward complete stops, as will be explained later.

HABITS

LIMITING FUNCTIONS AND LIMITED FUNCTIONS

Some functions have the following properties.

The group of functions(f1,f2,…) which can be caused in a certain situation being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on situations being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise, all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise, (n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others are caused
by a function(lf) limiting (F).
Then, the group of functions(F), the limiting function(lf), and the other properties or functions which treat (F) are also called a "Limiting Function", Each of the functions(f1,f2,…) is also called a "Limited Function", and the function(lf) is also called a "Substantially Limiting Function" in these books.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural ways from the neural groups memorizing and storing images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number(n) of them which excite and transmit earliest, longest, and broadest make others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
  In addition, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit earliest, longest, broadest make the others and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions.
  In addition, egos contain the limiting functions of recollections of images at the beginning and the limiting ones of impulses at the ending, and so they are limiting ones.
  After all, at once, more than one limited function can arise and can be caused, when (n) or less of limited function arise, all of them are caused, and when more than (n) of limited functions arise, (n) of them are caused. However, if such a case division is always done, the sentences will be complicated.
  In addition, actually, a lot, far from (n), of limited functions usually arise. Accordingly, (1)(2) are also called that a lot of limiting functions are caused but that (n) or less of them are caused in these books.
  In addition, again, such a number(n) fluctuates depending on the situation. For example, in a recollection of images, when an image' source occupies the converging neural group earlier, longer, and wider and when that image' source are recollected intensely, other images are recollected faintly, the other images are not recollected, and the number(n) gets small. Simply, when something is occurring to me intensely, the others do not occur.
  Accordingly, those are also called that "though a lot of limited functions arise, a few of them are caused" in these books.
  It is not limiting functions but limited functions that can be classified into some outlines which will be explained later.

SUBSTANTIALLY LIMITING FUNCTIONS

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", while a neural group(U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmissions of another neural group(S) which excite and transmit earlier, longer, and wider than another neural group(T), and when the neural group(T) transmits to the neural group(U), the neural group(U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmissions of the neural group(S) with the same spatial and temporal positions, frequencies, concentrations, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes as those of the neural group(S), almost regardless of the transmissions of the neural group(T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmissions' "Going Through" and (T)'s excitement and transmissions' "Disappearing". When many neural groups' excitements and transmissions occur in a converging neural group, the most early, long, and early of them go through and the others disappear. These are substantially limiting functions.
  In a recollection of images, the neural ways from the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converge. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions. In addition, though impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, that is relatively equal to their converging on the cerebrums. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions. In addition, egos, which involve recollections of images at the beginning and impulses at the ending, are limiting functions.

LIMITED EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

  Egos were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". They are explained shortly in this book.
  (1)a rational system: recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to function neural way's excitement and transmission, (2)an emotional system (recollection of a functional image→the recollected functional image→an image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission→some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations→an impulse), and their confluence cause an intentional function directly. (1) and (2) and their confluence can be called a "Limited Ego", an Ego, I, a Human Being, or Intending to do an intentional function.
  Such an ego involves a limited function of a recollection of an image at the beginning and involves another limited function of an impulse at the ending. Accordingly, the following is caused.
  The group of egos(f1,f2,…) which can be caused in a certain situation being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on situations being (n),
when (n) or less of (E) arise, all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise, (n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others are caused
by a function(le) limiting (E).
The group of functions(E), the limiting function(le), and the other properties or functions which treat (E) can be called a "Limiting Ego", Each of the functions(e1,e2,…) can be called a "Limited Function", and the function(lf) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function". That is, limiting egos are included in limiting functions and limited egos are included in limited functions.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  Most of these three sections are repetitions of the counterparts of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". That is because no more appropriate explanation did not hit me, the writer of this book.
  When intentional functions are caused, the images of them are generated, memorized, and stored, and classified in the way that was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". The groups of intentional functions which are classified in such a way can be called "Outlines of Intentional Functions".
  Intentional functions can be divided into fundamental outlines. The most fundamental of them are confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing. Though intentional functions of the strongest carnivores like lions, tigers, and so on seem to be exceptions, they also escape natural disasters. Of course, herbivores run away or hide themselves from carnivores. Hiding is included in escapes. Waiting and seeing is an intentional function fit for individuals and the species to exist. For example, herbivores' running away from carnivores instantly sometimes increase the possibility of being noticed by carnivores and of being caught. Some species of carnivores wait and see until their targets come into their ranges. On the other hand, the herbivores which have come into such ranges and have been attacked run away instantly. However, those which have been caught fight desperately. Human beings escape not only carnivores and natural disasters but also themselves in violence, war, and so on. Confrontations are not the same as fighting, conflicts, and so on. For example, reconciliation is sometimes a confrontation, and going to war is sometimes an escape. Human beings need to confront their own habits to destroy, to control, and so on in order to secure the existence and liberty of living things including themselves. Those are intentional functions fit for individual and the species to exist.

OUTLINES OF EGOS

  While intentional functions are classified into their outlines in the way that was explained in the above section, the images of the outlines of intentional functions come to be generated, memorized, stored, and recollected.
  The images of the outlines of intentional functions in themselves are not functional images, are more general and abstract than functional images, and cannot cause egos or intentional functions by themselves. However, more particular and concrete functional images are recollected from them in situations, and the latter can cause egos and intentional functions. In such a way, the former can indirectly cause egos and intentional functions. In addition, even at that time, the images of outlines are often recollected as, as it were, backgrounds. For example, in interpersonal relations, when boys and girls carry out interpersonal functions and when they cause some pain like neglect or alienation again and again, the images of the outline of interpersonal escapes are recollected, and then more particular and concrete functional images of being alone, going home, or so are recollected from them in the situation.
  The group of limited egos which involve the images of an outline of intentional functions and which can cause an intentional function belonging to that outline can be called an "Outline of egos". For example, there are outlines of egos of confrontations, of escapes, and of waiting and seeing.

EGOS' HABITS

  When intentional functions are caused and when they cause some emotions, while intentional functions are classified into their outlines and while the images of their outlines are generated in the way that was explained in the above section, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Moreover, in the limited egos belonging to the same outline, the same image to emotion neural ways are activated, excite, and transmit, and as a result, the same pleasure and displeasure sensations and the same impulses are caused. Accordingly, though, as was explained earlier, in a situation and limiting ego, the limited egos whose capabilities of being caused while excluding others are caused, such capabilities are formed making an outline a unit in a plump. Such capabilities of being caused while excluding others as are formed making an outline a unit in a plump can be called strictly "Habits of Outlines of Limited Egos" and simply "Egos' Habit". Egos' habits are formed making an outline a unit in a plump. For example, when boys and girls carry out interpersonal functions and when they cause some pain like neglect or alienation again and again, general habits of interpersonal escapes are formed, and then, depending on situations, when their home is far, being alone is caused, and when it is close, going home is caused.
  Egos' habits are formed by intentional functions being caused again and again and by their causing some emotions again and again. Out of the formation of ego's habits, the decisive part is the following two.
(1)Concerning functional images, which neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources are activated? That is, which functional images are recollected?
(2)Concerning functional images, which image to emotion neural ways are activated? That is, whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused? How much is their intensity? After all, how much is impulses' intensity.
  As for (1), though the capabilities of functional images' being recollected while excluding others are directly decisive, it is the activities of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources that decide them. From the beginning, if a functional image is not generated, the ego involving it cannot be caused. For example, though extreme, in the days when there are no automobiles, the egos intending to drive them cannot be caused. However, on the level of outlines, in almost every individual, almost every functional image is generated responding with almost every situation. For example, the three ways of confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing have been prepared for any situation.
  Moreover, more than one functional image is usually recollected. However, only those which cause the most pleasure or the least displeasure autonomic sensations cause impulses and the whole of the ego, and the others do not. For example, even if we see that we should confront something, if that confrontation cause intense anxiety, we will escape it.
  Accordingly, (2) is more decisive than (1).
  As for (2) which is the most decisive, though the capabilities of impulses' being caused while excluding others are directly decisive, it is the activities of image to emotion neural ways that decide them. When some intentional functions cause some emotions again and again, the image to function neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, and that functional images come to cause that autonomic sensations. The question is the intensity and persistence of those pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and the activity and its duration of those image to emotion neural ways. In human beings, most of the habits of egos are formed by the adolescent period. However, the time from the baby period to the adolescent period is fifteen to eighteen years. The activities of the image to emotion neural ways which have been activated for such a long time are not easily reduced, and nor are the habits of the egos. For example, in a boy or girl who has been battered since the baby period, the functional images of interpersonal functions cause persistent displeasure autonomic sensations, and so its habit of interpersonal escapes can hardly be reduced. That is too severe an example. More general and close examples will be enumerated in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".

