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A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

BASIC WORDS

    In this book, this "A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" is also called "This Book". In addition, "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and this book are also called "These Books" in this book. This book is on the basis of the first two. Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after they are read. However, we think that the main part of this book can be understood without them. These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as its chapter. These books as a book are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" in these books. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or these books in these books.
    In this book, the words of material things, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, voluntary movements, synthetic functions, emotions, impulses, egos, intentional functions, manipulations of images, thinkings, and so on designate the same things as "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because the species of living things and human beings are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designate their individuals.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties including functions, and the whole or part of a function causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties including functions directly or indirectly. However, when the words "being caused or changes", "causing or changing", and "directly or indirectly" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed is also called "Being Caused", causing or changing is also called "Causing", and "directly or indirectly" will be omitted in these books. In addition, it is impossible to enumerate "some other material things and functions" which a function causes and which are caused by a function. For example, a neural group's excitement and transmission causes some other neural groups' excitements and transmissions, the consumption of oxygen and glucose, muscle groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, egos, thinkings, voluntary movements, speaking and writing words, interpersonal functions, the changes of the self's and other persons' emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on, those of the society and the nature, and so on, and they are endless. Accordingly, the self-evident have been and will be omitted in all the books in "OUR-EXISTENCE.NET". For example, when a writer of OUR-EXISTENCE.NET describes a neural group's excitement and transmission, he or she writes that it is caused by some pre-synaptic groups' excitements and transmissions and causes some post-synaptic groups' excitements and transmissions, and omits its consumption of oxygen and glucose, and so on.

POSSIBILITIES

    The possibility that a material thing or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other material things or properties including functions are caused. For example, the possibility that a neural cell's excitement and transmission is caused includes the possibilities that some pre-synaptic cells excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are caused.
    The possibility that a material thing or a property including a function is caused has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The quantity can be obtained through actually measured probabilities, their products, and so on.

NATURE AND SITUATIONS

    In that the possibility that a material thing or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other material things or properties including functions are caused, "some other material things or properties including functions" can be called the "Situation" of or for the material thing or the property including the function. For example 1, some pre-synaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are the situation of or for a neural cell's excitement and transmission. For example 2, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to animals, human societies, parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friend, partners, children, school, office, and so on are an individual's situation. For example 3, an individual's situation which is enumerated above and Self's emotions, autonomic functions, perception, association, and so on are an ego's situation.
    In addition, the situation of a species of living things can be called the "Nature" of or for the species. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to herbivores, and so on are the nature for a species of carnivores.
    The situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function includes some other parts of and some other functions of the individual. Of course, it includes some material things and functions other than the individual's. Of the situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function, some other parts of and some other functions of the individual can be called its "Bodily Situation" or "Internal Situation", and the others can be called its "External Situation". For example, the individual's emotions, autonomic functions, perceptions, and associations are an ego's internal situation, and his or her parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friends, school or office, and so on are its external situation.

ABILITIES

    In contrast to possibilities, the possibility that a function is caused which is intrinsic to it can be called the "Ability" or "Capability" of the function's being caused, the Ability, Capability, or "Activity" of the function, or the thing which the function has a ability or activity. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is being joined from some pre-synaptic cells, having a lot of receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and axon, joining to some post-synaptic cells, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters, and so on. In addition, when the necessary function which was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" which a material thing has is self-evident, the ability of that function can be called the Ability, Capability, or Activity of the material thing. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission can be called the activity of the neural cell.
    The ability has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The various ways to measure abilities have been devised. For example, the ability of an individual's memory and thinking is measured with some kinds of psychological tests.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", material things and properties including functions have some properties without which they can no more be looked upon them, and such properties can be called their Necessary Properties. For example, a neural cell which does not have the ability to excite and transmit can no more be looked upon as a neural cell, and so it is a necessary property of neural cells. In addition, when some of the necessary properties of a material thing are having the abilities of some functions, they can be called the Necessary Functions of the material thing. For example, a neural cell's necessary properties are (1) being a cell, (2) having a axon which diverge into a lot of smaller one at its terminal and a lot of dendrites, and (3) having the ability to excite and transmit. Out of (1)(2)(3), the excitement and transmission is a function, and it is a necessary function of a neural cell. By the way, generally, every function has the necessary property that its whole or part causes the wholes or parts of some other material things or properties including functions. In that, the other material things or properties including functions can be called the function' Necessary Objects. For example, though a neural cell's excitement and transmission can also cause the consumption of oxygen and glucose, the ability to cause it is not included in the necessary properties of a neural cell. The ability to excite and transmit is included in the necessary properties of a neural cell, and some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are the necessary objects of a neural cell's excitement and transmission. In addition, egos' necessary objects are intentional functions. In addition, in a function, the part which can cause the wholes or parts of its necessary objects directly can be called its "Necessary Part". For example, the necessary part of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is its pre-synaptic transmission. In addition, the necessary part of an ego contains its functional impulses at least.
    Now, it cannot be looked upon as a function's functioning or its being caused that its necessary part is not caused though some other parts of it are caused, and that neither the wholes nor parts of its necessary objects are caused. For example 1, it cannot be looked upon as a neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning that neither its exceeding of the threshold nor pre-synaptic transmission is caused though its post-synaptic transmission is caused, or that none of its post-synaptic cells' post-synaptic transmissions are caused. For example 2, it cannot be looked upon as an ego's being caused that none of its pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused though its functional image is recollected, that none of its functional impulse is caused though its pleasure and displeasure sensations are caused, that none of its functional impulse reaches the cerebrums or their periphery though it is caused, or that no intentional function is caused. Accordingly, that a function's necessary part is caused and that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused can be called the function's Functioning to its necessary objects, merely its Functioning, merely its being caused, or the material thing's functioning. That is, a function's being caused" is the same as the function's functioning to its necessary objects. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, that its pre-synaptic transmission is caused and that at least its post-synaptic cells' post-synaptic transmissions are caused is its functioning to the post-synaptic cells'.
    However, in a function which has a decisive part, when its decisive part is caused, its necessary part is caused, and the function functions. For example, a neural cell's excitement and transmission has its exceeding of the threshold as its decisive part, and so when it is caused, the neural cell functions.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

    In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, that neither its necessary part nor decisive part is caused can be called the function's "Stop" or Stopping. For example, that a neural cell's post-synaptic transmission is caused but that its misfire is caused is its excitement and transmission's stopping. Of course, that none of its post-synaptic transmission is caused is its stopping. For example 2, that its functional images are recollected but that none of them cause its functional impulse is an ego's stop. Of course, that none of its functional images are recollected is its stop.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

    That some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused can be called a function's "Arousal", Arising, or Beginning to Function. A function's arousal includes that none of its necessary part or decisive part is caused. That is, a function's arousal does not always mean its functioning. For example 1, in the recollection of an image, its arousal does not always mean its recollection. For example 2, in an ego, the recollection of its functional images does not always mean its functioning. Even if an ego's functional images are recollected, when they do not cause its image to emotion neural ways' excitements to transmissions, its pleasure autonomic sensations, or its functional impulse, that ego does not function.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

    That none of the parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part is caused can be called the function's complete stop or stopping completely. In contrast, that some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused but that its necessary part or decisive part is not caused can be called the function's incomplete stop or stopping incompletely. For example, in an ego, that its functional images are recollected but that its functional impulse is not caused is the ego's incomplete stop. Though the words of "incomplete" stops may make a bad impression, they are indispensable steps toward complete stops.

HABITS

EMOTIONS' HABITS

    Simply, sources recollected as images' causing pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations is an mental emotion, that is, a feeling, desire, complex emotion. For example, interpersonal relations recollected a images' causing displeasure autonomic sensations is interpersonal anxiety. What decides which pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused by sources recollected as images is a mental emotion's habit. There is more than one "image to emotion neural way" from the neural group which an image' source being recollected goes through to some autonomic sensations. For example, there are neural ways causing displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety and ones causing pleasure ones like expectation. Accordingly, which image to emotion neural ways are activated how much is a mental emotion's habit.
    Such a mental emotion's habit is formed in the following way. When something caused some pleasure or displeasure emotions intensely, continuously, or continually,
(1) the neural sources of that thing are generated, memorized, and stored,
(2) that emotions cause some pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations, and
(3) the image to emotion neural ways from the sources of that thing to those pleasure or displeasure sensations are activated.
Next time that thing is recognized and recollected as images, those image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit, and those pleasure or displeasure sensations are caused. After all, pleasure causes pleasure mental emotions like expectation, and pain causes displeasure ones like anxiety and fear. For example, in a child who has been battered, bullied, alienated, and neglected at home and school since the baby period, an intense habit of interpersonal anxiety is formed.
    There are some outlines in mental emotions such as interpersonal anxiety, zoophobia, claustrophobia, interpersonal desire, desire for power, desire for money, and so on.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", emotions are important as internal situations which affect egos. For example, when interpersonal anxiety is intense, interpersonal facing up or confrontation are hardly caused, and interpersonal escapes are easily caused.
    Most of mental emotions' habits are formed acquiredly in the above ways. In contrast, most of habits of physical emotions, that is, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are formed innately by genes and their functions.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS AND LIMITED FUNCTIONS

    Some functions have the following properties.

Each element of the set of functions (F = (f1,f2,…)) can arise in a certain situation (S),
in another situation (LS) which limits F which are actually caused to not more than a number (N),
in the case where not more than N of F arise (this case being C1),
all of them are caused with F's simple capability of being caused without LS (this ability or capability being A),
and in the case where more than N of F arise (this case being C2),
N of them which have the above ability (A) and have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others in LS (this ability or capability being AEO) are caused with A and AEO.
In those, the set of functions (F), the situation (LS) which limits F, and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), elements of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called the "Limited Functions" (lf) belonging LF, the situation (LS) can be called LF or lf's "Limiting Situation", and the ability in C1 (A) can be called lf's "Simple Ability or Capability of Being Caused", and that in C2 (AEO) can be called lf's "Ability or Capability of Being Caused While Excluding Others respectively.
    In those, a limited function's capability of being caused is, in C1, its simple capability of being caused (A), and, in C2, its simple capability of being caused (A) before entering LS and its capability of being caused while excluding others (AEO) in LS. Such an ability or capability can be called the limited function's "Tendency" to be caused, too.

LIMITING SITUATIONS

    Each limited function (lf) is neural groups' excitements and transmissions or activations and activities like each complex image's source, each mental emotion, or each impulse .
    While a neural group (U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmission of another neural group (S), even if another neural group (T) transmits to the neural group (U), the neural group (U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmission of the neural group (S) with the same spatial and temporal position, frequency, concentration, spatial and temporal arrangement, and their changes as those of the neural group (S), almost regardless of the transmission of the neural group (T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmission's "Going Through" or Coming Through and (T)'s excitement and transmission's "Disappearing".
    A converging neural group has a lot of synapses which can be called excitements and transmissions' "concourses". At each of them, when more than one neural group's excitement and transmission is about to reach it, that which reaches it the earliest and excites and transmits the most continuously and at the highest density go through while making the others disappear. In the whole of a converging neural group, when many neural groups' excitements and transmissions are caused, a limited number of them which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center, while making the others disappear, go through and reach the final convergence point.
    This is the limiting situation of limited function. In addition, the earliness, continuity, density, wideness, closeness to the center of neural groups' excitements and transmissions are the ability or capability of being caused while excluding others of limited functions.

FLUCTUATION OF N

    However, the limited number (N) fluctuates depending on another situation (SN). For example, when a limited function excites and transmits very widely and occupies most of the space including the center, N gets smaller and sometimes become one. In contrast, some limited functions excite and transmit compactly and occupy the space in arrangement, N gets larger. Metaphorically, N is smaller or one in the close-up of a person's face. In contrast, when several persons and the background of the sky, the sea, mountains, trees, birds, and so on come into view, N is larger.
    However, if the fluctuation of N is always explained, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, unless necessary, its explanation is omitted in these books.

LIMITING RECOLLECTIONS OF IMAGES

(S) The situations of recollections of images
    The properties which some parts of the sources just sensed or just recollected as images have are recognized, and images' sources can be recollected on the basis of recognition and similarity, and then on the basis of neural ways and temporal closeness. Accordingly, the direct situations for recollections of images are those properties which are recognized. Again, they are direct situations, and indirect situations are homes, schools, offices, human relations at them, and so on.
    For example, in the days when automobiles are still not invented, their images are never generated or recollected or arise in most of the human beings, excluding a few scientists or engineers, and so the images of automobiles, driving them, going by them, and so on are excluded from sets of limited functions in any situation in most of the human beings in those days.
(LS) Limiting situations in recollections
    That each kind of memorial neural group from the memorizations and storages to the replay converges and that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the widest, and the closest to the center, while making the others disappear, and reach the replay are the limiting situations in recollections.
    In such a way, complex images' sources are limited functions, and recollections of images are limiting functions. In the case where not more than N of complex images arise (C1), all of them are recollected, and in the case where more than N of complex images arise (C2), N of them are recollected in LS which was explained above. However, the limited number (N) fluctuates depending on another situation (SN).
(SN) Situations in which N fluctuates in recollections
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", each kind of sensory image like visual sensory image, auditory sensory image, or so has its own represented source's space, and each complex image occupies its part. When those which occupy central and large parts are recollected, N gets smaller. In contrast, when those which occupy small parts are recollected in arrange, N gets larger. In other words, when some images are recollected intensely, N gets smaller. For example, when a person think of his or her girl or boy friend, the other things hardly occurs to him or her.

