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A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

BASIC WORDS

    In this book, this "A PSCYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" is also called "This Book". In addition, "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and this book are also called "These Books" in this book. This book is on the basis of the first two. Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after they are read. However, we think that the main part of this book can be understood without them. These books can also be looked upon as a book, and each of them can also be looked upon as its chapter. These books as a book are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" in these books. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or these books in these books.
    In this book, the words of materials, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, voluntary movements, synthetic functions, emotions, impulses, egos, intentional functions, manipulations of images, thinkings, and so on designate the same things as "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because the species of living things and human beings are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, the words of animals, human beings, and so on designate their individuals.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the whole or part of a function is caused or changed directly or indirectly by the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions, and the whole or part of a function causes or changes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions directly or indirectly. However, when the words "being caused or changed", "causing or changing", and "directly or indirectly" are always used, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, being caused or changed is also called "Being Caused", causing or changing is also called "Causing", and the words "being changed", "changing", and "directly or indirectly" will be omitted in these books. In addition, it is impossible to enumerate "some other materials and functions" which a function causes and which are caused by a function. For example, a neural group's excitement and transmission causes some other neural groups' excitements and transmissions, the consumption of oxygen and glucose, muscle groups' excitements and contractions, secretory groups' excitements and secretions, sensations, memories, egos, thinkings, voluntary movements, speaking and writing words, interpersonal functions, the changes of the self's and other persons' emotions, egos, thinkings, and so on, those of the society and the nature, and so on, and they are endless. Accordingly, the self-evident have been and will be omitted in all the books in "OUR-EXISTENCE.NET". For example, when a writer of OUR-EXISTENCE.NET describes a neural group's excitement and transmission, he or she writes that it is caused by some presynaptic groups' excitements and transmissions and causes some postsynaptic groups' excitements and transmissions, and omits its consumption of oxygen and glucose.

POSSIBILITIES

    The possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other materials or properties including functions are caused. For example, the possibility that a neural cell's excitement and transmission is caused includes the possibilities that some presynaptic cells excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are caused.
    The possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The quantity can be obtained through actually measured probabilities, their products, and so on.

NATURE AND SITUATIONS

    In that the possibility that a material or a property including a function is caused includes the possibilities that some other materials or properties including functions are caused, "some other materials or properties including functions" can be called the "Situation" of or for the material or the property including the function. For example 1, some presynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions, the supply of oxygen and glucose, and so on are the situation of or for a neural cell's excitement and transmission. For example 2, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to animals, human societies, parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friend, partners, children, school, office, and so on are an individual's situation. For example 3, an individual's situation which is enumerated above and Self's emotions, autonomic functions, perception, association, and so on are an ego's situation.
    In addition, the situation of a species of living things can be called the "Nature" of or for the species. For example, the sun, the earth, sunlight, oxygen, carbon dioxide, the food chain from microorganisms and plants to herbivores, and so on are the nature for a species of carnivores.
    The situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function includes some other parts of and some other functions of the individual. Of course, it includes some materials and functions other than the individual's. Of the situation for a part of a body or for a bodily function, some other parts of and some other functions of the individual can be called its "Bodily Situation" or "Internal Situation", and the others can be called its "External Situation". For example, the individual's emotions, autonomic functions, perceptions, and associations are an ego's internal situation, and his or her parents, brothers and sisters, friends, boy or girl friends, school or office, and so on are its external situation.

ABILITIES

    In contrast to possibilities, the possibility that a function is caused which is intrinsic to it can be called the "Ability" or "Capability" of the function's being caused, the Ability, Capability, or "Activity" of the function, those which the function has. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is being joined from some presynaptic cells, having a lot of receptors in its cellular membrane, stretching its dendrites and axon, joining to some postsynaptic cells, releasing a lot of neurotransmitters, and so on. In addition, when the necessary function (which was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES") which a material has is self-evident, the ability of a function can be called the Ability, Capability, or Activity of the material. For example, the activity of a neural cell's excitement and transmission can be called the activity of the neural cell.
    The ability has a quantity, that is, largeness or smallness. The various ways to measure abilities have been devised. For example, the ability of an individual's memory and thinking is measured with some kinds of psychological tests.