WORD USAGE CONCERNING OUTLINES

  From the beginning, the words of confrontations, escapes, waiting and seeing, and so on designate outlines. Also in our daily lives and science, such outlines are often argued. In addition, if the word of outlines is always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when unnecessary, the word of outlines is omitted, and the outline of confrontations, the outline of escapes, the outline of waiting and seeing, and so on are called simply Confrontations, Escapes, Waiting and Seeing, and so on in these books.
  In addition, temporarily, as outlines, we have found those of intentional functions and those of egos. In addition, because egos cause intentional functions directly, we find those of egos and intentional functions. However, if the words of "of intentional functions", "of egos", and so on are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear from the context whose outline it is, those words are omitted in these books.
  According to the above two, for example, the outlines of egos of confrontations are sometimes called simply Confrontations.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

  It is such habits as were explained above that are important concerning egos. In contrast, it is their abilities, which are simpler than egos' habits, that are important concerning intentional functions. For example 1, the ability to walk and that to run are important for everything. For example 2, the ability to speak words, that to write words, that to calculate, and so on are important both to work and to play. For example 3, interpersonal ability is necessary for everything.
  Interpersonal ability as an ability of intentional functions and interpersonal habits as a habit of egos need to be distinguished. When a habit of interpersonal escapes as a habit of egos is formed, few interpersonal functions are caused, through little what is called experience, and so interpersonal ability as an ability of intentional functions often stay immature. However, when that habit of interpersonal escape is reduced and when that experience increase, that interpersonal ability is formed in years. In contrast, when it is not reduced, it is not formed. Above all, when the habit of egos to escape and to patch up immature interpersonal ability is formed, it is not formed.
  When we see such things, we see that egos' habits are more important than intentional functions' abilities. Nonetheless, the latter are important for existence. It can be said that the latter are more fundamental than the former.
  On those grounds, the abilities of intentional functions are also called the ""Habits of Intentional Functions" in these books. Intentional functions' abilities or habits are decided by the activities of image to emotional neural ways and functional neural groups.

EMOTIONS' HABITS

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", emotions are important as internal situations which affect egos. For example, when interpersonal anxiety is intense, interpersonal confrontations are hardly caused, and interpersonal escapes are easily caused.
  What are decisive for mental emotions, that is, feelings, desires, and complex emotions, are whether recollected images cause pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations and how much their intensities are, after all, which image to emotion neural ways are activated and how much their activities are. Accordingly, those can be called Mental Emotions' Habits.
  By the way, most of the quantities and qualities of physical emotions, that is, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are decided innately by genes and their functions.

ASSOCIATIONS' HABITS

  What are decisive for associations are what images are recollected from recollected images, after all, the activities of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources. Those can be called Associations' Habits.
  As for thinkings, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", thinkings consist of associations and ego's manipulations of images and are included in intentional functions. Because they are intentional functions, the ability to think seems to be important. However, they are not so as far as thinkings are concerned.
  As far as thinkings are concerned, because thinkings consist of associations and egos' manipulations of images, it needs to be made clear that the part of associations depend on associations' habits, and that the part of manipulations depend on egos' habits. For example, when an image which were recollected in associations causes displeasure autonomic sensations and when an ego switch and escape that image, it depends on egos' habit to escape images.


HUMAN HABITS=PERSONALITIES
  The habits of egos, of intentional functions, of mental emotions, and of associations as were explained so far can be called "Human habits" or simply Habits. They are equal to "Personalities" in psychology.
  In such a way, the habits of autonomic functions like hearts' and lungs' contraction and expansion, digestive tracts' movements, and so on are not included in human habits or personalities. They can be called "Bodily Habits" or "Physical Habits". Our daily life and psychology tend to distinguish the two, and so do these books.

FORMATION AND REDUCTION OF HABITS

QUANTITIES OF HABITS

  As has been explained so far, what are decisive for human habits are
(1)The activities of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources
or
(2)The activities of image to emotion neural ways
or
(3)The activities of image to emotion neural ways or those of functional neural groups.
Because those activities have quantities, human habits have approximate quantities.
  However, it is hard or impossible to measure those activities directly. Accordingly, we cannot help depending on psychological tests, PET, and so on to measure the quantities of human habits.

HABITS' FORMATION, REDUCTION, AND REFORMATION

  The quantity of a habit's getting larger can be called the habit's Formation or Being Formed, and getting smaller can be called the habit's Reduction or Being Reduced. In addition, that the quantity of a habit gets smaller and that that of another habit which is related to it gets larger can be called the habits' Reformation or Being Reformed. For example, that the habit of interpersonal escapes is reduced and that that of interpersonal confrontations is formed can be called the reformation of interpersonal habits.
  The word "reduction" would give a bad impression. However, when a functions cause some pain, the formation of the function' habits causes the function again and again and cause the pain again and again. For example, isolations cause isolated feelings, anxieties, and so on, and the formation of the habit of isolations causes isolation again and again and causes such pain again and again. In such a case, the reduction of the function's habit reduces the pain which has been caused again and again.

THE SUBSTANCE OF HABITS' FORMATION AND REDUCTION

  The activity of a neural group is increased by long-term intermittent repetition which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". That is the substance of habits' formation. For example, interpersonal habits are formed by an ego's repeating interpersonal functions. That is mainly because the neural ways among the neural groups memorizing and storing the functional images of interpersonal functions, the image to emotion neural ways from them, the image to function neural ways from them, and the functional neural groups causing interpersonal functions are activated.
  In contrast, when it does not excite and transmit, the activity of a neural group get smaller naturally. That is the substance of habits' reduction. As was explained in the above section, habits' reduction is precious in some cases. If it were not for the natural reduction of the activities of neural groups, our life would be full of pain.

HABITS' INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

  Habits are formed both innately by genes and their functions and aquiredly by things other than them. Though the neural groups involved in habits are activated acquiredly, their easiness to be activated is decided by genes and their functions. More closely, there are some subtypes in enzymes, neurotransmitters, and receptors, and such subtypes are decided by genes and their functions.
  However, as was explained earlier, as far as human habits, that is, the habits of egos, intentional functions, mental emotions, and associations are concerned, they are decided by
(1)The activities of the neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources
or
(2)The activities of image to emotion neural ways
or
(3)The activities of image to emotion neural ways or those of functional neural groups.
All or most of them are activated acquiredly.
  Here we are in front of the unexpected conclusion that, as far as human habits, that is, the habits of egos, intentional functions, mental emotions, and associations are concerned, most of them are formed acquiredly.
  However, even if they are so, most of them are formed and get solid by the end of the adolescent period. That is, when we intend to defeat our own habits, they have become tough opponents. For the very reason, the reduction or reformation of habits is a challenge.

DIFFERENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS

  Concerning habits, individuals' quantity and the average of the same species, sex, and age are sometimes compared. For example, averagely, the habit of dependency gets smaller rapidly after delivery, gets smaller slowly in the adolescent period, and keeps small after it. If it keeps large after it, the individual cannot live independently. In such a case, though the individual's habit of dependency is smaller than babies', not babies' but the individual's become a question in the society.
  Accordingly, the quantities of habits compared with the averages of the same species, sex, and age are also called Quantities of Habits in these books. Moreover, even if habits are formed or reduced in an individual, they are reduced or formed when they are compared with the averages, that are also called Reduction or Formation in these books.
  However, as far as human habits, that is, the habits of egos, intentional functions, mental emotions, and associations are concerned, there is little difference between the sexes. Accordingly, these books rarely deal with it.

PERIODS DURING WHICH HUMAN HABITS ARE FORMED ACQUIREDLY

  The time when human habits are formed acquiredly is divided into the following. The functions whose habits are formed mainly in that time will be added.