MENTAL EMOTIONS

    There are some neural ways from the neural group which images' sources go through to autonomic sensations. Such neural ways can be called "Image to Emotion Neural Ways".
    Feelings, desires, complex emotions can be called Mental Emotions as general words. Simply, when some images' sources just recollected cause some image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions and some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, (1) those recollections of images, (2) those images' sources, (3) those image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, and (4) those autonomic sensations or (3) and (4) are a mental emotion. For example, if general human beings recollected as images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, it is an interpersonal anxiety. If a certain person's images cause them, it is a fear of or a disgust at him or her. If the self recollected as images cause them, it is a self-hatred.
    Most emotions some autonomic functions and autonomic sensations. For example, the pain on the skin, which is a somatic sensation, cause some palpitation, dyspnea, and sweating, which are autonomic sensations or autonomic functions.
    Image to emotion neural ways are activated not innately but acquiredly. When various images' sources are generated or renewed and when various emotions are caused, and when autonomic sensations are caused, the image to emotion neural ways from those images' sources to those autonomic sensations are activated. Next time those images' sources are recollected, they cause those image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, and those autonomic sensations. This is a mental emotion. For example, in a person who was battered and alienated in the baby and infant period and bullied and alienated in the adolescent period, the image to emotion neural ways from general human beings' images to displeasure autonomic sensations were activated, and those images cause those sensations. This is an example of interpersonal anxiety.
    Accordingly, Images' sources just recollected are the direct situations of mental emotions.
    However, it is possible that more than one image to emotion neural way excites and transmits from one image's source, that more than one autonomic sensation arises, and that more than one mental emotion arises. For example, though we can only perceive the emotion where anxiety and expectation are mixed, that where love and hate are mixed, and so on at most, it is possible that some others are arising even at the time.
    By the way, the neural group which the sources of general sensations, excluding autonomic sensations, do not converge so that they become limiting functions. For example 1, in a visual sensation, the visual field remains almost intact from the retinae to the visual areas on the occipital lobes as long as there are no neurological disorders. For example 2, if there are a high wall in front of our eyes, we cannot see things beyond it, that is not because of neural functions or disorders but because of optical material functions.
    There is not one pair but more than one pair of replays in autonomic sensations. For example, it is unthinkable that palpitation, dyspnea, and nausea are replayed in the same replay. For this reason only, it is unthinkable that the neural groups which autonomic sensations' sources go through converge.
    However, autonomic sensations are a complex sensation which consists of various kind of sensation from various internal organs. Accordingly, even if there are a lot of replays, the neural group which autonomic sensations' sources go through converge and has a lot of concourses. Accordingly, autonomic sensations are limiting functions, and mental emotions are limiting functions.

IMPULSES

    Most emotions cause neural groups' excitements and transmissions which go through widely in the neural system, above all, the autonomic neural system and cause various functions, above all, autonomic functions and sensations. For example, most pain causes palpitation and dyspnea.
    Out of such wide neural groups' excitements and transmissions caused by emotions, those which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery and influence the cerebrums in some ways can be called "Impulses".
    More than one emotion can be caused at once. Moreover, one emotion can cause more than one impulse. Accordingly, more than one impulse can arise at once.
    Though each impulse itself diffuse to the cerebrums or their periphery, because of the very diffuseness, impulses cannot help interfering with one another before reaching them. That is, the neural group which impulses go through can be looked upon as converging on the cerebrums or their periphery though it is rough. Accordingly, even if many impulses arise at once, those which excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, the most widely, and the closest to the center reach the cerebrums or their periphery while making the others disappear. Accordingly, impulses are limited functions, and their sets, the neural groups which they go through, and the other functions treating them are limiting functions.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

    Some sources of the images of an intentional function are recollected, and those just recollected cause the excitements and transmissions of the neural ways from them to the neural groups which cause the intentional function. In this case, the images of the intentional function can be called its "Functional Images", the neural groups which cause the intentional function can be called its "Functional Neural Groups", and the neural ways from its functional images' sources to its functional neural groups can be called the "Image to Function Neural Ways" from the former to the latter. In addition, its functional images' sources, and the recollection of them, and the excitements and transmissions of the image to function neural ways can be called a "Rational System".
    Some functional images' sources just recollected cause the excitements and transmissions of the neural ways from them to some autonomic sensations, and they cause the autonomic sensations, and they cause some impulses. Such neural ways from the functional images' sources to the autonomic sensations can be called "Image to Emotion Neural Ways", and such impulses as are caused by functional images' sources indirectly can be called "Functional Impulses". In addition, such image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, autonomic sensations, and functional impulses and the functions concerning them can be called a "Emotional System".
    No functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions are caused only by rational systems, and no intentional functions are caused only by them. In order for them to be caused, emotional systems need to promote rational systems. The functional impulses in emotional systems promote image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, and functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions are caused. For the time being, a rational system, a emotional system, and the latter's promotion of the former can be called "Egos".
    Metaphorically, rational systems propose some intentional functions which should be caused, that is, "how to do" in a certain situation, and emotional systems decide which of the intentional functions proposed by rational systems to adopt and carry out while referring to whether they are pleasure or displeasure, The intentional functions causing displeasure are rejected, and those causing the most intense pleasure are selected.
    An ego contains the recollection of functional images, which is a limiting function, in the rational system. It is at the beginning of an ego. Even for that reason only, an ego is a limiting function. Moreover, in an ego, the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the autonomic sensations, and the functional impulses and the functions concerning them can be looked upon as a rational system and as a limiting function. An ego contain an emotional system, which is a limiting function, at the ending. Also for that reason, an ego is a limiting function. Egos as limiting functions can be called "Limiting Egos".
    In contrast to a limiting ego, the functional images' sources, the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the autonomic sensations, and the functional impulses which can cause an intentional function can be looked upon as a limited function, and it can be called a "Limited Ego".
    It can be looked upon a limited ego's arising but not being caused
that the functional images do arise but are not recollected,
that they are recollected but do not cause any pleasure autonomic sensations,
that they are caused but do not cause any functional impulses,and
that they are caused but are not so intense and do not reach the cerebrums or their periphery because they are made disappear by some others.
    In such a way, when the functional images cause displeasure autonomic sensations, no functional impulses are caused, and the limited ego is not caused. When some pleasure autonomic sensations are caused and when they cause functional impulses so intense that they reach the cerebrums or their periphery while making the others disappear. For example, in a person who has an intense interpersonal anxiety, even if interpersonal facing up or confrontation is recollected as functional images, the limited ego intending to face up or confront interpersonally does arise but is not caused. When interpersonal escapes are recollected as functional images, pleasure autonomic sensations are caused, and functional impulses are caused. However, if waiting and seeing is recollected as functional images, if it causes pleasure autonomic sensations, and if it causes impulses making them disappear, the limited ego intending to wait and see is caused, and an intentional function of waiting and seeing is caused. After all, the functional images' sources which cause the autonomic sensations with the most intense pleasure and then the most intense impulses and cause the whole of the limited egos and the intentional functions.
    Now, if limiting and limited egos were always distinguished and if the words of "limiting" and "limited" were always used, the sentences would be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear whether the word "egos " designate limiting ones or limited ones from the context, those words will be omitted in these books.

OUTLINES OF LIMITED FUNCTIONS

A set of limited functions has some subsets which the limited functions belonging to's capabilities of being caused are formed together on the basis of their similarity. Such a set can be called an "Outline of limiting functions". For example, there is showing off the self as an outline of limited egos. Its tendency is formed by his or her mother's thin love, alienation, and so on in the baby and infant period and is formed together. Though its details are various like talking too much of the self and putting on unique appearance, all of them give other persons the same impression.

OUTLINES OF LIMITED EGOS

    Outlines of limited egos have not only the general property of outlines of limited functions that the tendencies of the limited functions belonging to an outline are formed together but also the following property.
    In recollections of functional images in limiting egos, initially, outlines of intentional functions are recollected as images, as it were, in the background from the recognition of the outline of the situation, and thereafter, the details of functional images are recollected, as it were, in the foreground from that of the details of the situation. The time of from transition from outlines to details is tenths of a second. Images of outlines of intentional functions can be looked upon as precursors of functional images. Such images of outlines of intentional functions are included in functional images in these books. In addition, the set of the limited egos which contain the images of an outline of intentional function can be called an "Outline of Limited Egos". For example, initially, outlines of intentional functions of escapes are recollected as functional images, and tenths of a second later, detailed and concrete ways to escape are recollected as functional images like running away simply, sneaking out, hiding oneself, and so on.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions are perceived and generated or renewed as images' sources. Moreover, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", those sources go through each kind of memorial neural group diverging one after another and classified into outlines. That classification generates or renews images of outlines of intentional functions. The sets of intentional functions which generates or renews such images of outlines can be called "outlines of intentional functions".
    Accordingly, the outlines of egos and those of intentional functions correspond one to one. For example, corresponding to there's being facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing as outlines of egos, there are facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing as outlines of intentional functions.
    In addition, an ego causes the intentional functions directly. Moreover, an outline of egos causes the outline of intentional functions directly. For example, an ego intending to escape causes an escape as an intentional function.
    However, even if an ego intends to cause an intentional function, it is probable that it cannot cause skillful one. For example 1, even if human beings intend to fly, they cannot fly like birds, and they can only jump. That is because of the limit of abilities of intentional functions of the species of Homo sapiens. For example 2, those who have escaped interpersonal relations for years cannot cause skillful interpersonal functions. That is because abilities of intentional functions are immature or reduced. In addition, egos sometimes recognize the immaturity or lack of the abilities of some intentional functions, foresee that the pain which will be caused when they cause those intentional functions, and reject them. For example, egos sometimes recognize the self's immaturity of the abilities of interpersonal functions, foresee that feeling of being alienated will be caused when they cause them, and reject them.

USAGE OF THE WORD "OUTLINES"

    From the beginning, the words of facing up or confrontation, escape, waiting and seeing, and so on designate outlines of egos or intentional functions. Also in our daily lives and science, such outlines are often argued. In addition, if the word of outlines is always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when unnecessary, the word of outlines is omitted, and the outline of facing up or confrontation, that of escaping, that of waiting and seeing, and so on are called simply Facing Up or Confrontation, Escape, Waiting and Seeing, and so on in these books.
    In addition, as important outlines, there are outlines of intentional functions and of egos. However, if the words of "of intentional functions", "of egos", and so on are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear from the context whose outline it is, those words are omitted in these books.
    According to the above two, for example, the outlines of egos of facing up or confrontation, of escaping, and of waiting and seeing are sometimes called simply Facing Up or Confrontation, Escaping, and Waiting and Seeing.

HABITS OF LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    As was explained earlier, a limited function's capability of being caused is, in C1 (in the case where not more than N of limited functions arise), its simple capability of being caused (A), and, in C2 (in the case where more than N of limited functions arise), its simple capability of being caused (A) before entering the limiting situation (LS) and its capability of being caused while excluding others (AEO) in LS. Such an ability or capability can be called the limited function's "Tendency" to be caused. After all, theoretically, such abilities, capabilities, or tendencies can be quantified as the activities of the neural groups or ways concerned. In addition, theoretically, it is possible to determine the abilities, capabilities, or tendencies of outlines of limited functions as the averages of those values.
    Moreover, in a limiting function, it is possible to determine the matrix of the tendencies of outlines of limited functions which can arise in a certain situation (S). Then, not more than N of outlines which have the largest tendencies are caused. That is, if such a matrix can be determined, we can predict which limited functions, as far as outlines are concerned, will be caused in a certain situation. For example, we can predict which outlines of egos will be caused and which outlines of intentional functions will be caused.
    However, first, it is very difficult to completely identify the details of the neural groups and ways concerned. Second, if it could be done, it would be almost impossible to measure their activities in living things including human beings.
    Accordingly, the quantification of them cannot help being indirectly determined with the observation of visible intentional functions, the measurement of measurable autonomic functions, psychological tests of invisible pure mental functions, and so on, which were carried out mainly in the twentieth century and which seem to be old in the twenty-first century. They need to be improved more.
    However, directly determining those values is different from explaining the neural systems and functions causing limiting functions and their habits. While the former is almost impossible, the latter is possible to a degree. If we could not do the latter at all, the existence of limiting functions and their habits would be doubted. This can be said about not only limiting functions and their habits but also all mental functions. Accordingly, these books have explained the neural systems and functions causing mental functions as hard as they can. We will do it from now on, too.
    Now, let's return to the main theme. As for limiting functions, limiting situations (LS) and limited functions' capabilities of being caused while excluding the others (AEO) have explained including the neural systems and functions causing them. In a limiting function, the matrix of the outlines of the tendencies of limited functions which can arise in a certain situation (S) can be called the "Limiting Function's Habit" in S. Then, not more than N of outlines which have the largest tendencies are caused. In the following sections, we will explain the details of limiting functions' habits including the neural systems and functions causing them.