FUNCTIONS' FUNCTIONING

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", materials and properties including functions have some properties without which they can no more be looked upon them, and such properties can be called their Necessary Properties. For example, a neural cell which does not have the ability to excite and transmit can no more be looked upon as a neural cell, and so it is a necessary property of neural cells. In addition, when some of the necessary properties of a thing are functions, those functions can be called the Necessary Functions of the thing. By the way, generally, every function has the necessary property that its whole or part causes the wholes or parts of some other materials or properties including functions. In that, other materials or properties including functions can be called its Necessary Objects. For example, though a neural cell's excitement and transmission can also cause the consumption of oxygen and glucose which cannot cause any postsynaptic cells' can no longer be looked upon as any neural cell's excitement and transmission, and so some postsynaptic cells' excitements and transmissions are its necessary objects. In addition, egos' necessary objects are intentional functions. In addition, in a function, the part which can cause the wholes or parts of its necessary objects directly or the least indirectly can be called its "Necessary Part". For example, the necessary part of a neural cell's excitement and transmission is its presynaptic transmission. In addition, the necessary part of an ego contains its functional impulses at least.
    Now, it cannot be looked upon as a function's functioning or its being caused that its necessary part is not caused though its other part is caused, and that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are not caused. For example 1, it cannot be looked upon as a neural cell's excitement and transmission's functioning that none of its exceeding of the threshold or presynaptic transmission is caused though its postsynaptic transmission is caused, and that none of its postsynaptic cells' postsynaptic transmissions are caused. For example 2, it cannot be looked upon as an ego's being caused that none of its pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused though its functional image is caused, that none of its functional impulse is caused though its pleasure and displeasure sensations are caused, or that none of its impulse reaches the cerebrums or their periphery though it is caused, and that no intentional function is caused. Accordingly, that a function's necessary part is caused and that the wholes or parts of its necessary objects are caused can be called the function's Functioning to its necessary objects or merely the function's Functioning or the material's functioning or merely its being caused. That is, the words "a function's being caused" designate the function's functioning to its necessary objects. For example, in a neural cell's excitement and transmission, that its presynaptic transmission and that at least its postsynaptic cells' postsynaptic transmissions are caused is its functioning to some postsynaptic cells'.
    However, in a function which has a decisive part, when its decisive part is caused, its necessary part is caused, and the function functions. For example, a neural cell's excitement and transmission has its exceeding of the threshold as its decisive part, and so when it is caused, the neural cell functions.

FUNCTIONS' STOPS

    In contrast to a function's functioning, a function's not functioning, that is, that none of its necessary part or decisive part is caused can be called the function's "Stop" or Stopping. For example, that a neural cell's postsynaptic transmission is caused but that its misfire is caused is its excitement and transmission's stopping. Of course, that none of its postsynaptic transmission is caused is its stopping. For example 2, that its functional images are recollected but that none of them cause its functional impulse is an ego's stop. Of course, that none of its functional images are recollected is its stop.

FUNCTIONS' AROUSALS

    That some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused can be called a function's "Arousal", Arising, or Beginning to Function. A function's arousal includes that none of its necessary part or decisive part is caused. That is, a function's arousal does not always mean its functioning. For example 1, in the recollection of an image, its arousal does not always mean its recollection. For example 2, in an ego, the recollection of its functional images does not always mean its functioning. Even if an ego's functional images are recollected, when they do not cause its image to emotion neural ways' excitements to transmissions, its pleasure autonomic sensations, or its functional impulse, that ego does not function.

COMPLETE AND INCOMPLETE STOPS

    That none of the parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part is caused can be called the function's complete stop or stopping completely. In contrast, that some parts of a function that can cause its necessary part or decisive part are caused but that its necessary part or decisive part is not caused can be called the function's incomplete stop or stopping incompletely. For example, in an ego, that its functional images are recollected but that its functional impulse is not caused is that ego's incomplete stop. Though the words of "incomplete" stops may make a bad impression, they are indispensable steps toward complete stops, as will be explained later.

HABITS

SELECTING FUNCTIONS AND SELECTED FUNCTIONS

    When in a certain situation (S) and in a function (F), though there are (n) of functions (f1, f2,...,fn) which can be caused generally, (m) (m<=n) of them are caused actually, (F) can be called a "Limiting Function", and each of (f1, f2,...,fn) can be called a "Limited Function" belonging (F) in the situation (S). For example, in a situation of recollections of images' sources, though there are various feelings like anxiety, expectation, and so on which can be caused generally, one of them are caused actually. Accordingly, a feeling in a general sense is a selecting function, and each feeling like anxiety, expectation, or so is a selected function.