[0-3 period] The baby and infant period
  During this period, though a lot of images are generated and recollected, nothing that happens during it will be recollected after it. Averagely, it is the time from the late prenatal period to the age of 3. It is divided into the following period.
[-0 period] The late prenatal period
  Few images' sources are generated because the fetus is protected and isolated in the mother's womb. However, it is possible that a few somatic images and autonomic images' sources are generated and recollected.
[0-1 period] The neonatal and baby period
  Whether it is from mother's breasts or from bottles, milk is vital even if some baby food is taken.
  Crying⇒smiling⇒moving its eyes⇒moving its face⇒tossing and turning⇒holding up its head⇒crawling⇒standing up while holding onto something⇒starting to walk upright on two legs⇒starting to speak a few isolated words.
  It is, averagely, the time from delivery to the age of 1. However, this is only an average. Not walking or speaking does not always mean any disorders.
[1-3 period] The infant period
  Milk is not vital.
  Walking upright on two legs⇒speaking more isolated words⇒starting to speak a few sentences.
  Averagely, it is the time from the age of 1 to 3.
[3-10 period] The postinfant and preadolescent period
  Something that happens during this period will be recollected after it, and the rapid development of sexual functions has not started yet.
  It is divided into the following.
[3-6] The postinfant period (3 to 6 period)
  The self's images which were defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" are generated and recollected during it. The child has not been in the human relations independent of its home yet.
  Running, speaking sentences, starting to write a few words, and making friends through the introductions by mothers, brothers, sisters, and so on.
  Averagely, it is the time form the age 3 to 6.
[6-10 period] The preadolescent period
  The child is in the human relations independent of his or her home.
  Doing the crawl or butterfly stroke, writing words, studying, making friends by his or herself, making boy or girl friends in spite of the sexual immaturity.
  Averagely, it is the time from the age of 6 to 10.
[10-15 period] The adolescent period
  From the beginning to ending of the rapid development of sexual functions.
  Broadening or escaping interpersonal relations. Egos as was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" gets matured.
  Averagely, it is the time from the age of 10 to 15. However, this is only an average, and the differences among the sexes and individuals are very large.
[15- period] The postadolescent period
  It is the time after the end of rapid development of sexual functions. That is, it does not include the adolescent period. In contrast, the adolescent period and the postadolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Later" in these books. And, the time before the adolescent period and the adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Earlier" in these books.

INFANT, PREADOLESCENT, AND ADOLESCENT FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

[0-3] Infant Functions and Habits
  Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the baby and infant period can be called "Infant" Functions, and their habits Infant Habits.
  Infant habits are the most hard to form, reduce, or reform after this period. They include the functions and habits to walk upright on two legs and to speak words, which are the most fundamental of all human functions and habits. If none of those habits were formed in this period, it would be hard to form them.
  Moreover, they include the functions and habits to adhere, to assert self, to control, to destroy, to destroy complex images, to isolate self, to short, and so on, as will be explained later.
[3-10] Preadolescent Functions and Habits
  Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the postinfant and preadolescent period can be called "Preadolescent" Functions, and their habits Preadolescent Habits.
  Preadolescent habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. They include the functions and habits to read and write words and fundamental interpersonal functions and habits.
  Moreover, the self's images are generated in this period, and so they include the functions and habits of self's gapping, self's going fat, and so on, as will be explained later.
[10-15] Adolescent functions and habits
  Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Functions, and their habits Adolescent Habits.
  Adolescent habits are harder to form, reduced, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. They include more complicated interpersonal functions and habits and the fundamental way of life.
  Moreover, they include the function and habit to escape and patch up falling habits, as will be explained later.
[15-] Postadolescent Functions and habits
  Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the postadolescent period can be called "Postadolescent" Functions, and their habits Postadolescent Habits.
  Postadolescent habits are hard to form, reduce, or reform, but easier than the above are. They include the functions and habits of the most complicated interpersonal functions and habits and the complicated way of life and way to die.
[0-] General functions and habits
  Averagely human beings, the functions whose habits are formed through his or her life or fluctuate can be called "General" Functions, and their habits General Habits.
  They include the functions and habits to confront and to escape.

DIFFERENCES AMONG INDIVIDUALS

  Animals including human beings have more or less habits which the same species have. Not whether or not an individual has a habit but the quantity of the habit compared in the same species and age is a question. Accordingly, even if the quantity of a habit gets smaller in an individual, when the difference from the average of the same species and age gets larger in the positive direction, that is also called the habit's Formation or Being Formed, and the contrary is also called the habit's Reduction or Being Reduced in these books.

NARROWNESS AND WIDTH OF CHOICE OF SITUATIONS

  When we look through the above periods and situations, we find that the later periods are, the wider the choice of the situations for individuals gets in general. First, the situation for a baby or infant in the baby and infant period is its home and is usually only one. There the situations of care and love's shortage, enclosure, violence, and so on go on at least till the adolescent period. Second, though the situation for a child in the postinfant and preadolescent period is not only its home but also its kindergarten, junior and junior high school, and so on, the choice of groups of classes and after-school activities are narrow. There the situations like being bullied and neglected go on for months or years. In contrast, when they go to high school or college, the choice gets wider. In addition, after graduated from school or college, the choice of work and home gets much wider. At their offices, the choice gets wider from the period when they acquire new skills to that when they practice them or that when they open their own offices. At their homes, they can get married or divorced or can remain single. Though we were children once upon a time, it is not until we grow up that we find the narrowness of the choice of situations for children. It is a wonder for most of us that we endured such narrowness when we were children.
  However, such narrowness in itself does not have bad influence on children. It is when the narrowness involves care and love's shortage, enclosure, and so on that it makes children fall into a vicious circle.

COMING BACK TO THE PAST PROCESS OF HABITS' FORMATION AND CONSOLIDATION FOR THE PRESENT AND THE FUTURE

  It is true that the past cannot be dealt with and that it is no use arguing it. However, it is true as long as the past has completely passed and as long as it does not affect anything of the present and the future. Human habits have been formed for the past and the present of tens of years, and they are having a strong influence on the present and the future. When some habits cause a lot of pain, we need to reduce them. When there are some factors in forming those habits and which do not allow them to be reduced and when those factors are alive in each individual also at present and in the future, we need to remove them. For that purpose, from the beginning, we need to find out what those factors are. For that purpose, we need to come back to the past process of habits' formation and consolidation. It is for the present and the future that we come back to the past process of habits' formation and consolidation.

INDIVIDUALS AND THE SOCIETY

  Mothers' care and love' shortage, enclosure, the society's violence, war, and so on form the habits causing pain as external factors. Though we cannot intervene in individual mothers, we need to try to reduce the society's violence, war, and so on.
  Simultaneously, if there are some internal factors which form habits and which do not allow habits to be reduced in each individual, each of us needs to remove those factors in the self. That is, we should not attribute habits only to external factors.

OTHER PERSONS

  Each human individual and its functions excluding the self can be called "Another Human Being", Another Person, or Another. Though other persons are included in the external situation, they form the self's habits the most in the external situation.

MOTHERS

  The words "a mother" do not designate a real mother but designate another person who functions the most frequently and the most intensely of all the other persons to a child in the adolescent period or earlier. When a mother is defined as such, some of a child's real mother, father, mothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, grand mothers and fathers, sisters and brothers, childminders, teachers, and so on can be his or her mothers. In addition, mothers are not always one. For example 1, in the case that a child's real father is in unemployment and that its real mother is in employment, the two are sometimes its mothers. For example 2, in the case that a child's real mother died at its age of three and that one of its grandmothers brought it up after her death, the two are sometimes its mothers. Accordingly, the plural form of mothers are often used in these books. Nonetheless, most mothers are real mothers not for idealistic reasons but for realistic ones.