HABITS OF RECOLLECTIONS

    The direct situation of a limiting recollection of images is the properties recognized in the neural sources just sensed or just recollected as images. In such a situation, some complex images are recollected on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of neural ways and temporal closeness. It is habits of recollections that decide which complex images are recollected.
    In order for a complex image to be recollected, first, the neural ways from recognitions to the complex image's sources need to be activated and the activities need to be retained to a degree. However, the neural ways on the basis of recognition and similarity have been activated innately, and there is little difference among individuals. Accordingly, what matters are the activities of neural ways on the basis of neural ways and temporal closeness, that is, those of image to image neural ways.
    Second, complex images themselves need to be recollected. For that, the neural groups memorizing and storing the individual images' sources composing complex images need to be activated, and the activities need to be retained to a degree. However, only by this, not all of the individual images composing a complex image are recollected. In order for all of them are recollected, and for perfect complex images are recollected, the neural ways among them, that is, image to image neural ways need to be activated, and the activities are retained to a degree.
    Moreover, preparing for C2 (the case where more than N of complex images' sources arise), complex images need to excite and transmit the earliest, the most continuously, at the highest density, the most widely, and the closest to the center. For that, it is necessary that the image to image neural ways which have the fewest synapses, that is, the least indirection, be activated, that the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources excite and transmit the most continuously, that the neural group memorizing and storing individual images sources and the neural ways among them be at the highest densities, that they are the widest, and that they are the closest to the center.
    Those are the ability, capability, or tendency for a limited function in limited recollection, that is, for a complex image's source to be recollected. It is complicated in such a way as far as limiting recollections are concerned.
    However, we can easily pick up what decide the habits of limiting recollections. It is the manipulations of images by egos in thinkings that decide them. From the beginning, in spontaneous mental functions of recollections, perception, and association, images are transient. The generation or renewal of images in them cannot activate the above neural groups and ways intensely. In contrast, egos fix images to a degree through their manipulations. As a result, the generation and renewal of images in them activate them much more intensely than those in spontaneous mental functions do. Simply, what egos think of again and again are often recollected and cannot be forgotten easily. What egos have not think of are transient and easily forgotten. What decide the habits of recollections of images are egos' manipulation of images.

HABITS OF PERCEPTIONS

    Perceptions are the recollections (of images) whose direct situations are limited to the properties of neural sources just sensed and do not include those just recollected as images. Accordingly, habits of perceptions are the same as habits of recollections. Perceptions are included in recollections. Accordingly, explanations of perceptions are usually omitted in these books.

HABITS OF ASSOCIATIONS

    Simply, associations are repetitions of recollections. Accordingly, the habits of associations consist of those of recollections. However, the possibility of the complex images' being recollected which are not recollected in only one recollection gets larger in an association. In addition, in an association, the properties of recollections as limiting functions and the importance of the limited number (N) get smaller. Simply, various ideas occur to us in the time of more than tenths of a second. Those are experienced in our daily life as the fact that good ideas occur to us if we do not short-circuit but wait and see.
    However, whether or not associations are made use of depends on whether or not egos do not short-circuit but wait and see, and it depends on habits of egos.

HABITS OF MENTAL EMOTIONS

    Simply, images just recollected's causing some image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions and causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations is feelings, desires, and complex emotions, that is, mental emotions. As was explained earlier, mental emotions are limiting functions.
    In a mental emotion, it is only the activities of image to emotion neural ways that are formed acquiredly, and the others are formed innately. It is those acquired activations that cause the difference among individuals and matter.
    Most emotions cause some autonomic sensations, pleasure emotions cause pleasure autonomic sensations, and displeasure emotions cause displeasure autonomic sensations. When a thing's images are generated or renewed, when it cause some emotions and autonomic sensations, and when those are caused intensely, continuously, or continually, the image to emotion neural ways from its images' sources to those autonomic sensations are activated, and the activities are retained. Next time that thing is perceived or recollected as images, those activated image to emotional neural ways excite and transmit, and those autonomic sensations are caused, and such a mental emotion comes to be easily caused. This is the process of the formation of the habits of mental emotions. For example, in a baby or infant who has been battered or neglected by its mother, the images of its mother or general human beings come to cause displeasure autonomic sensations, and the feeling of interpersonal anxiety is formed.
    In such a way, it is the intensity, frequency, and continuity of the emotions caused by the thing whose images are generated or renewed simultaneously. For example, even one battering, if it is furious, can cause interpersonal anxiety, and even slight alienation, if it continue for years, can cause some feeling of being persecuted.

HABITS OF EMOTIONAL SYSTEMS

  As was explained earlier, in an limiting ego, the image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions caused by some functional images' sources just recollected, and the autonomic sensations caused by them, and the functional impulses caused by them can be called the emotional system of the limiting ego. As was explained earlier, pleasure and displeasure sensations and impulses and functions treating them are limiting functions. Accordingly, emotional systems, which contain them, are limiting functions, too.
    It is only the activities of image to emotion neural ways that are formed acquiredly in a emotional system, and the others are all formed innately. Accordingly, it is only those activities that matter in it, and they form the difference among individuals.
    In a emotional system, the autonomic sensations and the functional impulses which they cause are correlated. Pleasure emotions can cause functional impulses, and displeasure ones cannot cause any of them. Intense pleasure emotions cause intense functional impulses.
    When an intentional function belonging to an outline is caused and perceived, when its functional images including the images of that outline are generated or renewed, when that intentional function causes some emotions and then some autonomic sensations, and when those are caused intensely, continuously, and continually, the image to emotion neural ways from those functional images to those autonomic sensations are activated, and those activities are retained. Next time those functional images are recollected, those activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit and cause those autonomic sensations, and when some of them cause the most intense functional impulses, they promote the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the whole of the ego is caused, and that intentional function is caused. This is the process of the formation of emotional systems. For example, when a child tries to cause interpersonal functions, when it is alienated and when displeasure emotions like feeling of being alienated and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused again and again, and when it tries to escape interpersonal relations and when pleasure emotions like ease and pleasure autonomic sensations are caused again and again, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images of the outline of interpersonal escapes to those pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and those functional images cause those pleasure autonomic sensations and the most intense functional impulses, and interpersonal escapes come to be frequently caused.
    In such a way, what decides habits of emotional systems is the intensity, frequency, and continuity of the pleasure emotions caused by the intentional functions belonging to the outline. For example, even when a child is alienated once, if the feeling of being alienated is intense, it comes to escape interpersonal relations. In addition, even when it has faint feeling of it, if the alienation continue for years, it come to escape them.

ABILITIES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    In the neural system of an individual, it is the activities of the following that are formed acquiredly.

(1) The neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources
(2) Image to image neural ways
(3) Image to function neural ways
(4) Function to function neural ways
(5) Image to emotion neural ways

Out of (1)-(5), (3)(4) are concerned with not habits of egos but abilities of intentional functions.
    Excluding unitary voluntary movement like bending and stretching of joints, most intentional functions are complex ones which consist of unitary ones. The intentional functions which are important for us, human beings, are all complex ones like walking up right on two legs, speaking and writing words, thinking, playing, working, and interpersonal functions. What is important for the ability of an complex intentional function is the collaboration between the unitary ones composing it. What make such collaboration possible are the activations and activities and excitements and transmissions of (3)(4). The activations of (3)(4) form not habits of egos but abilities of intentional functions.
    Habits of egos and abilities of intentional functions need to be distinguished clearly. Egos on the basis of their habits decide which intentional function is caused. The ability of an intentional function decides whether that intentional function is skillful or unskilled.
    When egos on the basis of their habits do not cause an intentional function, the ability of that intentional function are not formed. When egos on the basis of their habits cause that intentional function, its ability starts to be formed for the first time. For example, when the habits of interpersonal escapes are formed and when egos do not cause interpersonal functions, the ability of interpersonal function is not formed, and it stays immature. When the habits of interpersonal escapes are reduced and when egos cause interpersonal functions, the ability of interpersonal functions are formed in months or years. When we look over in such a way, we find that habits of egos are more important than abilities of intentional functions.
    In addition, the immaturity of the abilities of some outlines of intentional functions and the pain caused by causing such outlines are sometimes recollected as images. Then, egos sometimes reject such outlines of intentional functions (1) and cause such an outline (2) as patch up or escape (1). Then, only the ability of (2) is formed, and those of (1) are not formed and do stay immature. Moreover, egos' habit of patching up or escaping the immaturity of abilities of intentional functions are sometimes formed. This is the most serious, as will be explained later.
    In addition, interpersonal relations, functions, and abilities can be distinguished into superficial ones which do not need to express emotions, egos, or thoughts and deep ones which need to express them. Compliments, businesslike relations, and so on are included in the former, and telling the way of life on the basis of the self's experience,advising others on the basis of the self's ideas, asking something from others on the basis of the self's emotion, and so on are included in the latter. Joking in order to enjoy conversation, being silent in order to have others talk, and so on are included in the latter. As long as the abilities of interpersonal functions are compared, while those of the former can be easily formed, those of the latter cannot. It is probable that those whose abilities of interpersonal functions are immature in general only cause superficial ones, and that their abilities of the latter stay immature. Causing only superficial interpersonal functions is a kind of interpersonal escape, and it is caused by a habit of egos.
    When we look over in such a way, we find more and more that habits of egos are more important than abilities of intentional functions.
    From the beginning, it is possible that limited egos and the intentional functions caused by them are looked upon as limited functions, and they and the functions treating them are looked upon as a limiting function. However, the habits of the parts of egos and the abilities of those of intentional functions need to be distinguished in the above ways. Accordingly, these books distinguish egos and intentional functions.
    However, it is not that abilities of intentional functions are unnecessary. Above all in the modern society, in offices, schools, and homes, in order to work, study, and play, abilities of intentional functions are made much of, and the formation of them is looked upon as a kind of duty of individuals. In contrast, habits of egos are left to a kind of freedom of individuals. For example, if an employer tries to form the habits of egos of the employees, it is looked upon as a violation of the right of workers. In contrast, if he or she tries to form their abilities to work, it is not looked upon as such violation. However, when we look over in such a way, we find more and more the importance of habits of egos. That is because the very things left to freedom are precious for individuals. Anyway, it is not that abilities of intentional functions are unnecessary, but that habits of egos are more important than them.

HABITS OF EGOS

    Again, let's sum up egos. The recollection of some functional images, those functional images' sources just recollected, and the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions caused by them can be called a "Rational System". In contrast, the image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions caused by those functional images' sources just recollected, the autonomic sensations caused by them, and the functional impulses caused by them can be called a "Emotional System". The rational system and the emotional system and the promotion of the image to functional ways' excitements and transmissions in the former by the most intense functional impulses in the latter can be called an "Ego". Such an ego causes the excitements and transmissions of functional neural groups including function to function neural ways and cause an intentional function. Metaphorically, a rational system proposes some intentional functions, and a emotional system, referring to pleasure or displeasure, decides which of them to be caused.
    Out of the neural groups and ways concerned with such egos and intentional functions, it is only neural groups memorizing and storing individual images sources, image to image neural ways, image to function neural ways, function to function neural ways, and image to emotion neural ways that are activated acquiredly. However, as was explained earlier, out of them, image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways are concerned with the formation of abilities of intentional functions and are not concerned with that of habits of egos. Accordingly, it is only neural groups memorizing and storing individual images sources, image to image neural ways, and image to emotion neural ways that are concerned with that of habits of egos.
    Accordingly, the habits of egos consist of those of recollections of functional images and those of emotional systems. Moreover, the latter are dominant in egos' habits, and the latter decide them.
    From the beginning, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", it is not rational systems but emotional systems that are decisive in egos themselves. A rational system recollects and proposes some outlines of functional image. Those outlines proposed include most of those which are recollected in general. For example, in the situation of a interpersonal situation, facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing are all recollected. It is egos that decide which outlines that are proposed in general are adopted. Accordingly, not rational systems but emotional systems are decisive in egos themselves.
    Accordingly, it is not the habits of recollections of functional images but those of emotional systems that decide the habits of egos. Again, when an intentional function belonging to an outline is caused and perceived, when its functional images including the images of that outline are generated or renewed, when that intentional function causes some emotions and then some autonomic sensations, and when those are caused intensely, continuously, and continually, the image to emotion neural ways from those functional images to those autonomic sensations are activated, and those activities are retained. Next time those functional images are recollected, those activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit and cause those autonomic sensations, and when some of them cause the most intense functional impulses, they promote the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the whole of the ego is caused, and that intentional function is caused. This is the process of the formation of habits of egos. For example, For example, when a child tries to cause interpersonal functions, when it is not alienated, and when pleasure emotions like vividness and pleasure autonomic sensations are caused again and again, the image to emotion neural ways from the images of the outline of interpersonal facing up or confrontation to those autonomic sensations are activated, those functional images come to cause those autonomic sensations and the most intense functional impulses, and interpersonal facing up or confrontation come to be frequently caused.
    In such a way, what decides habits of egos is the intensity, frequency, and continuity of the pleasure emotions caused by the intentional functions belonging to the outline. Simply, when we try to cause an intentional function and when the result is pleasure again and again, we come to cause it again and again. After all, we have reached such a simple conclusion.