QUANTIFICATION OF ABILITIES OF MENTAL FUCTION

    Generally, what dicide the abilities of mental functions are some of the following (1)-(5).

(1) The activities of the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources
(2) Those of image to image neural ways
(3) Those of image to function neural ways
(4) Those of function to function neural ways
(5) Those of image to emotion neural ways

Accordingly, the abilities of mental functions can also be quantified theoretically. However, it is impossible to measure those activities directly in individuals which is alive or in real situations. Accordingly, they are quantified only indirectly with psychological tests or so.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS' HABITS

    In a certain situation (S) and in a mental function (F) which is a selecting function, the matrix of the capabilities of being caused of the selected functions belonging to (F) can be called the "Habit" of (F) in (S). In addition, the capabilities of being caused of the selected functions can be called the "Tendencies", Abilities, Capabilities, Habits, or so of the selected functions in (S) and (F).
    Not only an ability or capability but also a habit can be represented as a matrix. For example, an ego's habit in human relations can be represented as follows.

(confronting tendency, waiting and seeing tendency, escaping tendency) = (42, 56, 65)

In such a way, the habit of a selecting function can be represented as a matrix, and the selected functions' habits (= tendencies, abilities, capabilities) of being caused in the situation as its components.
    Usually, in a certain situation and in a selecting function, the limited functions whish have the largest tendencies are caused. For the example above, the ego intending to escape is caused.

OUTLINES

    The selected functions which belong to a selecting function can be classified into some groups each of which has the following two properties.

(1) Each selected functions' tendency is formed making it a unit.
(2) Each selected function can be caused making it a unit, and only one of the selected functions belonging to it can be caused at once.

For example, egos' tendency to escape in interpersonal relations is formed making it a unit. Though there are various ways in interpersonal escapes like not entering them, escaping them, leaving them, behaving lightly, exhibiting their appearances which other persons are hard to come close to, only one of them is caused at once. Though, for seconds or minutes, we can exhibit our appearances which other persons are hard to come close to and then leave the places and do not enter them, we can do only one at once.

    

HABITS MAKING OUTLINES UNITS

    Actually, mental functions which are selecting functions or selected ones are argued making their outlines units. For example, the question is not detailed ways like leaving human relations, behaving lightly, exhibiting their appearances which other persons are hard to come close to, or so but interpersonal escapes.
    Moreover, the tendency of an outline's being caused can be quantified as the average of those of the selected functions belonging to it, and the habits of a selecting function can be represented as a matrix which has outlines' tendencies as components. For example,

(confronting tendency, waiting and seeing tendency, escaping tendency) = (42, 56, 65)

We find that the above examples were representations by outlines.
    Now, while reviewing the mental functions explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", let us closely examine their habits or abilities.

EMOTIONS' HABITS

    Which pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused how much is mental emotions' habits, that is, the habits of feelings, desires, and complex emotions. Accordingly, what decides their habits, that is, what mainly forms them is which image to emotion neural ways are activated how much, and so which emotions and pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused by the sources how intense, how long, or how often.
    For example, in a child who has been battered, bullied, alienated, and neglected at home and school since the baby period, an intense habit of interpersonal anxiety is formed.
    There are some outlines in mental emotions such as interpersonal anxiety, zoophobia, claustrophobia, interpersonal desire, desire for power, desire for money, and so on.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", emotions are important as internal situations which affect egos. For example, when interpersonal anxiety is intense, interpersonal confrontations are hardly caused, and interpersonal escapes are easily caused.
    In contrast, tendency of physical emotions, that is, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can be called their Habits. Most of them are formed innately by genes and their functions.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS AND LIMITED FUNCTIONS

    Some selecting functions have the following properties.

The set of functions (f1,f2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by a function (SLF) limiting (F).
In this case, the set of functions (F), the limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), each element of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called a "Limited Function" (lf), and the function (SLF) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function".
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural ways from the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converge. Even if a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number (n) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of complex images are limiting functions. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
    In addition, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions.
    In addition, egos contain the limiting functions of recollections of images at the beginning and the limiting ones of functional impulses at the ending, and so they are limiting ones.
    In limiting functions,
(C1) when (n) or less of limited function arise, all of them are caused,
(C2) and when more than (n) of limited functions arise, (n) of them are caused.
However, if such two cases are always explained, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, those are also called a number (n) or less of limited functions' being caused.
    Such a number (n) fluctuates depending on the situation (S2). For example, in recollections of images, when a complex image' source occupies the converging neural group earlier, broader, and longer, the number (n) gets small. Simply, when something is occurring to me intensely, the others do not occur.
    It is not limiting functions but limited functions that can be classified into some outlines which will be explained later.