MOTHERS' CARE AND LOVE FOR CHILDREN

  Emotions were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called Emotions. Love is a kind of complex emotion which consists of sexual drives, drives to gather, drives to protect and nurse children, anxiety about isolation, interpersonal desires, and so on. Not only human beings but some mammals have some love. Human beings have the most complicated love of all animals.
  Mothers' love for their children is influenced by the change of endocrine systems and neural systems which start with pregnancy. However, such a change is not everything. A part of love is what is caused for the first time when mothers face their babies after delivery. Such a part can be caused in any young or old man or woman who stands in the situation where he or she will bring up a certain baby.
  Whether mothers' care and love is sufficient or short can be decided by whether or not babies are at ease. As for care in itself, its sufficiency and shortage can be decided directly and objectively through the condition of babies' health. In addition, babies themselves decide it by pleasure and displeasure sensations and the dissatisfaction of eating desires and drinking desires, and so on and through crying. What about love in itself.
  In each of human beings including babies and infants, the emotions of other persons including their love are usually perceived, grasped, generated, memorized, stored, and recollected as images. Simply, each of us can judge whether or not another person has any love for us. Though we sometimes judge it wrongly, we rarely cannot judge it. Though in an immature way, babies can judge it, too. When a baby judged that love is sufficient, it seem to be at ease. When it judged that love is short, it seeks love in itself desperately.
  Mothers are the only external situation for babies, and so they seek mothers' care in order to exist. Seemingly, love is unnecessary for existence. However, they are too uneasy to be without love. Accordingly, in mothers' care and love's shortage, babies seek them desperately crying. In mothers' care and love's sufficiency, babies get tired with them, seek others, and get independent of mothers little by little. When mothers' care and love's shortage go on, babies go on seeking them. As a result, babies cannot seek others and cannot get independent of mothers.
  Mothers' care and love's shortage are the largest factor in forming falling habits which will be explained later.
  Their laziness and thin love are not the only factor in causing mothers' care and love's shortage. The important factors in it will be enumerated below.
  When the dissatisfaction of the desires at the other objects are intense, some mothers heighten the desires for children. Such heightening sometimes decrease the love for children. In addition, such heightening sometimes results in the enclosure which will be explained in the following section. For example, some of the mothers who are isolated and whose human relations are narrow tend to possess their children to themselves. Such possession to themselves are represented as, for example, pushing the ways to play, to paint pictures, to make tools, and so on onto the children.
  In addition, when mothers are involved deeply in some other human relations, they have little time to attend to their children, and so their care and love are sometimes short. The discord of a child's parents is the most severe. For example, when its father is violent and destructive, though it is better for its mother to escape him, when its mother cannot help responding him intensely, her care and love are sometimes short.
  Battering, neglect, and so on are more serious and clearer than care and love's shortage is. However, we should not pay so much attention to the former so that we neglect the latter. Anyway, the former contain the latter. Accordingly, battering, neglect, and so on are included in care and love's shortage in these books.
  As for care and love's overflow, it is usually so wearisome for children to be lead to independence. However, it is sometimes so wearisome that children rebel against parents excessively and are unable to be lead to independence conversely.

ENCLOSURES

  In his or her both synthetic and pure mental functions, an individual's, above all, a mother's keeping other individuals, above all, her children to herself and not letting them go apart from them can be called the individual's "Enclosure" of the other individuals or enclosing them.
  The most typical enclosure is that mothers heighten their desires for children and keep their children to themselves and satisfy those desires in order to reduce their dissatisfaction of some other desires. Above all, some of the mothers who are isolated and whose human relations are narrow do not let their children go apart from them in order to reduce their solitude.
  Enclosure not only is distinct from common care and love but also results in and is equal to care and love's shortage. That is because enclosure is caused by the satisfaction of the self's desires.
  Enclosures overlap in a large part with what is called "interference". Seeming care and love's overflow is sometimes this enclosure.
  Mothers' enclosures of their children also forms large part of the latter falling habits.

IMITATIONS

  While some other animals' intentional functions are perceived and generated as images and while egos of an animal repeats the alike intentional functions, the animal's habits of alike intentional functions and alike egos are sometimes formed. This is also called egos' imitation of or imitating alike intentional functions and alike egos. We need to pay attention to not only intentional functions' being imitated but also egos' being imitated and to not only intentional functions' habits' being formed but also egos' habits' being formed by imitations.
  Imitations are essential functions for human beings to walk upright on two legs, to speak words, to write words, and so on. They are the formation of intentional functions' habits by imitations. However, above all, destructions are imitated, and egos' habits to destroy are formed. Regrettably, the children of destructive parents and relatives often get destructive.
  However, again, habits are formed also innately by genes and their functions. The distinction between their acquired formation by imitation and their innate formation is often unclear. However, a large part of falling habits including those to destroy, to control, and so on are formed acauiredly by mothers' care and love's shortage and enclosure and children's imitations.

CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

  When a thing(O) causes some pain(OP),
when the intentional function(I) dealing with (O) also causes some pain(IP),
when (I) can increase or maintain some pleasure or can decrease some pain in the future,
and when those emotions and their changes at present and in the future are recollected as images even a little;

when the pain(OP) caused by (I) is more intense than the pain(IP) caused by (I), egos' causing (I) can be called egos' confrontation with or confronting (O),
and egos' not causing (I) can be called egos' escape from (O) or escaping (O);

when the pain(IP) caused by (I) is more intense than the pain(OP) caused by (O), egos' causing (I) can be called egos' confrontation with or confronting (I),
and egos' not causing (I) can be called egos' escape from (I) or escaping (I).

  Confrontations and escapes can be looked upon as two of egos' outlines.
  We need to note that, in confrontations and escapes, emotions' changes not only at present but also in the future are recollected as images even a little. For example, it is an escape that while we know that some pain will be reduced in the future, we do not confront. In the contrary, it is a confrontation that while we know that some pain is caused at present, we do not escape.
  For example, it is a confrontation to the intentional function of running away that the people involved in war carry out dangerous running away for the sake of the safety in the future. In such a way, escape is different from running away. In addition, in this case, it is the confrontation to the intentional function(I) of running away.
  In contrast, as will be explained later, egos sometimes switch images as cause some pain. it is the escape from things(O) of images. For example, we sometimes switch and escape some of the self's images as cause the pain like self-hatred, anxiety, and so on.
  However, there are a lot of egos' outlines which cannot be looked upon as confrontations or escapes, and many of them can be looked upon as "Waiting and Seeing". Not in an idealistic mean but in a realistic mean, waiting and seeing occupy most of our daily life. It can be said that waiting and seeing is a function fit for human individuals and the species to exist.
  In contrast, not waiting and seeing and confronting or escaping instantly are sometimes looked upon as "Short-Circuit". This short-circuit is not fit for human individuals and the species to exist. However, as will be explained later, it is fit for some small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on.
  Though they are not so clear as the egos' outlines of human beings, a kind of prototype of egos' outlines like confrontations, escapes, waiting and seeing, short-circuit, adherence, self-assertion, destruction, control, and so on are recognized at least in higher mammals, and switching them depending on situations is fit for them and their species to exist. For example, switching the confrontation of hunting and eating and the waiting and seeing of ambushing or resting is fit for the strong carnivores like lions and tigers to exist; switching the confrontation of running away and eating and the waiting and seeing of hiding themselves and resting is fit for the he herbivores rbivores like zebras and sitatungas. Switching the confrontation of eating, short-circuit of running away instantly, and the waiting and seeing of hiding themselves and resting is fit for small mammals like mice and squirrels. Animals' babies cannot exist unless they adhere to their parents or do self-assertion. There are some individuals controlling others and others submitting themselves in a herd or flock. The harbivores caught by carnivores try to destroy anything as a last resort. Such a kind of prototype is included in egos' outlines in these books.
  Reviewing those examples, there are no escapes. That is not because escapes are bad, at all. In order to prevent overwork, animals including human beings cannot always confront, and we need escapes, waiting and seeing, resting, and so on. The question is what we need to confront.

CONFRONTATIONS WITH IMAGES AND ESCAPES FROM IMAGES

  Some recollected images cause some pain. This is usually a displeasure feeling as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the recollected images of the self's immature interpersonal habits cause pain like anxiety, fear, shame, self-hatred, and so on.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", it is hard or impossible for any ego to bring farther or extinguish any recollected images directly. Accordingly, each ego brings some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This is a "switch" from some images to some other images. When some recollected images cause intense pain, all that egos need to do is to reduce that pain and to switch from them to trifles. Simply, what are switched to makes no difference. In such a case, switching from some images to some other images can be called egos' Escape from or Escaping some images. For example, when the self's immature interpersonal habits are recollected as images and when those images cause anxiety, fear, shame, self-hatred, and so on, some egos escape from those images and switch to the images of some other habits of theirs like intelligence, physical ability, appearance, and so on which they think to be excellent.
  In contrast, egos' not escaping from some recollected images causing some pain and manipulating them or start to thinking about them can be called egos' Confrontation with or Confronting some images.
  When an ego confronts some images, the confrontation with those images is recollected as the most complicated functional image. Simultaneously, some future pleasure is recollected as images, and some pleasure autonomic sensations like moderate palpitation and dyspnea are caused in the way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the future ease, cheers, and so on caused by the formation of interpersonal habits are recollected as images. Accordingly, each ego confronts images. Otherwise, no egos do such a troublesome function as confrontation with images.
  Confrontations with and escapes from images can be represented by the words of mental confrontations and mental escapes. These words will sometimes be used in these books.