ABILITIES OF THINKINGS

    Manipulations of images are caused directly by egos and are intentional functions.
    The alternation between associations, which are spontaneous pure mental functions, and manipulations of images, which are intentional functions, can be called "Thinkings".
    Egos can set themes or problems through manipulations of images, can intend to think about them, and can start thinkings. Accordingly, while containing manipulations of images, which are intentional functions, thinkings are themselves intentional functions.
    In thinkings, there are such non-daily and technical thinkings as mathematical, physical, legal, and management ones. Those thinkings and some pieces of technical knowledge are necessary, above all, at school and office, and we cannot do without them. Though egos finally decide which thinking to be caused also in such thinkings, most of it has already be decided by situations, a kind of duty, and the ways of thinkings peculiar to technical ones. For example 1, in courts where we should carry out legal and humanitarian thinkings, we should not management thinkings exaggeratedly. For example 2, on every kind of presentation, some technical data should be shown. For example 3, the ways of mathematical and physical thinkings contain not only daily languages but also such signs as are familiar to most of the specialists.
    The abilities of those technical thinkings and the necessary pieces of knowledge are acquired mainly through studying the subjects. For example, their textbooks contain not only their basic knowledge but also their ways of thinkings, and the abilities of technical thinkings and the necessary pieces of knowledge are acquired through reading them, too.
    However, habits of egos matter in their formation, too. From the beginning, it is decided by situations and habits of desires and egos whether or not to study and which subject to study mainly. Even if we want to study, if there are no schools in regions or no means at homes, we cannot study. Even if we have them, if we do not have intense desires and egos to study and enter professions, and moreover, for example, to earn much money and live in luxury, to leave a great performance and win honor, and so on, we cannot study so hard. From the beginning, what do we study and work for? To live for oneself? To support one's family? To win honor? To control others with power and money? To defeat authority and improve the society? It is habits of desires and egos that decide them. However, there can be a kind of desire to the pure truth, that is, the "Eros" in the ancient Greek philosophy. However, they are nothing but mental emotions, and they are decided by habits of desires and egos. It is because of their not depending so much on situations and duties that they can be appreciated.

HABITS OF EGOS IN THINKINGS

    In contrast to such thinkings as are not concerned directly with the self, there are thinkings concerned directly with the self like thinking what is the self and how the self should do.
    In such thinkings, first, situations are so important that they urge us. Second, concerning duty, moral, ethics, humanitarianism, religion, and so on intervene even in the contents of thinkings. However, they are abstract, and various functional images are recollected from them, which of them should be adopted is left to habits of egos. For example, if we "love our enemy", various functional images are recollected from the idea like talking and finding and correcting each other's error, that is, facing up or confrontation, watching over them, that is, waiting and seeing, and so on, and it is egos that decide which of them are selected. From the beginning, whether or not we should have a religion or thought is left to situations before the adolescent period and to habits of egos in and after it. Also about the law, there are various legal intentional functions and various illegal ones. Whether or not we observe the law, it is egos that select from such various functional images. Third, concerning ways of thinkings, there are no uniform ways, and there are no textbooks or general books about them. Accordingly, most thinkings concerning the self are decided by habits of egos.
    In contrast to such thinkings concerning the things concerning the self, those concerning the self itself are directly decided by habits of egos. Out of the properties of the self, there are ones causing displeasure feelings like anxiety, self-hatred, and dishonor. For example, when the habits of egos of adherence, showing off the self, and escaping and patching them up are recollected as images, they cause intense displeasure feelings. Accordingly, egos escape those recollected as images and do not think of them from the beginning. This is the most serious habit of egos.
    In contrast to those thinkings, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", there are egos involving thinkings. While egos contain recollections of functional images, in the egos, egos sometimes manipulate functional images and think of them. These egos can be called "Egos Involving Thinkings".
    Such thinkings involved in egos are the closest to egos of all mental functions, and are the hardest to be exposed to others. Accordingly, most of them are caused on the basis of situations and habits of egos, and hardly affected by duties and ways of thinkings. In addition, their contents are the most vivid reflection of habits of egos. For example, in a situation where escapes are difficult and in a person who has a intense habit of escapes, after the outline of escapes is recollected as an functional image, egos not more than manipulate and think of that outline and make it into more careful functional images of escapes. If escaping is rejected and if the outline of facing up or confrontation is recollected as a functional image and manipulated and thought of, a habit of egos of facing up or confrontation are formed to a degree in that person. However, in a person whose habit of egos of escapes is more intense, when the outline of facing up or confrontation is recollected as functional images, they are manipulated trough escapes of images and rejected.
    However, if such egos involving thinkings are always explained, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, they will be omitted unless necessary above all in these books. In addition, that functional images and images of outlines of intentional functions are recollected, manipulated, and thought of is usually called functional images' being recollected in these books. In addition, outlines of facing up or confrontation, escaping, and so on are usually called facing up or confrontation, escaping, and so on, and egos intending to face up or confront, escape, and so on are usually called facing up or confrontation, escaping, and so on in these books.

KNOWLEDGE

    Knowledge is the stored complex images which can be recollected.
    Out of knowledge, there are (1) non-daily and technical pieces, (2) those concerning the self, and (3) those which can be functional images. (1) can be acquired through study, experiment, and observation. The important of (2) can be acquired through the thinkings of the self by egos though some of them can be obtained through the appreciation by others, that through psychological tests, and so on. (3) are acquired in thinkings involved in egos.

PERSONALITIES

    The whole of the habits of egos, the abilities of intentional functions, the abilities of thinkings, the habits of recollections of images, the habits of associations, the habits of mental emotions, and the knowledge of an individual can be called his or her "Human habits", Habits or "Personality".
    As has been explained again and again, the most important of them are habits of egos, and the second most important are abilities of intentional functions. Accordingly, from now on, they will be explained mainly.
    In such a way, the habits or abilities of autonomic functions like hearts' and lungs' contraction and expansion, digestive tracts' movements, and so on are not included in personalities. They can be called "Physical Habits or Abilities". It goes without saying that they are important. However, the habit of taking care of them is included in a personality. For example, those who have intense habits of egos of desperation do not take care of them so much.

FORMATION OF HABITS

FORMATION, REDUCTION, OR REFORMATION OF HABITS, TENDENCIES, OR ABILITIES

In a limiting function, above all, a limiting ego, that the tendency of being caused of an outline of limiting functions belonging to it gets larger can be called the tendency's being "Formed", that it gets smaller can be called the tendency's being "Reduced", and that habit of the limiting function as the matrix of the outlines of limited functions belonging to it changes can be called the habit's being Formed or Reformed.
    The word "Reduction" may give a bad impression. However, when a function causes some pain, the pain is reduced by the tendency of the function's being reduced. For example, isolation causes loneliness, anxiety, and so on, and such pain will be reduced by the tendency of isolation's being reduced.
    In an intentional function, its ability's getting larger can be called the ability's being Formed, and its getting smaller can be called the ability's being reduced.
    In addition, that general tendencies of outlines of limited functions belonging to a limiting function gets larger before and in the adolescent period can be called the habit's being Formed, and that it changes after it can be called the habit's being Reformed.

PERIODS DURING WHICH HABITS OF EGOS AND ABILITIES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS ARE FORMED IN LUMPS

    There are some periods as follows during which habits of egos and abilities of intentional functions are formed in lumps.

[0-3 period] The baby and infant period
    During this period, though a lot of images are generated and recollected, nothing that happens during it will be recollected after it. Averagely, it is the time from the late prenatal period to the age of 3. It is divided into the following period.
[-0 period] The late prenatal period
    Few images' sources are generated because the fetus is protected and isolated in the mother's womb. However, some of the somatic sensation and autonomic sensations are functioning.
[0-1 period] The baby period
    Whether it is from mother's breasts or from bottles, milk is vital even if some baby food is taken.
    Crying⇒smiling⇒moving its eyes⇒moving its face⇒tossing and turning⇒holding up its head⇒crawling⇒standing up while holding onto something⇒starting to walk upright on two legs⇒starting to speak a few isolated words.
    It is, averagely, the time from delivery to the age of 1. However, this is only an average. Not walking or speaking does not always mean any disorders.
[1-3 period] The infant period
    Milk is not vital.
    Walking upright on two legs⇒speaking more isolated words⇒starting to speak a few sentences.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 1 to that of 3.
[3-10 period] The post-infant and pre-adolescent period
    Something that happens during this period will be recollected after it, and the rapid development of sexual functions has not started yet.
    It is divided into the following.
[3-6 period] The post-infant period (3 to 6 period)
    The self's images which were defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" are generated and recollected during it. The child has not been in the human relations independent of its home yet.
    Running, speaking sentences, starting to write a few words, and making friends through the introductions by mothers, brothers, sisters, and so on.
    Averagely, it is the time form the age 3 to that of 6.
[6-10 period] The pre-adolescent period
    The child is in the human relations independent of his or her home.
    Doing the crawl or butterfly stroke, writing words, studying, making friends by his or herself, making boy or girl friends in spite of the sexual immaturity.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 6 to that of 10.
[10-15 period] The adolescent period
    From the beginning to ending of the rapid development of sexual functions.
    Broadening or escaping interpersonal relations. Egos as was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" gets matured.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 10 to that of 15. However, this is only an average, and the differences among the sexes and individuals are very large.
[15- period] The post-adolescent period
    It is the time after the end of rapid development of sexual functions. That is, it does not include the adolescent period. In contrast, the adolescent period and the post-adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Later" in these books. And, the time before the adolescent period and the adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Earlier" in these books.

INFANT, PRE-ADOLESCENT, AND ADOLESCENT FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

[0-3] Infant Functions and Habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits, tendencies, or abilities are formed mainly in the baby and infant period can be called "Infant" Functions, and their habits, tendencies, or abilities can be called Infant Habits.
    Infant habits are the most hard to form, reduce, or reform after this period. Infant intentional functions include walking upright on two legs and speaking words, which are the most fundamental of all human intentional functions. If their abilities were not formed in this period, it would be hard to form them after it.
    Moreover, infant outlines of limited egos include adherence, showing the self, control, destruction, destroying complex images, and so on, as will be explained later.
[3-10] Pre-adolescent Functions and Habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits, tendencies, or abilities are formed mainly in the post-infant and pre-adolescent period can be called "Pre-adolescent" Functions, and their habits, tendencies, or abilities can be called Pre-adolescent Habits.
    Pre-adolescent habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Pre-adolescent intentional functions include reading and writing words and fundamental interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, the self's images are generated in this period. Infant recollections of images include the gap between the world and the self, the self's going fat, and so on, as will be explained later.
[10-15] Adolescent functions and habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits, tendencies, or abilities are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Functions, and their habits, tendencies, or abilities can be called Adolescent Habits.
    Adolescent habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Adolescent intentional function include more complicated interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, pre-adolescent outlines of limited egos include the escaping and patching up falling habits, as will be explained later.
[15-] Post-adolescent Functions and habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits, tendencies, or abilities are formed mainly in the post-adolescent period can be called "Post-adolescent" Functions, and their habits Post-adolescent Habits.
    Post-adolescent habits are hard to form, reduce, or reform, but easier than the above are. They include the functions and habits of the most complicated interpersonal functions and habits and the complicated way of life and way to die.
[0-] General functions and habits
    Averagely human beings, the functions whose habits are formed through his or her life or fluctuate can be called "General" Functions, and their habits General Habits.
    General outlines of limited egos include facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing.

CARE OF CHILDREN

    The functions to a child by some older human beings which are essential to its existence and development, above all, in the baby and infant period can be called their "Care" of it. It includes nursing, diapering, hugging, bathing, letting them play, and weaning.