QUANTITIES OF CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

  Each confrontation and escape has a quantity, that is, intensity. Though that quantity is hard to measure directly, it can be measured indirectly with the quantity of the pain which is involved in the confrontation or escape. It can be said that the more intense the latter is, the more intense the former is. For example, because confronting the self's falling habits involves very intense mental pain like anxieties, fears, self-hatreds, it can be said that the quantity of that confrontation is very large.

HABITS OF CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

  Confrontations, escapes, waiting and seeing, and short-circuit also have their habit. For example, some human beings confront frequently and intensely, some escape frequently and intensely, some frequently and moderately wait and see, and some frequently and intensely short-circuit.
  However, the quantities and habits of confrontations, escapes, and so on are not so important. What egos confront, what egos escape from, that is, the objects of confrontations and escape are the most important. These books never say that all human beings always need to confront all the things intensely. They say that all egos sometimes need to confront the falling habits, above all, the falling habits escaping and patching up falling habits, as will be explained later.

FALLING HABITS

FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

  The egos' outlines of X, Y, Z, and so on that has the following properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".

(a) Each of X, Y, Z, and so on traverses images' sources, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, emotions, egos, intentional functions, thinkings, and so on. However, X, Y, Z, and so on are mainly outlines of egos.
(b) Each of X, Y, Z, and so on temporarily reduces the self's pain or causes the slef's pleasures. However, each of X, Y, Z, and so on continually causes the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(c) The habits of most of X, Y, Z, and so on, are formed together. By some of X, Y, Z, and so on, that is, X and Y's being caused continually the habits not only of X, Y but also of Z, and so on are not reduced but formed. Above all, by hindering egos from confronting X, Y, Z, and so on and their habits, the habits of X, Y, Z, and so on are not reduced but formed.
(d) By the habits of X, Y, Z, and so on's not being reduced but being formed, X, Y, Z, and so on are caused continually and cause more and more the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(e) (a)(b)(c)(d) are repeated.

That is, those are a vicious circle. Accordingly, again, the egos' outlines of X, Y, Z, and so on that has the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".
  In addition, the habit of a falling function can be called a Habit Falling into a Vicious Circle or a "Falling habit.
  Moreover, each of the outlines of X, Y, Z, and so on that has the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) and whose habit's quantity is much larger than the average of that quantity in the same species and age can be called a Function Falling into a Vicious Circle or a Falling Function, and its habit can be called a Habit Falling into a Vicious Circle or a Falling habit. That is, the words of falling functions and falling habits sometimes designate comparative ones in the same species and age.
  Though the word "reduction" would make a bad impression, the continual pain of the self and other persons, above all, the mental pain of the self are reduced by reducing falling habits.
  Falling functions and habits include the following, and the following occupy most of them.

ADHERENCE

  Ego's outlines not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other individuals belonging to the same species, and in human beings, not only not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other persons but also intending to get love from other persons can be called "Adherence" to or Adhering to them. Being sticky, persistent, dangling, and so on are included in adherence. In human beings, not only the adherent interpersonal functions but also the adherent pure mental functions like certain things including some other persons are recollected as images biasedly continually are included in adherence.
  Adherence is a fit function for the animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they went apart from their parents. For example, dog babies dangle about their parents crawling.
  In human beings, when a baby or infant is functioned to by its mother with her common care and love, around the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of the postinfant and preadolescent period (around the age of 3), being weary of its mother's care and love and its own adherence, it is separated from its mother and cause some interpersonal functions other than adherence against some persons other than its mother, and its adherent habit is reduced.
  In contrast, if its mother's care and love are short, a baby or infant goes on seeking them and goes on adhering to its mother, and its adherent habit is not reduced but formed after the baby and infant period. Moreover, the child adheres to persons other than its mother after that period, and a general adherent habit is formed.
  Then, how about the babies or infants having no mothers? Because they have no persons to adhere, their adherent habits are a little formed from the beginning, and isolated habits are rather formed. However, they are not contradictory, and they are often formed together. That is because, even if they adhere, they cannot always get mothers' care and love, they cannot help being isolated.
  On those grounds, mothers' care and love's shortage is the main factor forming adherent habits acquiredly.
  In the factors forming acquiredly adherent habits, there are not only mothers' care and love's shortage but also mothers' enclosure and children's imitation. Mothers' enclosure can hinder their children from going apart from them. Children imitate their mothers' adherence.
  When adherent habits are not reduced around the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of the postinfant and preadolescent period (around the age of 3), often, they are not reduced later, the differences between them and the average in the same species and age gets larger in the positive direction, adherence head toward friends, classmates, and teachers in kindergarten or school, later toward colleagues, staffs, and bosses in office, and toward friends and boy or girl friends everywhere, husbands or wives and children home, and general adherent habits are formed. The adherence after the adolescent period is complicated and cunning. For example, they come to involve and to manipulate other persons.
  Adherent habits cause intense pain. First, they cause intense anxiety and solitude when they cannot adhere to other persons and they cannot help adhering to others desperately. Second, they cause isolation and solitude by being kept away from others. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more.
  Moreover, because they wholly adhere to others by adherent habits, the interpersonal habits other than adherent ones are hardly formed. Because they are hardly formed, the habits other than interpersonal ones are hardly formed. This is also a vicious circle.
  In addition, adherence and the self-assertion, control, destruction, isolation, and so on which will be explained later can exist together. For example, we often adhere to others asserting ourselves, and the more we are isolated, the more we adhere to others.
  Adherent habits and at least self-asserting, controlling, destructive, and isolated habits which will be explained later are often formed together. That is because they can exist together, as was explained above, because the main factors forming them acquiredly are the same mother's care and love's shortage and enclosure and the child's imitation of the same mother. This is also a vicious circle.
  Most falling functions and habits as follows are much the same as adherent functions and habits. Accordingly, the following explanations will be simplified.

SELF-ASSETION

  Asserting and exhibiting the self to other animals of the same species can be called "Self-Assertion" or Asserting self. In human beings, putting on airs, talking too much about the self, boasting of the self, talking too much about his or her past, talking the self exaggerated or fabricated, and so on are included in self-assertion.
  Self-assertion is fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they did not catch their parents' attention and care. For example, the babies of cats, dogs, human beings, and so on cry in the way to catch their parents' attention.
  In human beings, when a baby or infant is paid attention to and praised by its mother with her common care and love, around the end of the baby and infant period (before the age of 3), being weary of its mother's care and love and praise and its own self-assertion, it causes some interpersonal functions other than self-assertion to some persons other than its mother, and its self-asserting habit is reduced.
  In contrast, when its mother's care and love are short and when she rarely pays attention to or praises her baby or infant, it cannot be weary of her care, love, attention, and praise and its own self-assertions, it goes on asserting self, and its self-asserting habit is not reduced but formed. In such a way, the main factor forming self-asserting habits acquiredly are mothers' care and love's shortage and attention and praise' shortage.
  The formation of self-asserting habits and their relation with other falling habits are much the same as those of adherent habits. Accordingly, most of their explanation is omitted, and only the things characteristic of them will be explained. Because the self are exaggerated or fabricated, so are the self's images, and the self-assertion and self-asserting habits hinder egos from confronting their falling functions and habits. Also by this, falling habits are hard to reduce.

CONTROLS

  An individual's controlling other individuals or its groups or other groups of the same species is also called "Control" or Controlling in these books. For example, human beings' controlling other living things and the nature is not included in control in these books. In human beings, presiding over anything, even over trifles, rising anyway, expanding territories, monopolizing anything, and so on are included in control.
  Switching between control and submission depending on situations is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. Animal babies also try to control their parents, and it is a fit function for them to exist. For example, they control mothers' nursing by crying loud.
  In human beings, when a baby or infant is functioned to by its mother with her common care and love, it do not need to control her hard, it causes some interpersonal functions other than control to its mother and other persons, and its controlling habits are reduced.
  In contrast, when its mother' care and love are short, it goes on controlling, and its controlling habit is not reduced but formed. In such a way, the main cause forming controlling habits are mothers' care and love's shortage.
  The formation of controlling habits by enclosure and imitation will be explained later.
  Many human beings who have large controlling habits seek power, authority, and so on, most of them also have destructive habits which will be explained below, and some of them who can get powers sometimes cause despotism, war, massacres, and so on.

DESTRUCTIONS

  When animals suffer the attacks from the same or different species or natural disasters, they protect, fight back, run away, hide themselves, and so on. These are fit for animal individuals and species to exist. However, when they are not effective, the animals try to destroy anything. Such destruction sometimes involves the self as a result. Destruction is sometimes fit for the animals facing danger to exist and are usually the last resort.
  Destruction turns to the same species in human beings more often than in other animals. For example, battering, bullying, violence, war, slaughter, and so on are included in destruction.
  In addition, in human beings, destruction sometimes turns to the self. Not only suicide and self-injury but also anorexia, bulimia, drug abuse, and so on are included in the destruction of the self. Such destruction of the self is included in destruction in these books.
  Animal babies also destroy their parents. For example, human babies cry and kick their mothers.
  In human beings, when a baby is functioned to by its mother with her common care and love, around the middle of the neonatal and baby period (around age of 0.5), they get to be able to wait and see, do not need to destroy her hard, and cause some interpersonal functions other than destruction to its mother and other persons, and its destructive habit is reduced.
  In contrast, when its mother's care and love are short, it goes on destroying her, destructions turn also to some persons other than its mother and the self, its destructive habit is not reduced but formed.
  Not only its mother's care and love's shortage in the baby and infant period but also the enclosures by its mother and other persons and its imitations of their destructions in the preadolescent and adolescent period form a child's destructive habits acquiredly. The quantity of such acquired formation of destroying habits by enclosure and imitation is much larger than that of adherent and self-asserting habits and a little larger than that of controlling habits.
  Children need to rebel against, destroy, and control the enclosure, control, and destruction by their parents, relatives, and so on in order to win their independence. That is, moderate rebellion, destruction and control are necessary for them. However, when the enclosure, control, and destruction by their parents, relatives, and so on and the rebellion, control, and destruction by children are too intense and frequent, intensely destructive and controlling habits are formed.
  In addition, though moderate rebellion promote children's independence, in excessive rebellion, they rebel wholly and rarely cause other functions, and so their independence are hindered.
  In addition, their imitation of destruction and control form their destructive and controlling habits to a large degree after the adolescent period, above all, in violent groups.
  Many of the human beings who have large controlling habits seek power, authority, and so on and also have large destructive habits. When they have gotten strong power, they sometimes cause autocracy, despotism, and so on, and cause mass destruction like genocide and war. When they cannot get strong power, they become what is called lions at home and mice abroad, try to control home, cause friction, and sometimes cause domestic violence, self-injury, and so on.

DESTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

  In human beings, when some things recollected as complex images cause displeasure feelings like anxieties, fears, self-hatreds, and so on, the egos after the adolescent period switch images from such ones to others through escapes of images as was explained earlier. However, the egos in the baby and infant period are immature, and so they cannot perform such a switch. Accordingly, some of them where some images cause severe pain try to destroy them in any way. Such destruction is different from the dissolution which mature egos can perform. As a result, some of the complex images, recollections of images, associations, egos, thinkings, the self's images, and so on sometimes become unexpected things for general human beings and even for psychologists or psychiatrists. It can be thought that "dissociative disorder" is one of those examples. Destroying images causing pain in any way and the result caused by it is called "Destruction of Images" or Destroying Images in these books.
  It is probable that some destruction of images develop into some dissociation in dissociative disorder and some split in borderline personality disorder.
  For example, a battering mother's images cause anxieties and fears. The children in the postinfant period or later can escape such images. However, those in the baby and infant period can hardly escape them, and so they destroy them at random.
  The habits of destruction of images are usually formed by mothers' care and love's shortage, above all, by the extremes like battering, neglect, and so on.

SHORT-CIRCUITS

  Egos' not waiting and seeing and not thinking and causing intentional functions can be called "Short-circuit" or Short-circuiting. The contrary is waiting and seeing, bypassing, thinking, and so on.
  Some short circuit is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, the small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on could not exist if they did not run away instantly when attacked by large ones.
  In addition, some waiting and seeing and bypathing is fit for individuals and the species to exist. For example, small animals need to keep still for a while after they have run away and hidden themselves. In addition, carnivores ambush others.
  Averagely in animals, babies short-circuit, and they come to wait and see and bypath step by step. That is also fit for them to exist.
  Also in human beings, babies after delivery could not exist if they did not cry instantly, that is, short-circuit. When mothers function to their babies with their common care and love, babies come to be able to wait and see around the middle of the neonatal and baby period (about the age of 0.5), and the habit of short-circuiting is reduced. For example, though a newborn cry and short-circuit, when it has hunger and thirst, when its mother hugs and nurses it with her common care and love, such a mother's images are generated and recollected in it, and it come to be able to wait and see.
  Otherwise, babies and infants go on short-circuiting, and so the habit of short-circuit is not reduced but formed.
  When the habit of short-circuit is formed, egos only cause intentional functions which are short-circuiting and whose habits have already been formed, above all, falling functions. Accordingly, the habits of the other functions are hardly formed, and falling habits are hardly reduced and easily formed. This is also a vicious circle.

ISOLATIONS

  Going apart from its group like herd, flock, home, society, and so on is not fit for animal babies to exist. However, when an individual is destroyed, attacked, or alienated and when it has been grown to a degree, going apart from such a group is sometimes fitter for it to exist than staying in it. Going apart from its group like herd, flock, home, society, and so on can be called "Isolation" or Being Isolated, and the contrary "Gathering".
  In human beings, when their mothers' care and love are short, babies gather in their voluntary movements and synthetic functions but is isolated in their pure mental functions, and their isolated habits start to be formed from the middle of the neonatal and baby period (about the age of 0.5). Simply, though they are in groups in appearance, it is isolated in heart. When there is some battering or neglect, they are isolated in its voluntary movements and synthetic functions and in appearance, and their isolated habits are intensely formed. Anyway, when they are isolated till the end of the neonatal and baby period (the age of 1), their isolated habits are intensely formed and are often not reduced later.
  Isolation prompts the formation of the falling habits concerning the self which will be explained later.

NARCISSISM

  Each of the children who have not been loved or praised in the baby and infant period comes to love the self by itself. That form intense what is called "narcissism". Each child needs to be loved and praised to a degree so that its narcissism can be formed moderately. When it is loved and praised moderately, it comes to be weary of being done so and of loving the self, it loves other persons and things, and moderate narcissism is formed. Anyway, everybody has narcissism, and the question is the degree.

BABY AND INFANT FALLING HABITS

  Averagely in the human beings, the falling habits of the falling functions which have been explained in the previous sections are reduced by the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of postinfant period (around the age of 3). However, those habits is not reduced but formed mainly by their mothers' care and love's shortage and enclosure, and children's imitation of adults' falling functions. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Baby and Infant" Falling Functions, and those habits can be called Baby and Infant Falling Habits.
  Not only baby and infant falling habits but also general ones are formed together. That has been explained again and again. Moreover, baby and infant ones are formed together, above all, because of the following. The situation of the formation of baby and infant ones are almost only home, above all, mothers. Accordingly, that formation are affected directly by mothers' care and love's shortage and enclosure and children's imitation of those persons.

GENERATION OF THE SELF'S IMAGES

  The self was defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY". In human beings, the self is recollected as complex images consisting of the past, present, and future bodies, emotions, thought, and so on. The self's images are generated and recollected in the beginning of the postinfant period, that is, around the age of four, and get the most clear in the adolescent period.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

  In a little time after the generation of the self's image, the temporal limitation of the self and the self's dying sooner or later are recollected as images, and they come to cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. Such anxiety is the ultimate anxiety. The decisive way to transcend it was explained in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".
  As was explained earlier, mental emotions have their own habits, and so the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later also has its own habit. When that habit is large, that anxiety is caused continuously, continually, and intensely.

ATTEMPTS TO MAKE THE SELF ETERNAL

  The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later causes some desires and attempts to make the self eternal anyway. Such desires can be called "Desires to Make the Self Eternal", and such attempts can be called "Attempts to Make the Self Eternal".
  Attempts to make the self eternal overlap with love, religion, control, will to power, and so on. For example, they overlap with a holder of powers' building his or her massive tomb.