MOTHERS

    The human beings in the position where they should mainly take care of a child in the baby and infant period can be called its "Mothers". Again, those who are in such a position are mothers, and they do not always take proper care. In addition, they do not always do so with love.
    Though they are usually a real mother, they can be a real father, mothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, grand mothers or fathers, older sisters or brothers, specialists, or so. In addition, mothers are not always one. For example 1, in the case that a child's real father is in unemployment and that its real mother is in employment, the two can be its mothers. For example 2, in the case that a child's real mother died at its age of one and that one of its grandmothers brought it up after her death, the two can be its mothers. Accordingly, the plural form of "mothers" are often used in these books. Nonetheless, most mothers are a real mother. That is because not of an idealistic reason but of a realistic one.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS OF CHILDREN IN THE BABY AND INFANT PERIOD

    The interpersonal relations of children before the age of three are limited to their mothers and a few persons. In addition, they have no choice of interpersonal relations. They cannot help acquiring the care for existence and growth, satisfying drives to gather and interpersonal desires, and reducing the anxiety about isolation in such limited interpersonal relations.

MOTHERS' LOVE

    Emotions were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called Emotions. Love is a kind of complex emotion which consists of sexual drives, drives to gather, drives to protect and nurse children, anxiety about isolation, interpersonal desires, and so on. Not only human beings but some mammals have some love. Human beings have the most complicated love of all animals.
    Love is very different depending on its object. From the beginning, it might be wrong that mothers' love for their children, the love between different sexes, the love for particular human beings, the love for general human beings, the love for the truth, and so on are argued with the same word "love". In this book, from now on, the word "love" designates mothers' love for their children.
    Mothers' love for their children is influenced by the change of endocrine systems and neural systems which start with pregnancy. However, such a change is not everything. A part of love is what is caused for the first time when mothers face their babies after delivery. Such a part can be caused not only in a real mother but also in any young or old man or woman who is in the position where he or she should mainly take care of a baby, that is, any mother. In addition, babies or infants grow and change and attract mothers also after the first encounter. The love which is caused by such encounters can be called Mothers' Natural Love. The emotion where such natural love is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    There are some surprise at and curiosity in the birth and growth of human beings or animals in such encounters, and mothers' love contains such emotions. Even if a mother's child is a second, third, or so one for him or her, there are some surprise at and curiosity in the universality and the individual difference of human beings or animals.
    Mothers' love is infused with some selfish desires that children will become some labor force when grown up, that children will take care of mothers when in their old ages, and so on. Such desires are much influenced by social systems. For example 1, in a nation where elderly welfare is much promoted, fewer mothers will want their children to take care of them. For example 2, in a nation where the systems for the protection of laborers' right and for children's education are established, fewer mothers will make their children to work. Anyway, the emotions where such selfish desires are dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, not only it is inevitable that such selfish desires infuse into love to a degree but also such infusion to a degree is harmless for children.
    In addition, mothers' love is accompanied with the feeling of the duty to bring up their children in good health. Such a duty is also based on the customary and written law. The complex emotion where such the feeling of duty is dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, some feeling of duty is necessary.
    Again, the complex emotion where the natural love as was explained above is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    On those ground, mothers do not need to think of love seriously. Though the following is extreme, those who think what is love do not have it.
    In general, other persons' emotions are grasped, perceived, and recognized. However, that recognition is not always correct. However, in psychology, incorrect recognition is also a mental function which affects other functions.
    Also in the children before the age of three, mothers' love is grasped, perceived, and recognized. In them, mothers' love is easier to feel and recognize than the care essential for their existence and growth and other interpersonal relations. It is after the pre-adolescent period that they can recognize that care is essential for their existence and growth. It is after the adolescent period that they can recognize complicated interpersonal relations. In contrast, even a baby can recognize whether or not its mothers have love for it. After all, it is mothers' love that a baby or infant grasps, perceives, and recognizes the most and seeks the most.
    Moreover, children do not seek deep or abundant love but do seek common love where the natural love as was explained above is dominant. For example, excessive body contact is sticky and irritating also for babies. Accordingly, mothers do not need to think what is love or how to represent love. Though the following is extreme, the mothers who think of such things do not have any love.

MOTHERS' THINNESS OF LOVE

    In mothers, it often happens that their love become thin temporarily. In contrast, that mothers' love is thin continuously or continually can be called mothers' "Thinness" of Love. For example 1, when mothers are isolated and they have few interpersonal relations with others, some of them do not let their children go away from them and make use of the relations with them in order to reduce the feeling of being isolated. In such a case, the ego intending to reduce that feeling by making use of the relations with them are dominant, and love becomes thin. That is, not letting their children go away in such a way is ostensible love. For example 2, when their general desires like desires for work, for partners, and so on are unsatisfied, some mothers heighten their desires for their children and try to satisfy them. Such desires for children heightened in such a way make love thin. Moreover, some of them lead to the enclosure which will be explained later.
    When mothers take care of their children with love in the baby and infant period, they are satisfied with the love, they are sometimes bored with it, they seek the things other than love and go apart from their mothers, and they get independent little by little from about the age of three. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, their children cannot be satisfied with love, they exclusively seek it forever, and they cannot get independent after about their age of three. Moreover, the habits of adherence, showing off the self, and so on, which will be explained later, are formed by their keeping seeking love forever.
    In addition, when mothers take care of their children with love in the baby period, even if the care is delayed for a while, they come to be able to wait and see about the age of six months. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, they cannot wait and see, they come to short-circuit and to be desperate, and they keep desperately crying. Moreover, the habits of egos of short-circuit, desperation, destruction, and so on, which will be explained later, are sometimes formed.
    Mothers' thinness of love are the most intense external situation that forms falling habits which will be explained later.
    Battering, neglect, and so on are more serious and clearer than mothers' thinness of love. However, we should not pay so much attention to the former so that we neglect the latter. Anyway, the former contain the latter. Accordingly, battering, neglect, and so on are included in mothers' thinness of love in these books.

ENCLOSURES

    In his or her both synthetic and pure mental functions, an individual's, above all, a mother's keeping other individuals, above all, his or her children to himself or herself and not letting them go apart from himself or herself can be called the individual's "Enclosure" of the other individuals or Enclosing them.
    In mothers, when their desires' dissatisfaction is intense in general, the desires concerning their children are heightened, and mothers often enclose their children in order to let them go away. Above all, when mothers are isolated and when their interpersonal relations are limited, they often enclose their children in order to reduce their loneliness.
    Enclosure is not the same as thinness of love. However, in enclosure, the egos and emotions other than love are dominant and it results in thinness of love.
    Enclosures overlap in a large part with what is called "interference". Seeming love's overflow is sometimes enclosure.
    Mothers' enclosure of their children is one of the most intense external situation that forms falling habits which will be explained later.

IMITATIONS

    While an intentional function of other individuals' is perceived and generated as images in an individual and while the egos of the individual repeats that intentional function, the individual's ability of that intentional function and the habit of egos of the individual causing it are sometimes formed. This can be called the individual's "Imitation" of or Imitating the intentional function. We need to pay attention to not only intentional functions' abilities' being formed but also egos' habits' being formed by imitations.
    Imitations are functions essential for human beings' walking upright on two legs, speaking words, writing words, and so on.
    However, above all, destructions are imitated, and egos' habits of destroying are formed in the adolescent period. For example, regrettably, the children of destructive parents often become destructive.

FACING UP AND ESCAPING

FACING UP AND ESCAPING

    When a thing (O) causes some pain (OP),
when an intentional function (CI) dealing with O also causes some pain (IP),
when CI can increase or maintain some pleasure or can decrease some pain in the future,
and when another intentional function (EI) dealing with O can decrease OP temporarily,
an ego's causing CI can be called the ego's Facing Up to or Confrontation with or Confronting O or CI,
and an ego's causing EI can be called the ego's escape from O or escaping O or CI,

    Facing up or confrontation and escaping can be looked upon as egos' outlines. In addition, waiting and seeing can be looked upon as an outline of egos. After all, egos have three outlines of facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing as their outlines dealing with pain.
    In addition, the outlines of intentional functions caused by the outlines of egos of facing up or confrontation, of escaping, and of waiting and seeing can be called Facing Up or Confrontation, Escaping, and Waiting and Seeing.
    For example 1, it is facing up to the intentional function of running away that the people involved in war carry out dangerous running away for the sake of the safety in the future. In such a way, escape is different from running away. In addition, in this case, it is facing up to the intentional function (CI) of running away.
    For example 2, as will be explained later, egos sometimes switch images as cause some pain. It is the escape from things (O) of images. We sometimes switch and escape some of the self's images as cause the pain like self-hatred, anxiety, and so on.
    However, we usually do not face up or escape but wait and see in our daily life. In contrast to daily waiting and seeing, daring to do so in impending situations can also be looked upon as facing up or confrontation. For example, when mothers have moderate love for their children, around the age of six months, babies come to able to wait and see without crying out desperately if they have moderate thirst and hunger. This is an important step to independence.
    In contrast, not being able to wait and see and always facing up or escaping instantly can be called Short-circuiting. This short-circuit is often not fit for human individuals and the species to exist. For example, if we started a fight or a war with a little hostility, human individuals and species could not exist. However, it is fit for some small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on to short-circuit and running away instantly.
    Anyway, in order to prevent overwork, animals including human beings cannot always face up, and we sometimes need to escape, to wait and see, to rest, and so on. These books never say that we should face up. They make it clear what we need to face up to.

FACING UP TO AND ESCAPING FROM IMAGES

    Some images just recollected cause some pain. This is a displeasure feeling, which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the self's immature abilities of interpersonal functions recollected as images cause pain like anxiety, self-hatred, dishonor, and so on.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", it is hard or impossible for any egos to bring farther or extinguish any images being recollected directly. Accordingly, each ego brings some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This is a "switch" from some images to some other images. When some recollected images cause intense pain, all that egos need to do is reduce that pain and to switch from them to some trifles. Simply, what are switched to makes no difference. In such a case, switching from some images to some other images can be called egos' Escape from or Escaping (from) the images. For example, when the self's immature abilities of interpersonal functions are recollected as images and when those images cause anxiety, self-hatred, and so on, some egos escape from those images and switch to the images of some other abilities of theirs like intelligence, physical ability, appearance, and so on which they think to be excellent.
    In contrast, egos' not escaping from some images causing some pain and manipulating them or start to thinking about them can be called egos' facing up to or confrontation with or Confronting the images.
    When an ego face up to some images, the confrontation with those images is recollected as the most complicated functional image. Simultaneously, the increase or maintenance of some pleasure or the decrease of some pain in the future is recollected as images, and some pleasure autonomic sensations like moderate palpitation and dyspnea are caused in the way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the future ease, cheers, and so on caused by the formation of the self's abilities of interpersonal functions are recollected as images. Accordingly, egos face up to the self's immature abilities recollected as images though they cause the pain like anxiety and self-hatred.
    Facing up to or confrontation with and escaping from images can be represented by the words of mental facing up or confrontation and mental escaping. These words will sometimes be used in these books.

HABITS OF FACING UP AND OF ESCAPING

    Facing up or confrontation, escaping, and waiting and seeing are also outlines of egos and have their habit. For example, some human beings confront frequently and intensely, some escape frequently and intensely, some frequently and moderately wait and see.
    However, their habits and their intensity or frequency are not so important. What egos have escaped from, and what egos will face up to are the most important.

FALLING HABITS

FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

    The set of functions' outlines (X, Y, Z, and so on) which have the following properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".

(a) Each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) traverses images' sources, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, emotions, egos, intentional functions, thinkings, and so on. However, (X, Y, Z, and so on) are mainly outlines of egos.
(b) Each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) temporarily reduces the self's pain or cause pleasure. However, each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) intensely, continuously, or continually causes the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(c) The tendencies of most of (X, Y, Z, and so on) are formed together. By some of (X, Y, Z, and so on), that is, X and Y's being caused intensely, continuously, or continually, the tendencies not only of X and Y but also of Z and so on are not reduced but formed. Above all, by hindering egos from facing up to (X, Y, Z, and so on) and their tendencies, the tendencies of (X, Y, Z, and so on) are not reduced but formed.
(d) By the tendencies of (X, Y, Z, and so on)'s not being reduced but being formed, (X, Y, Z, and so on) are caused intensely, continuously, or continually and cause more and more the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(e) (a)(b)(c)(d) are repeated.

That is, those are a vicious circle. Accordingly, again, the set of functions' outlines of (X, Y, Z, and so on) which have the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".
    In addition, the tendencies of falling functions can be called "Habits Falling into a Vicious Circle" or a Falling habits.
    In addition, most of the falling functions of human beings are outlines of egos, and most of their habits are tendencies of outlines of egos. Those can be called falling egos and falling habits of egos respectively. However, even if the word "egos" is not always used, the words "falling functions" and "falling habits" designate those in these books.
    In most of the falling functions of human beings, their habits ( = tendencies) are large in the first half of the baby period, and they are reduced as it goes from the latter half of it, to the infant period, to the post-infant period, to the pre-adolescent period, to the adolescent period, to the post-adolescent period. Accordingly, the set of functions' outlines of (X, Y, Z, and so on) which has the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) and whose habits are much larger than the average of those of the same species and age can be called Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle or Falling Functions, and their habits can be called Habits Falling into a Vicious Circle or Falling habits. Then, even if a falling habit in an individual is reduced and if its average of the same species and age is reduced sharply, the former is sometimes looked upon as not being reduced or being formed.
    Though the word "reduction" would make a bad impression, the intense, continuous, or continual pain of the self and other persons, above all, the mental pain of the self are reduced by reducing falling habits.
    Falling functions and habits include the following, and the following occupy most of them.

SHORT-CIRCUIT

    Egos' not waiting and seeing and not thinking much and causing intentional functions can be called "Short-circuit" or Short-circuiting. The contrary is waiting and seeing, bypassing, thinking much, and so on.
    Some short-circuit is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, the small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on could not exist if they did not run away instantly when attacked by large ones.
    In addition, some waiting and seeing and bypassing is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, small animals need to keep still for a while after they run away or hide themselves. In addition, some carnivores ambush others.
    Averagely in animals, babies short-circuit, and they come to wait and see and bypass step by step. That is also fit for them to exist.
    Also in human beings, a newborn cry and cry and short-circuit when it has hunger and thirst. However, when its mothers takes care of it with love, even if care like nursing is delayed, it comes to be able to wait and see for minutes around the middle of the baby period (about the age of 0.5), and the habit of short-circuiting is reduced. Also after it, children experience the needlessness and disadvantages of short-circuiting and the necessity and advantages of waiting and seeing and bypassing, and the habit of short-circuit is reduced and the habit of waiting and seeing is formed.
    In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, it cannot wait and see, it goes on short-circuiting and crying desperately, and the habits of short-circuit, desperation, and destruction are often formed.
    When the habit of short-circuit is formed, egos only cause intentional functions which are short-circuiting and whose habits have already been formed, above all, falling functions. Accordingly, the habits of the other functions are hardly formed, and falling habits are hardly reduced and easily formed. This is also a vicious circle.
    However, short-circuit sometimes strikes a chord by accident and the child is sometimes admired as a genius. Such admiration often makes children fall into the vicious circle, too.

DESPERATION

    When their mothers' love is thin and when babies cannot wait and see if care is delayed, they cry desperately and go desperate. When most animals including human babies go desperate, they hardly stop themselves from destroying themselves or others. Accordingly, the habit of desperation and that of destruction are often formed together.
    In addition, babies can attract mothers' attention by being desperate and destructive. Above all, higher mammals' babies including human beings' go desperate and destructive in order to attract mothers' attention. After all, the habit of short-circuit, that of desperation, that of destruction, and that of showing off the self are often formed together.

DESTRUCTION

    When animals suffer the attacks from the same or different species or natural disasters, they protect themselves, fight back, run away, hide themselves, and so on. Switching them depending on the situation is fit for animal individuals and species to exist. However, when they are not effective, some animals go desperate and destroy anything. Such destruction sometimes involves the self as a result. Though their success rate is smaller than the functions mentioned above, desperation and destruction are sometimes fit for the animals facing danger to exist and are usually the last resort.
    Destruction is directed toward the same species in human beings more often than in other animals. For example, battering, bullying, violence, war, slaughter, and so on are included in destruction.
    In addition, in human beings, destruction is sometimes directed toward the self intentionally. Not only suicide and self-injury but also anorexia, bulimia, drug abuse, and so on are included in the destruction of the self. Such destruction of the self is included in destruction.
    Animal babies also go desperate and destroy. For example, human babies cry and kick their beds and mothers when their nursing is delayed.
    In human beings, when a baby is taken care of with love by its mothers, around the middle of the baby period (around age of 0.5), it comes to be able to wait and see, do not need to destroy anything, and cause some interpersonal functions other than destruction to its mothers and other persons, and its destructive habit is reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' care and love are not enough, it goes on short-circuiting, going desperate, and destroying, and its destructive habit is often not reduced but formed.
    In such a way, the habit of destruction is formed also in the baby period by babies' short-circuiting and going desperate by mothers' thinness of love. The destruction whose habit is formed in the baby period is usually directed toward the self. The origin of the habit of self-injury after the adolescent period like wrist cutting, overdose is formed in such a way in the baby period. In addition, such a habit of destruction leads to drug dependence, eating disorder, and so on.
    In contrast, the habit of destruction is formed also after the pre-adolescent period by children's imitation of seniors. For example 1, though the following is a pity, the children of destructive parents are often destructive. For example 2, though the following is a pity very much, the children brought up by terrorists are often destructive. Those are caused by children's imitation of seniors. Such destruction whose habit is formed after the pre-adolescent period is usually directed toward other persons.
    In addition, mothers and other persons' enclosure of children and children's intense destruction of that enclosure in the adolescent period often form destructive habits. Children need to rebel against their parents and to destroy their enclosure in order to win independence. That is, moderate destruction of enclosure is necessary. However, when parents' enclosure and children's destruction are too intense and frequent, destructive habits are formed.
    In addition, though moderate rebellion promote children's independence, in excessive rebellion, they rebel wholly and rarely cause other functions, and so their independence are hindered.

ADHERENCE

    Egos' outline not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other individuals belonging to the same species, and in human beings, not only not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other persons but also intending to get love from other persons can be called "Adherence" to or Adhering to them. Being sticky, persistent, dangling, and so on are included in adherence. In human beings, not only the adherent interpersonal functions but also the pure mental functions like certain things including other persons are recollected as images excessively intensely, continuously, or continually are included in adherence.
    Adherence is a function fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they went apart from their parents. For example, dog babies dangle about their parents crawling. It will be unnecessary to enumerate the examples of human babies.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, around the end of the infant period or the beginning of the post-infant period (around the age of 3), being weary of its mother's love and its own adherence, it is separated from its mother and cause some interpersonal functions other than adherence toward some persons other than its mother, and its adherent habit begins to be reduced.
    In contrast, if its mothers' love is thin, a baby or infant goes on seeking love and goes on adhering to its mothers, and its adherent habit is often not reduced but formed after the infant period, too. As was explained earlier, compared with the average of the same species and age, even if it is reduced to a degree in the child, it is reduced so rapidly in other children that the former cannot looked upon as being reduced. Such a child also adheres to persons other than its mother after the infant period, and a general adherent habit is often formed.
    In such a way, mothers' thinness of love is the main external situation forming adherent habits acquiredly. In the things forming acquiredly adherent habits, there are also mothers' enclosure of children and children's imitation of mothers. That is because mothers' enclosure can hinder their children from going apart from them. In addition, that is because enclosure is often caused by mothers' adherent habit, children imitate their mothers' adherence.
    When adherent habit is not reduced after the infant period, often, it is not reduced in the sense that the difference between it and the average of the same species and age are not reduced. Adherence is directed toward friends, classmates, and teachers in kindergarten or school, later toward colleagues, staffs, and bosses in office, and toward friends and boy or girl friends everywhere, husbands or wives and children at home, and general adherent habits are formed. In such a way, adults' adherence sometimes goes even toward children, mothers' toward theirs, and it is imitated by the children. This is a vicious circle, too. In addition, the adherence in the adolescent period or later is complicated and cunning. For example, they come to involve and to manipulate other persons.
    Adherent habits cause intense pain. First, they cause intense anxiety and solitude when they cannot adhere to other persons and those having them cannot help adhering to others desperately. Second, they cause isolation and solitude by being kept away from others. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more.
    Moreover, because they wholly adhere to others by adherent habits, the interpersonal habits other than adherent ones are hardly formed. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more. This is also a vicious circle.
    In addition, adherence, showing off the self, control, destruction, isolation, and so on often exist together. That is because human beings try to show themselves off in order to adhere and get love. When they cannot adhere or get love, they try to control or destroy others. As a result they are alienated and isolated. In such a way, the habits of adherence, showing off the self, control, destruction, and isolation, and so on are often formed together. In addition, they are formed together in th following way. The main things forming them acquiredly are the same mothers' thinness of love and enclosure and the child's imitation of the same mothers. This is also a vicious circle.
    Most falling functions and habits are the same as adherent functions and habits. Accordingly, the following explanations will be simplified.

SHOWING OFF THE SELF

    Showing off the self to other animals of the same species excessively can be called "Showing Off the Self". In human beings, it includes putting on airs, talking too much about the self, boasting of the self, talking too much about his or her past, talking the self as exaggerated or fabricated.
    Showing off the self is fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they did not attract their parents' attention and care. For example, the babies of cats, dogs, human beings, and so on cry in the way to attract their parents' attention.
    We sometimes think that somebody else's child is lovely. That is a natural feeling. In addition, we sometimes praise a child frankly. All the more in mothers, they think that their child is lovely, and this feeling overlap with love. When they have such love, they praise their child frankly.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is loved and praised by its mothers in such a way, around the end of the infant period (about the age of 3), being weary of its mothers' love and praise and its own showing off the self, it causes some interpersonal functions other than it to some persons other than its mothers, and its habit of showing off the self begins to be reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' love and praise are not enough, it cannot be weary of them and its own showing off the self, it goes on doing that, and its habit is not reduced but formed. In addition, when it is short of its mothers love and care, it needs to show off the self more and more as the means of gaining them. In such a way, the main external situations forming the habit of showing off the self acquiredly are the shortage of mothers' love and praise'.
    The formation of the habit of showing off the self and their relation with other falling habits are almost the same as those of adherent habits. Accordingly, most of their explanation is omitted, and only the things characteristic of them will be explained. Though it is in order to show those done so to others that we exaggerate or fabricate the self, the self's images are done so to a degree, and the real self go hard to recognize. As a result, the habit of showing off the self hinders egos from facing up to their falling functions and habits. Also because of this reason, falling habits are hard to reduce.

CONTROL

    An individual or group's controlling other individuals or groups of the same species concerning anything intensely, continuously, or continually can be called its "Control" of them or Controlling them. For example, human beings' controlling other living things or the nature is not included in control in these books. In human beings, it includes presiding over anything, even over trifles, rising anyway, expanding any territories, monopolizing anything.
    Switching between control, entrustment, submission, and non-submission depending on situations is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. Animal babies including human ones also try to get care and love by controlling their mothers, and it is a fit function for them to exist. For example, human babies control mothers' nursing by crying loud.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, it do not need to control them, it causes some interpersonal functions other than control to its mothers and other persons, and its controlling habits are reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers care and love are not enough, it goes on controlling or goes on it more and more, and its controlling habit is often not reduced but formed. In such a way, the main external situation forming controlling habits are mothers' thinness of love.
    Controlling habits are sometimes formed more and more in the post-adolescent period. Those who have gained status, power and money and are able to control others will try to gain them more and more and to control others more and more. In such a way, controlling habits can be formed for life.
    Those who have large controlling habits seek status, power, and money, some of them also have destructive habits, and some of them cause despotism, war, massacres, and so on. When they cannot get them, they become what is called lions at home and mice abroad, try to control home, and sometimes cause their enclosure of children and partners, domestic violence, and so on.

DESTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    In human beings, when some things recollected as complex images cause displeasure feelings like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on, the comparatively mature egos after the infant period switch images from such ones to others through escapes of images as was explained earlier. However, the egos in the baby and infant period are immature, and so they cannot perform such a switch well. Accordingly, some of them where some images cause severe pain try to destroy them anyway. Such destruction is different from the dissolution which mature egos can perform. As a result, some of the complex images, recollections of images, associations, egos, thinkings, the self's images, and so on sometimes become unexpected things for general human beings and even for psychologists or psychiatrists. It can be thought that "dissociative disorder" is one of those examples. Destroying images causing pain anyway and the result caused by it can be called "Destruction of Images" or Destroying Images.
    It is probable that some destruction of images develop into some dissociation in dissociative disorder and some split in borderline personality disorder.
    For example, a battering mother's images cause anxiety and fear. The children after the infant period can escape such images. However, those in the baby and infant period can hardly escape them, and so they destroy them at random.
    The habits of destruction of images are usually formed by mothers' thinness of love, above all, by the extremes like battering, neglect, and so on.

ISOLATIONS

    Going apart from its group like herd, flock, home, society, and so on is not fit for animal babies to exist. However, when an individual is destroyed, attacked, or alienated and when it has been grown to a degree, going apart from such a group is sometimes fitter for it to exist than staying in it.
    Physically in human beings, also children are protected through legal and social systems. In contrast, mentally, they can be alienated and isolated. However, human beings can play even if they are alone. Even if they cannot play alone, they can play with images as in day dreams. In these books, that human beings exist mentally with such plays even if they are alone is called "Isolation" or Being Isolated.
    In human beings, when their mothers' love is thin, babies gather in their voluntary movements and synthetic functions but are isolated in their pure mental functions, they play alone or play with images like daydream, and their isolated habits start to be formed from the middle of the baby period (about the age of 0.5). Simply, though they are in groups in appearance, it is isolated in heart. When there is some battering or neglect, they are isolated in its voluntary movements and synthetic functions and in appearance, and their isolated habits are intensely formed. Anyway, when they are isolated till the end of the infant period (the age of 3), their isolated habits are intensely formed and are often not reduced later.
    Isolation prompts the formation of the falling habits concerning the self which will be explained later.