SELF DETACHMENT

  In the recollected images, between the images of the self and those of the things other than the self, there's being too large gaps can be called "Self Detachment" or the Self's Being Detached, there's being small gaps can be called "Self Continuity" or the Self's Being Continued.
  When a baby or infant exists and functions in a common way in a common situation; the habit of self continuity is formed, and there are small gaps between the images of the self and those of the things other than the self. That is because there are actually no gaps between them.
  In contrast, in each human individual who was isolated in the baby and infant period, the habit of self detachment is formed, and the self's images are easily detached. Isolation is the main factor forming the habit of self detachment acquiredly.
  The human beings having large habits of self continuity and small ones of self detachment can easily get to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later because of the continuity of the images of the self and those of the things other than the self, and that anxiety are rarely caused and, if ever, faintly caused.
  In contrast, the human beings having large habits of self detachment can hardly get to the way to transcend that anxiety, and that anxiety are caused frequently and intensely. In addition, as was explained above, the desire to make the self eternal gets intense.
  As was explained above, in the children where isolated habits are formed in the baby and infant period, the habits of self detachment are often formed. Not only that but also the habits of self detachment enhance some of the other falling habits.
  Self detachment often cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the desire to make the self eternal, and they often enhance the habits to assert self, to control, and so on. For example, those who have gotten large powers often try to control the people and try to leave their glory or massive tomb. Moreover, because falling habits are formed together, they often have large destructive habits, too, and they try to hold powers, to destroy liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law, to run wildly to despotism, autocracy, the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means, and so on. Accordingly, reducing such falling habits is also one of the ways to abolish and prevent totally destructive means totally and to secure the existence of living things including human beings, that is, to ensure existence and liberty. Though such persons are found in our daily life, for example, in executives of large or small companies, while the latter can be sneered at and ignored, the former cannot.

SELF'S GOING FAT

  Images are not only generated, memorized, stored and recollected but also forgotten, and so the number of images stored in each individual does not simply increase. However, that number increases at least till the adolescent period.
  In self detachment, the relation between the self and the things other than the self is reduced, and when images get rich, the self's images get so exceedingly. In addition, the emotions concerning the self get so exceedingly. For example, narcissism and pride get rich. These can be called the "Self's Going Fat".

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE SELF

  The images of the self where falling habits are formed cause pain like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on. The immature egos of children as they are beautify the self in order to reduce such pain. For example, they beautify the self as a pitiful one who is not loved by and is alienated from their mother and general human beings. The beautified self's images are generated by such beautification. Such beautification of the self also hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits.

PREADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

  Most of the falling habits of falling functions explained in the previous sections are formed in the postinfant and preadolescent period after the self's images were generated. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Preadolescent" Falling Function, and their habits can be called Preadolescent Falling Habits.
  We can trace back preadolescent falling functions from self detachment to isolation, and isolated habits which form most of the habit of self detachment acquiredly are formed in the baby and infant period and are included in baby and infant falling habits. In addition, most of the baby and infant falling habits are formed together. Accordingly, a lot of baby and infant falling habits and preadolescent ones are formed together. Anyway, it is impossible for one of them to be formed predominantly.

MOTHERS' FALLING HABITS

  No small parts of the habits including falling habits of a child are formed innately by its genes and their functions. When its mother is a real mother, half of its genes have come from her. Accordingly, when its mother is a real one and has large falling habits, no small parts of the falling habits of a child is formed innately by its genes and their functions whose half has come from her. However, that is not enough. A child's falling habits are formed also acquiredly by its mothers' in the following ways.
  First, in general, falling functions accompany care and love's shortage. Those who have a large adherent habit try to be loved by others but they do not deeply love others. Those who have a large self-asserting habit do not like others' self-assertion. Control in itself does not accompany care and love in themselves. Destruction accompanies some hatred which is the opposite of love. In self detachments, self's going fat, narcissism, and so on, the emotions concerning the self are dominant, and those concerning others including love are short.
  Second, in general, falling habits accompany the habit of enclosure. For example, a human being having a large isolated habit has few opportunities to be intimate with other persons and have a large habit of enclosing a few persons including her or his children desperately.
  Third, as was explained earlier, the general functions of mothers, fathers, and so on are imitated by babies, infants, and children from the neonatal to the adolescent period. Above all, destruction is imitated.
  On those grounds, the falling habits of mothers form those of children not only innately through genes and gene functions but also acquiredly. We need to pay attention to both of the innate and acquired formations, and neither should be neglected. For example, what old psychology looked upon as caused acquiredly by mothers' upbringing can be caused innately by genes and gene functions. In contrast, what were looked upon as heredity can be acquired formations.
  Anyway, genes and gene functions, mothers' love and care's shortage, enclosure, children's imitation, and mothers' falling habits form most of children's falling habits.

FALLING INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS, FALLING INTERPERSONAL HABITS, AND IMMATURE INTERPERSONAL HABITS

  Though falling functions are egos' outlines by the definition of words, like adherence, self-assertion, control, destruction, isolation, and so on, most of them are also interpersonal functions' outlines, and so they are also intentional functions' outlines by the definition of words. The falling functions which are intentional functions' outlines and are interpersonal functions' outlines can be called Falling Interpersonal Functions.
  Then, what are interpersonal functions other than falling ones? They are representing friendliness to friends, sometimes making jokes to them, representing love to boy or girl friends, sometimes paying complements to unfamiliar persons, transmitting important things exactly, and so on. The question in them are intentional functions' habits, that is, their abilities, and such abilities are formed over our life. For example, though both children and grown-ups represent friendliness and love, the latter's representations are sophisticated, and the former's are rather awkward than natural.
  In contrast, the question in falling interpersonal functions are egos' habits. When egos habits are formed and when egos are caused, falling interpersonal functions are easily caused. For example, it is easy for babies and grown-ups to adhere and to assert self. The egos' habits which easily cause falling interpersonal functions are called Falling interpersonal habits in these books.
  In contrast in interpersonal functions other than falling ones, even if egos intend to do them, they can hardly be caused when their abilities are not formed. For example 1, it is hard for those who have rarely represented friendliness and love to do so. For example 2, it is hard for those who have rarely paid compliments to do so. It can be called Interpersonal Abilities or Habits' Immaturity that the abilities of interpersonal functions other than falling ones have not been formed yet.
  Falling interpersonal habits cause inter personal habits' immaturity. For example, when children often adhere to others, their independent interpersonal habits cannot be formed. Above all, the habits escaping and patching up interpersonal functions which will be explained later cause interpersonal habits' immaturity. Such falling habits' influence on interpersonal habits can go on over our life. This is also a vicious circle.
  However, when falling habits are reduced, interpersonal habits are formed unexpectedly early. After all, falling interpersonal habits are more serious than interpersonal habits' immaturity.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

  Because falling functions and habits cause intense, continuous, and continual pain like anxiety, fear, solitude, self-hatred, and so on, above all, adolescent egos which have gotten mature to a degree patch up the self's falling functions and habits. In addition, if the self's falling functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes the pain of shame, egos hide and patch up them in interpersonal relations. In addition, if not only falling functions and habits but also immature interpersonal functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes shame, egos hide and patch up the latter, too. Those are called "Patching Up" Falling Habits or Functions Patching Up Falling Habits, and their habits are called Habits Patching Up Falling Habits in these books.
  Interpersonal habits patching up falling interpersonal habits are the most serious of them. They include behaving themselves cheerfully not naturally but intentionally, truanting, withdrawing, exhibiting their positions and powers, talking only of superficial things, exhibiting their destructive appearances which other persons are hard to come close to.
  When habits patching up falling habits are large, patching functions are caused continually, important functions other than them are not continually caused, and important habits other than patching ones are not formed. For example, the habits to talk with other persons frankly are not formed.
  In addition, patching up falling habits hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits. As long as patching up goes well, egos do not confront them. Only when it does not go well, egos confront them. For example, as long as exhibiting positions and powers goes well, he or she does not confront his or her falling interpersonal functions and habits.
  On those grounds, functions patching up falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits patching up falling habits in falling habits.
  When some falling interpersonal habits were formed or when interpersonal habits were immature in the preadolescent period, some boys or girls in the adolescent period are sometimes alienated from their classmates and suffer some bullying, neglect, and so on in school, and some habits patching up falling habits are sometimes formed.
  Interpersonal functions patching up falling habits by causing interpersonal ones which are extremely opposite to falling interpersonal ones is also called an "Opposite Representation" in these books. For example, some persons who were disliked by others as sober sometimes behave themselves light-minded. Opposite representation often bring misunderstanding. That is because few people can see that it is opposite representation on the basis of falling habits.
  In such ways, habits patching up falling habits are formed mainly acquiredly in the adolescent period.