NARCISSISM

    Each of the children who have rarely been loved or praised in the infant period comes to love the self by itself. When it is loved and praised moderately, it comes to be weary of being done so and of loving the self, it loves other persons and things, and moderate "narcissism" is formed. Otherwise, intense narcissism is formed. Intense narcissism is sometimes represented as showing off the self. In addition, it leads to playing alone and playing with images like daydreaming and to isolation. In addition it is unstable, and sometimes with intense self-hatred.

MOTHERS' FALLING HABITS, THINNESS OF LOVE, AND ENCLOSURE, AND CHILDREN'S IMITATION OF MOTHERS' FALLING FUNCTIONS

    Adherence does seek love but does not give it. Destruction accompanies little love but much hate. When we love somebody and when we cannot get his or her love, we sometimes destroy him or her. Showing off the self and narcissism do not love others. Accordingly, when those who have falling habits become mothers, their love for children is often thin, too.
    In addition, those who have falling habits have various desires' dissatisfaction mainly because they are isolated and alienated. Accordingly, as was explained earlier, they often heighten the desires concerning children, enclose their children, and try to satisfy those desires. Simply, they try to make a monopoly of their children.
    In addition, even babies or infants imitate familiar persons. Though it is hard for them to imitate the falling functions like escaping, patching up, and so on whose habits will be formed in the later period, it is easy for them to imitate the falling functions like desperation, destruction, adherence, showing off the self, and so on whose habits are formed in the baby and infant period. Of course, mothers' falling ones are imitated. After all, children imitate seniors' falling functions from the baby period to the adolescent period, and they imitate those particular to each period.
    On those ground, when mothers have falling habits, the possibility that their children will have them is large. Mothers' thinness of love and enclosure caused by their falling habits and children's imitation of their falling functions are the major things forming children's falling habits.

BABY AND INFANT FALLING HABITS

    Averagely in the human beings, the falling habits of the falling functions which have been explained in the previous sections are reduced by the end of the infant period or the beginning of the post-infant period (around the age of 3). However, those habits is not reduced but formed mainly by their mothers' thinness of love, mothers' enclosure, and children's imitation of adults' falling functions. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Baby and Infant" Falling Functions, and those habits can be called Baby and Infant Falling Habits.
    Not only baby and infant falling habits but also general falling ones are formed together. Moreover, above all, baby and infant ones are formed together because of the following reason. The situations of the formation of baby and infant habits are almost only homes, above all, the relations with mothers. Accordingly, that formation are affected directly by mothers' thinness of love, their enclosure, and children's imitation of their falling functions.

GENERATION OF THE SELF'S IMAGES

    The self was defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY". In human beings, the self is recollected as complex images consisting of the past, present, and future bodies, emotions, recollections, associations, intentional functions, egos, and their habits, and so on. The self's images are generated and recollected in the beginning of the post-infant period, that is, around the age of four, and get the most clear in the adolescent period.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    In a while after the generation of the self's image, the temporal limitation of the self and the self's dying sooner or later are recollected as images, and they come to cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. Such anxiety is the ultimate anxiety. The decisive way to transcend it was explained in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

ATTEMPTS TO MAKE THE SELF ETERNAL

    The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later causes some egos, desires, and intentional functions to make the self eternal anyway. Such egos and desires can be called "Desires to Make the Self Eternal", and such egos and intentional functions can be called "Attempts to Make the Self Eternal".
    Attempts to make the self eternal overlap with love, religion, control, will to power, and so on. For example, they overlap with a holder of powers' building his or her massive tomb.

EXPANSION OF GAPS BETWEEN THE SELF AND THE WORLD

    In those which are recollected as images, there are some gaps between the images of the self and those of the things other than the self. Such gaps can be called the "Gap between the Self and the World".
    When a baby or infant is not isolated, because such a gap is filled with its mothers, some other persons, pets, toys, and so on, it is small.
    In contrast, in those individual who were isolated in the baby and infant period, such a gap is expanded. While the falling functions which has explained were mainly egos' outlines and while they are caused by egos' falling habits, such expansion is caused by falling habits of recollections of images.
    The human beings where the gap between the self and the world is small can easily get to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later because of the continuity of the images of the self and those of the things other than the self, and that anxiety are rarely caused and, if ever, faintly caused.
    In contrast, the human beings where that gap is expanded can hardly get to the way to transcend that anxiety, and that anxiety are caused frequently and intensely. In addition, as was explained above, the desire to make the self eternal gets intense.
    The expansion of the gap between them often cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the desire to make the self eternal, and they often enhance the habits of showing off the self, control, and so on. For example, those who have gotten large powers often try to control the people and try to leave their glory or massive tomb. Moreover, because falling habits are formed together, they often have large destructive habits, too, and they try to hold powers, to destroy liberal rights, social rights, political right, democratic systems, separations of powers, the rule of law, and the right to exist in general, to run wildly to despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means, and so on. Accordingly, reducing such falling habits is also one of the ways to secure existence and liberty.

SELF'S GOING FAT

    In the expansion of the gap between the self and the world, that gap is often filled with the self's images. That is because it cannot be filled with the things other than the self's because of isolation. If the relations with some other persons, animals, or the nature are resumed, that gap is filled with others to a degree. If the isolation continues, it keeps on being filled with the self's. The self's image goes larger as a result. This can be called the "Self's Going Fat". It is caused by habits of recollections of images in the same way as the expansion of the gap between the self and the world.
    The self's going fat is formed together with not only the expansion of the gap between the self and the world but also the habits of showing off the self, control, and so on which were explained earlier and the beautification of the self which will be explained below.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE SELF

    The images of the self where falling habits are formed cause pain like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on. The immature egos of children as they are beautify the self in order to reduce such pain. For example, they beautify the self as a pitiful one who is not loved by and is alienated from their mother and general human beings. The beautified self's images are generated by such beautification. Such beautification of the self also hinders egos from facing up to the self's falling functions and habits.

PRE-ADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

    Most of the falling habits of falling functions explained in the previous sections are formed in the post-infant and pre-adolescent period after the self's images were generated. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Pre-adolescent" Falling Function, and their habits can be called Pre-adolescent Falling Habits.
    We can trace back from pre-adolescent falling habits to, at least, those of isolation, and they are included in baby and infant falling habits. In addition, most of the baby and infant falling habits are formed together. In addition, most of the pre-adolescent ones are formed together. Accordingly, a lot of baby and infant falling habits and pre-adolescent ones coexist. Anyway, it is impossible for one of them to be exclusively formed.

IMMATURITY OF ABILITIES OF INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    When children are alienated and cannot help being isolated or when the habits of isolation are formed, egos rarely cause interpersonal functions as intentional functions, and the abilities of interpersonal functions as abilities of intentional functions are hardly formed and stay immature. For example, in not only children but also adults, after they are cloistered for months, interpersonal functions will not go well.
    Moreover, when falling habits are formed, falling egos cause falling interpersonal functions. While the abilities of falling interpersonal functions are formed, those of interpersonal functions other than them are not formed, and the general abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature. For example, when a person always resorts to controlling and destructive interpersonal functions, the abilities of cooperative ones are not formed, and general abilities stay immature.
    In addition, those who have intense falling habits and often cause falling interpersonal functions are often alienated and isolated, and their abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature.
    Moreover, because the abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature, they are alienated and isolated, and those abilities stay immature.
    Those are vicious circles, too. Above all, the habits escaping and patching up interpersonal functions which will be explained later cause interpersonal habits' immaturity.
    However, when falling habits are reduced, the abilities of interpersonal functions are formed unexpectedly quickly. After all, falling habits are more serious than the immaturity of the abilities of interpersonal functions.

HABITS ESCAPING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS

    As was explained in the above section, when falling habits are formed and when the abilities of interpersonal functions are immature, if egos cause interpersonal functions, intense pain is caused. Accordingly, egos escape interpersonal relations, and habits escaping interpersonal relations are formed. Though these habits begin to be formed in the baby and infant period, they still fluctuate. They are formed steadily and fixed in the adolescent period.
    In addition, the egos in the adolescent period escape interpersonal functions not simply but complicatedly. For example 1, they escape deep interpersonal relations and only enter superficial ones. For example 2, they show off their destructive appearances which other persons are hard to come close to. Such interpersonal functions overlaps with patching up which will be explained later. In the adolescent period, such complicated escapes of interpersonal relations are caused, and such complicated habits escaping them are formed.
    Because egos escape interpersonal relations continuously and continually in such a way, the abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature more and more. This is a vicious circle, too.

PATCHING UP THE IMMATURITY OF THE ABILITIES OF INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    The egos in the adolescent period not only escape interpersonal relations but also patch up the immaturity of the abilities of intentional functions. For example, they show off their status, power, money, appearance, and so on, and patch up them. Though they do not have their own status, power, and money, they can show of their parents'. Those in the post-adolescent period often show off theirs in order to patch up various things. Appearance, looks, and so on are good means to patch up various things in the very adolescent period.
    Though such patching up is rarely looked through completely, it will cause displeasure feelings to others. Through this, those patching up are often alienated, and their abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature more and more.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    In the internal situations of mental functions, falling functions and habits, when they are recollected as images, cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on, above all, adolescent egos which have gotten mature to a degree patch up the self's falling functions and habits. In addition, in the external situations of interpersonal relations, if the self's falling functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes the pain of shame, egos hide and patch up them. In addition, if not only falling functions and habits but also immature interpersonal functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes shame, egos hide and patch up the latter, too. Those can be called "Patching Up" Falling Habits or Functions Patching Up Falling Habits, and their habits can be called Habits Patching Up Falling Habits.
    For example 1, it causes self-hatred in internal situations and shame in external situations that they sought mothers' love after the baby and infant period and adhere and that adherent habits have been formed. Accordingly, egos in the adolescent period or later behave themselves seemingly lightly. For example 2, it causes the same pain as example 1 that they show off themselves because they were not praised in the baby and infant period and that the habits of showing off the self have been formed. Accordingly, they behave themselves seemingly lightly. However, because those habits are alive, they patch up them, adhering and showing off the self. Accordingly, they are often looked upon as incoherent persons.
    Interpersonal habits patching up falling interpersonal habits are the clearest of them. They include behaving themselves cheerfully not naturally but intentionally, beautifying solitude, showing off their positions and powers, talking only of superficial things, showing off their destructive appearances which other persons are hard to come close to.
    When habits patching up falling habits are large, patching functions are almost always caused, important functions other than them are rarely caused, and important habits other than patching ones are not formed. For example, the habits to talk with other persons frankly are not formed.
    In addition, patching up falling habits hinders egos from facing up to the self's falling functions and habits. As long as patching up goes well, egos do not face up to them. Only when it does not go well, egos face up to them. For example, as long as showing off status and power goes well, he or she does not face up to his or her falling interpersonal functions and habits.
    On those grounds, functions patching up falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits patching up falling habits are included in falling habits.
    When falling habits were formed or when the abilities of interpersonal functions were immature before the adolescent period, some boys or girls in the adolescent period are sometimes bullied and alienated in school, and those falling habits are sometimes reinforced, and habits patching up falling habits are sometimes formed.
    The interpersonal functions patching up falling habits by causing interpersonal ones which are extremely opposite to falling interpersonal ones can be called an "Opposite Representation". For example, some persons who were disliked by others as sober sometimes behave themselves light-minded. Opposite representation often brings misunderstanding. That is because few people can see that it is opposite representation on the basis of falling habits.
    In such ways, habits patching up falling habits are formed mainly acquiredly in the adolescent period.

ESCAPES FROM FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    When the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, those images cause intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on. Accordingly, egos sometimes escape the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images by means of switching of images as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Escaping the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images can be called Escapes from Falling Habits(' Images), Escaping Falling Habits(' Images), Escaping Falling Habits (recollected as images). In addition, their habits can be called Habits Escaping Falling Habits. For example, when the self's adherence, simply, being sticky is recollected as an image, it causes intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, and so egos switch images from it to harmless ones.
    When habits escaping falling habits are large and when escapes from falling habits are caused every time falling habits are recollected as images, egos cannot face up to the self's falling functions and habits, and falling habits in general are not reduced. Accordingly, escapes from falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits escaping falling habits are included in falling habits. Far from that, they are the most vicious cycles and are the most serious of all falling ones.
    When compared with the time of the formation of habits patching up falling habits as was explained above, the time when habits escaping falling habits are formed fluctuates. However, they are formed mainly in the adolescent period.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    The images of the self's falling habits are not only escaped. As was explained earlier, though the self's images are beautified in the baby and infant period, that beautification is that of the general self. In contrast, in the adolescent period or later, egos enhance the covers of them and hinder them from being recollected. This can be called Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images) or Patching Up Falling Habits (Recollected as Images).
    For example 1, the girls, boys, ladies, and gentlemen who have confidence in their looks sometimes enhance their looks' images and patch up their falling habits. Not that excellent looks are harmful in general, but that they are so if they are made use of in such a way. For example 2, those who have status, power, or money sometimes enhance its images and patch up their falling habits. They are troublesome, above all, for their subordinates.

HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    Escaping falling habits' images and patching up them are alike in egos' intention to reduce pain or cause pleasure temporarily and in the result that the falling habits' images are not intensely, continuously, or continually recollected. In addition they are alike in the harm that they hinder egos from facing up to falling functions and habits. Accordingly, they can be called Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images) or Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits (Recollected as Images), and their habits can be called Habits Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images). Moreover, though they are looked upon as reduplications, because functions escaping and patching up falling habits are included in falling functions, they can be called Falling Functions Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits, and because habits escaping and patching up falling habits are included in falling habits, they can be called Falling Habits Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits.
    Because egos escape and patch up falling habits, they cannot face up to them, and so falling habits including habits escaping and patching up falling habits are not reduced but formed more and more. This is the most vicious cycle and they are the most severe of all falling functions and habits.

ENHANCING THE SELF'S IMAGES AS THE PERSECUTED AND REACTION OR REVENGE

    Those who have falling habits are often alienated and isolated, and they sometimes consider such alienation and isolation to be the persecution by other persons, general human beings, or the society.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted and cover their falling habits with them, such enhancement and cover is patching up falling habits' images which was explained above.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted more intensely than to the degree enough to patch up their falling habits, such enhancement can lead to some reaction or revenge against the alleged persecutors. If such enhancement accompanies desperation, destruction, and so on which were explained earlier, such reaction or revenge can be fierce. In addition, such destruction is sometimes directed toward the self.

DESTROYING MIRRORS

    Through its genes and gene functions, its mother's thinness of love, enclosures, and its imitations, habits, above all, falling habits of each child resemble its mother's, father's, brothers', sisters', and so on. This is as if a mirror reflected its own. In addition, each child has pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on against its falling habits. Accordingly, each child has pain against its mother, father, and so on's falling habits as if they were its own. Accordingly, such a child or young man or woman as has large falling habits tries to destroy its mother, father, and so on or their images. This can be called Destroying Mirrors, and its habit can be called a Habit Destroying Mirrors.
    Though destroying mirrors overlaps with what is called rebellion, as long as falling habits continue, most habits destroying mirrors are not reduced after the adolescent period. It is the adolescent period that destroying mirrors get clear for the first time.
    Destroying mirrors also hinders egos from facing up to the self's falling functions and habits. That is because the self's falling habits have been projected on others. Accordingly, destroying mirrors is included in falling functions, and habits destroying mirrors are included in falling habits.

EXCESSIVE REBELLIONS

    When its parents' enclosure and control are intense and go on in the adolescent period or later and when a child, young men, or women always try to rebel against them, sometimes, the functions other than rebellions are not caused, and the habits other than rebellious ones are not formed. For example, some young men or women get separated or married in order not to be independent but to be separated from his or her parents. The habit living independently is not formed by such separation or marriage. Accordingly, excessive rebellions are included in falling functions, and excessively rebellious habits are included in falling ones.

ADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

    Those falling functions whose habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Falling Functions, and their habits can be called Adolescent Falling Habits.
    Habits escaping and patching up falling habits are the most serious of all adolescent falling habits. Far from that, they are the most serious of all falling habits.
    Being bullied, alienated, and so on in school in the adolescent period can form adolescent falling habits, reinforce general falling ones, and moreover, reinforce adolescent falling ones.
    As for destructive habits and controlling ones which were explained earlier, not small parts of them are formed or reinforced by adolescent egos' imitation. Their formation, above all, in violent groups is serious.
    Anyway, adolescent and post-adolescent habits are more or less formed on the basis of pre-adolescent and baby and infant ones.

POST-ADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

    The functions whose habits are formed mainly in the post-adolescent period can be called post-adolescent functions, and their habits can be called post-adolescent habits. Post-adolescent habits include complicated interpersonal habits, the complicated way of life, way to die, and so on. Post-adolescent falling habits include interpersonal ones which are cunning, flattering, superficial, and so on, habits patching up falling habits with status. power, money and so on, and so on. Anyway, falling functions and habits escaping and patching up falling habits go more and more complicated and cunning.
    Anyway, the habits formed in the adolescent period or earlier are hardly reduced, and the habits after it are formed on the basis of them.

BLAMING OTHER PERSONS

    As was explained earlier, there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, and children's imitation of their seniors as some of the causes of falling habits, and it is certain that there are mothers as some of those causes.
    However, those causes are sometimes attributed to fathers, brothers, sisters, or grandfathers, or grandmothers wrongly. For example, they are often attributed to fathers if they are violent or have dependence on alcohol or other drugs.
    Again, please remember the definition of mothers. It is mothers that are in the position where they should take care of a baby or infant the most frequently. If a father is in that position, he is the mother for it.
    Going back to the past and searching those causes accurately is an important step to face up to falling habits.
    However, as will be explained later, the most serious of all falling habits are falling habits escaping and patching up falling habits. It is not mothers or fathers but adolescent egos that escape and patch up them. That is, the greatest causes for the self's falling habits are not in any other persons but in the adolescent self's egos.
    Nonetheless, if a post-adolescent person blames others, it is a falling function escaping and patching up falling habits.

FACING UP TO THE SELF'S FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

EGOS' STOPPING

    As was explained earlier, most falling functions are outlines of falling egos, and most falling habits are habits of outlines of falling egos. In addition, what decide which outlines of egos is caused is emotional systems in egos. Though more than one functional image is recollected in one situation, some of them which do not cause intense pleasure autonomic sensations or which cause some displeasure ones do not cause any functional impulses and do not cause the whole of the egos and do not cause any intentional functions. For example, even if adherence or showing off the self is recollected as a functional image, when it causes displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, self-hatred, it is not caused. Simply, even if the idea to do it occurs to us, when we feel bad, we stop it.
    That a functional image is recollected but that the whole of the ego is not caused is the ego's stop, and is not its complete stop but incomplete stop.

EGOS' FACING UP TO FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

    When falling functions and habits are recollected as images, they cause displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on. Accordingly, egos have escaped and patched them up. When egos do not escape or patch them up but do face up to them, they cause displeasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neural ways from them to those displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Simultaneously, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images of falling functions to displeasure autonomic sensations can be activated. Then, even if their functional images are recollected, they can cause displeasure ones, falling habits can be reduced, and it is possible that falling functions are not caused.
    However, the facing up to falling functions and habits which will be mentioned in the following several sections are halfway facing up and are useless.

USELESSNESS OF IMAGES OF OTHERS' MENTAL FUNCTIONS TO THE SELF

    As soon as the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, others' mental functions to the self (1) are sometimes recollected as images like pity, grief, rebuke, criticism, cynicism, alienation, and so on, and they cause displeasure feeling (2). The others in (1) can include parents, friends, teachers, bosses, judges, psychiatrists, psychologists, preachers, superegos, the society, the god, and those who use the carrot and the stick. The displeasure feelings (2) caused by (1) recollected as images can include sense of guilt, shame, and dishonor. While (1) are recollected as images and cause (2), the images of the self's falling functions and habits (3) are overwhelmed, it is hard to face up to (3). It is probable that egos actually face up to (1) while intending to do so to (3). While (1) are recollected, egos need to switch from (1) to (3) again and again. However, it is very hard to do so. When we cannot do so, we had better leave (1) and (2) as they come and wait until they disappear naturally.

USELESSNESS OF THE SELF'S MENTAL FUNCTIONS TO OTHERS

    Indeed, there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, children's imitation of destruction, battering and alienation at home, bullying and alienation at school, and so on as things causing the self's falling functions and habits indirectly. In addition, indeed, there are parents, brothers or sisters, classmates, destructive persons and groups, and so on as others causing them indirectly. In addition, in order to accurately recognize not only falling functions and habits but also general things, we need to recognize their formation process including their direct and indirect causes. For example, in order to research human science, we need to know human beings' evolution and history. Indeed, in order to face up to the self's falling functions and habits, we need to know their formation process including their direct and indirect causes to a degree.
    However, if the hatred of others as their indirect causes are caused, the images of others as objects of hatred overwhelm those of the self's falling functions and habits and hinder egos from facing up to them. Moreover, egos sometimes heighten hatred. This overlaps with escaping and patching up falling functions.
  While hatred is caused, egos need to switch from the images of the objects of hatred to the self's falling functions and habits again and again. However, it is very hard to do so. When we cannot do so, we had better leave hatred as it comes and wait until it disappears naturally.
    However, it is not that we may leave battering, bullying, alienation, destruction, and so on as they come, but that we need to face up to the self's falling functions and habits in order to reduce them.
    Anyway, mothers' thinness of love and enclosure, children's imitation of destruction, somebody's battering, bullying, alienation, and so on are only indirect causes of falling functions and habits. The direct causes of them are the self's egos, who decide to cause falling intentional functions even in the baby and infant period or in the adolescent period. These self and egos are continuous with those at present.

FACING UP TO THE FUNCTIONAL IMAGES OF FALLING INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Even if we face up to falling functions and habits recollected as images and if they cause displeasure autonomic sensations, falling egos and functions are often or sometimes caused.     Falling functions, from the baby period to the adolescent period, reduce pain or cause pleasure temporarily. For example 1, short-circuit clearly reduce pain temporarily. For example 2, escaping and patching up falling habits reduces the pain caused by the images of falling functions and habits. However it is from the baby period to the adolescent period and, above all, temporarily that they reduce pain or cause pleasure. Falling functions and habits cause intense, continuous, or continual pain in the adolescent period or later. For example 1, those who have them are alienated, isolated, and anxiety and loneliness are caused intensely, continuously, or continually. For example 2, the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later is caused intensely, continuously, or continually.
    However, the temporal reduction of pain or gain of pleasure by falling functions is sometimes caused suddenly in the adolescent period or later. For example, escaping and patching up falling habits reduce the pain caused by falling functions and habits recollected as images forever. That is, it is such temporal reduction of pain that have hindered the reduction of falling habits. Even in the adolescent period or later, egos seek such temporal reduction of pain, and when the pain is actually reduced, they do indulge themselves in that reduction and do not question the self's falling functions and habits. For example, for those who have been alienated and isolated and whose habits to adhere and show off the self continue, even rarely meeting and talking with others is intense pleasure, and when they get the chance to do that, they try to adhere and show off the self and to enjoy themselves as if they looked upon it as the last chance in life. Accordingly, falling habits are hardly reduced. Why?
    The functional images or their outlines of falling intentional functions in egos (1) are distinguished from general images of falling functions and habits. Even if we face up to (2) and if (2) come to cause displeasure autonomic sensations, it is not rare that (1) do not cause displeasure ones, that falling egos do not stop, and that falling habits are not reduced. Why?
    When we face up to (2) and when the image to emotion neural ways from (2) to displeasure autonomic sensations are activated, those from (1) to displeasure ones are sometimes activated, and (1) sometimes cause displeasure ones. However, (1) are not always done so and do not always do so. In contrast, when falling egos arise or when they are being caused, that is, when the functional images or their outlines of falling intentional functions (1) are being recollected, if egos face up to (1) again and again, the image to emotion neural ways form (1) to displeasure ones are more steadily activated. Then, (1) come to cause displeasure ones more steadily. Then, even if (1) are recollected, falling egos stop more steadily, and falling habits are more steadily reduced. Metaphorically, facing up and stopping need to be carried out not on the desk but at the scene. Again metaphorically, facing up and stopping need to be carried out not in psychology but in our daily life. For example, in the situations of interpersonal relations, when egos are adhering and showing off the self, they need to face up to the functional images of them, and such falling egos need to stop.

FACING UP TO FUNCTIONS AND HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    However, escaping and patching up falling habits is persistent, and it is often caused even in the adolescent period or later. We are often escaping and patching up falling functions and habits actually while we are intending to face up to them. For example, only by facing up to a few falling functions or habits in a half way, we often emphasize the images of the self as those who complete facing up and patch up the self's falling functions and habits. Accordingly, it is, above all, the functions and habits escaping and patching up falling habits that egos need to face up again and again. For example, we need to again and again face up to switching from the images of the self's falling functions and habits to the self's status, power, money, appearance, or so.
    After all, the most serious cause of falling habits are habits escaping and patching up falling habits, and they are formed by adolescent egos. That is, the most serious cause of falling habits are not mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, or children's imitation of destruction but adolescent egos. The self and egos in the adolescent period are closer to those at present than those in the baby and infant or pre-adolescent period are. Accordingly, facing up to the habits formed in the adolescent period is easier than that to those formed in the period earlier than it. Simply, that formation would be remembered as if it had taken place yesterday.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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