ESCAPES FROM FALLING HABITS

  When the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, those images cause intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on. Accordingly, egos sometimes escape the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images by means of switching of images as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Escaping the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images can be called Escapes from (images of) Falling Habits, Escaping (images of) Falling Habits, Escaping Falling Habits (recollected as images). In addition, their habits can be called Habits Escaping Falling Habits. For example, when the self's adherence, simply, being sticky is recollected as an image, it causes intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, and so egos switch images from it to harmless ones.
  When habits escaping falling habits are large, and when escapes from falling habits are caused continuously and continually, egos cannot confront the self's falling functions and habits, and falling habits in general are not reduced. Accordingly, escapes from falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits escaping falling habits are included in falling habits. Far from that, they are the most vicious cycles and are the most serious falling ones.
  When compared with the time of the formation of habits patching up falling habits as was explained above, the time when habits escaping falling habits are formed fluctuates. However, they are formed mainly in the adolescent period.

HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

  Habits escaping falling habits and habits patching up them are often formed together. Functions escaping falling habits and Functions patching up falling habits can be called "Escaping and Patching up" Falling Habits or Functions Escaping and Patching Falling Habits, and habits escaping falling habits and habits patching up falling habits can be called Habits Escaping and Patching up Falling Habits.
  Because egos escape and patch up falling habits, they cannot confront them, and so falling habits including habits escaping and patching up falling habits are not reduced but formed more and more. This is the most vicious cycle and they are the most severe falling functions and habits.

DESTROYING MIRRORS

  Mainly by its genes and gene functions, its mother's care and love's shortage and enclosures, and its imitations of those persons, the habits, above all, the falling habits of each child are similar to its mother, father, brothers, sisters, and so on. This is like a mirror. In addition, each child has pain like self-hatred, and so on against its falling habits. Accordingly, such a child or young man or woman as has large falling habits tries to destroy its mother, father, and so on or their images. This is also called Destroying Mirrors, and its habit is also called a Habit Destroying Mirrors in these books.
  Though destroying mirrors overlaps with what is called rebellion, as long as falling habits continue, most habits destroying mirrors are not reduced after the adolescent period. It is the adolescent period that destroying mirrors get clear for the first time.
  Destroying mirrors also hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits. That is because the self's falling habits have been projected on others. Accordingly, destroying mirrors is included in falling functions, and habits destroying mirrors are included in falling habits.

EXCESSIVE REBELLIONS

  When its parents' enclosure, control, and destruction are intense and go on after the adolescent period and when a child, young men, or women always try to destroy or escape them, sometimes, the functions other than rebellions are not caused, and the habits other than rebellious ones are not formed. For example, some young men or women get separated or married in order not to be independent but to be separated from his or her parents. The habit living independently is not formed by such separation or marriage. Accordingly, excessive rebellions are included in falling functions, and excessively rebellious habits are included in falling ones.
  Of course, psychological rebellions and political ones need to be distinguished. These books criticize some of the former but do not criticize most of the latter.

ADOLESCHENT FALLING HABITS

  Those falling functions whose habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Falling Functions, and their habits can be called Adolescent Falling Habits.
  Habits escaping and patching up falling habits are the most serious of all adolescent falling habits. Far from that, they are the most serious of all falling habits.
  About destructive habits and controlling ones which were explained earlier, not small parts of them are formed by adolescent egos' imitation. Their formation, above all, in violent groups is serious. Destructive functions and habits and controlling ones are included not only in baby and infant ones but also in adolescent ones in these books.
  Being alienated, bullied, neglected, and so on in school in the adolescent period form habits escaping and patching up falling habits. Alienating, bullying, neglecting, and so on form destructive habits and controlling ones.
  Anyway, adolescent and postadolescent habits are more or less formed on the basis of preadorescent and baby and infant ones.

RELATIONS BETWEEN FALLING HABITS AND WHAT ARE CALLED MENTAL DISORDERS

  Excluding schizophrenia, recurrent depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, pervasive developmental disorder, and dementia, most of what is called "neurosis", "personality disorder", "development disorder", and so on are the functions and habits consisting mainly of some extreme falling functions and habits. For example, what is called borderline personality disorder consists mainly of extreme adherence, control, destruction, destruction of complex images, self detachment, and so on and their habits, and most of what is called dissociative disorder deciseve pconsists mainly of very extreme destruction of complex images. Accordingly, the psychotherapy for them need to involve the way of confrontation and stop which will be explained later.
  By the way, unexpectedly many people mistake themselves for those having one of the above mental disorders and waste time. In addition, some attitudes of some psychiatrists or psychologists make them do so. Anyway, it is necessary that no human beings apply themselves to certain mental disorders from the beginning, and that each of them looks upon him or herself as a general human individual at the beginning.
  Let us come back to that.

POSTADOLESCENT EGOS

  As was explained earlier, mothers' falling habits are one of the factors forming children's falling habits. Postadolescent egos need to confront the self's falling functions and habits and to stop falling functions. However, preadolescent egos cannot confront or stop. Accordingly, mothers' egos need to confront the self's falling functions and habits and to stop falling functions. Again, postadolescent egos need to confront the self's falling functions and habits and to stop falling functions. If any postadolescent egos blamed their mothers, it would be included in falling functions like destroying mirrors or excessive rebellions as was explained earlier.

POSTADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

  The functions whose habits are formed mainly in the postadolescent period can be called a postadolescent functions, and their habits can be called postadolescent habits. Postadolescent habits include complicated interpersonal habits, the complicated way of life, way to die, and so on. Postadolescent falling habits include interpersonal ones which are cunning, flattering, superficial, and so on, habits patching up falling habits with power, money, appearance, and so on, and so on.
  Anyway, the habits formed before the adolescent period are hardly reduced, and the habits after it are formed on the basis of those formed before it. The way to reduce them is confrontation and stop as will be explained below. This period is important because it is the time when confrontation and stop are done.

CONFRONTATION AND STOP

FORMATION AND REDUCTION OF EGOS' HABITS

  As was explained earlier, in egos' situations on the basis of egos' habits, in a limiting ego, the (outlines of) limited egos which have the largest capabilities of being caused while excluding others are caused. Such capabilities are the habits of (the outlines of limited) egos. In general, neural groups' activities are increased by their exciting and transmitting again and again and reduced by their not doing so. Accordingly, in general, the habits of (the outlines of) limited functions are formed by their being caused and reduced by their not being caused. So are egos' habits, and so are their falling ones. That is, egos' falling habits are formed by falling functions' being caused again and again and are reduced by their not being caused. Then, what prevents falling functions from being caused?

EGOS' STOPPING

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", the decisive part of egos' habits is
(1)which neural ways among the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources, that is, which functional images are recollected
and
(2)which image to emotion neural ways are activated, that is, whether those recollected functional images cause pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations and how intense those autonomic sensations are,
and (1) is more decisive than (2).
Accordingly, when the recollected functional images cause displeasure autonomic sensations, that is, pain, the egos are not caused even if they arise, and they stop.
  Then, what causes pain to recollected functional images pain.

EGOS' CONFRONTING THE SELF'S FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS AND CONFRONTATION OF STOP

  When the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, they cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on. Accordingly, egos have escaped and patched up them. Accordingly, falling habits have not been reduced.
  In contrast, if egos do not escape or patch up but do confront the images of the self's falling functions and habits, the images of them come to cause the pain containing weariness, emptiness, and sneering at the self, falling functions are not caused even if they arise, and falling habits are reduced. This is also called "Confrontation and Stop" or the way of confrontation and stop in these books.
  For example, because the images of the self's adherent functions and habits, simply, being sticky cause anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, egos have been escaped and patched up their images. For example, egos have switched from their images to the self's power or appearance. In contrast, if egos do not do that and do confront their images, they cause pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, weariness, emptiness, sneering at the self, and so on, egos do not adhere while intending to do so, and adherent habits go on being reduced.
  In confrontation and stop, the pain after the confrontation contains weariness, emptiness, sneering at the self. That pain is like sneering at the self as if the self were another person. From the beginning, the images of falling functions and habits cause some pain. For the very reason, egos have escaped and patched up their images. In contrast to such pain before the confrontation as causes escape and patching up, we need to pay attention to the fact that the pain after the confrontation contain weariness, emptiness, and sneering at the self. Such emotions are formed only through confrontation and are not formed by or through other things, for example, artificially.

EGOS' CONFRONTING THE SELF'S HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

  However, it is probable that confrontation is cunningly changed into escape and patching up in the process of confrontation. For example 1, it is probable that the self is beautified in the half way to confrontation. For example, it is probable that a halfway confrontation is exhibited as a surprising one. Those are also caused by habits escaping and patching up falling habits.
  From the beginning to the ending, the most vicious circle of falling habits and functions are those escaping and patching up falling habits. Accordingly, egos need to confront the self's functions and habits escaping and patching up falling habits from the beginning to the ending.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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