SUBSTANTIALLY LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", while a neural group (U) is exciting and transmitting by the transmissions of another neural group (S) which excite and transmit earlier, broader, and longer than another neural group (T), and when the neural group (T) transmits to the neural group (U), the neural group (U) goes on exciting and transmitting by the transmissions of the neural group (S) with the same spatial and temporal positions, frequencies, concentrations, spatial and temporal arrangements, and their changes as those of the neural group (S), almost regardless of the transmissions of the neural group (T). That can be called (S)'s excitement and transmissions' "Going Through" and (T)'s excitement and transmissions' "Disappearing". When many neural groups' excitements and transmissions occur in a converging neural group, the earliest, broadest, and longest of them go through and the others disappear. These are substantially limiting functions of limiting functions in general.
    In a recollection of images, the neural ways from the unitary neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converge. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions. In addition, though impulses diffuse toward cerebrums, because cerebrums are large, that diffusion is relatively equal to impulses' converging on cerebrums. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions. In addition, egos, which involve recollections of images at the beginning and functional impulses at the ending, are limiting functions.

LIMITING RECOLLECTION AND LIMITED RECOLLECTION OF IMAGES

    Complex images' sources go through the neural group converging from the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images sources to the replay, and those which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest reach the replay while excluding the others and are recollected. Accordingly, each complex image's source is a limited function, and it can be called the "Limited Recollection" of the (Complex) Image('s Source).
    As a whole, the set of the limited recollections, that is, complex images (i1,i2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (I),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (I) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (I) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by the substantially limiting function of recollections (SLFI) limiting (I).

(S1) Situations of recollections
    That some parts of sensed or recollected sources are grasped is the situation of a recollection. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", following the grasp, some complex images' sources arise on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways.

(S2) Another situations
    When large complex images are recollected intensely, (n) gets small. For example, when we think of a complicated thing, (n) gets small, and we cannot think of anything else.

(SLFI) Substantially limiting functions of recollections
    That the neural group from the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images sources to the replay converges, and that complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest reach the replay while excluding the others and are recollected are the substantially limiting function of a recollection.

(EA) Capabilities of being caused while excluding others of recollections
     The earliness, broadness, and length of the excitements and transmissions of complex images' sources are the capability of being caused while excluding others of a recollection.

    The set of limited recollections (I), the substantially limiting function limiting (I), and the other functions treating (I) can be called a "Limiting Recollection".
    As for (G), please refer to "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".

RECOLLECTIONS' HABITS

    In the case (C1), a limited recollection's capability of being caused, that is a complex image's capability of being recollected is that of arising (This capability is called (AA) here), and in the case (C2), it is that of arising before the arousal and that of being caused while excluding the others (EA) after the arousal. A limited recollection's capabilities of being caused in such cases in such situations can be called the limited recollection's Capability, Ability, or "Habit" (of being caused). In addition, the matrix of the habits of limited recollections belonging to the set (I) in a certain situation (S1) can be called the Habit of Limiting recollection (in the situation (S1)).
    Theoretically, recollections' habits can be quantified directly by the activities of the neural groups and ways involved and the earliness, the broadness, and the length of their excitements and transmissions. However, it is impossible practically. That is because, when they are directly quantified even a little, the central neural system of the subject has already been destroyed, he or she is dead, and the quantification has no sense. Accordingly, they can only be quantified indirectly by psychological tests.

FORMATION OF RECOLLECTIONS' HABITS

    After the source is grasped, at the first stage, images' sources arise on the basis of grasps and similarity, and at the second, third, and so on stage, they arise on that of temporal closeness and neural ways. At the first stage, they go through the neural group diverging from grasps to the neural group memorizing and storing individual images' sources or through those which parallel them. Those neural groups are activated innately and their activities are hardly reduced. At the first stage, grasped sources are classified and what is called identified. This ability of identification is hardly reduced. For example, those who suffer from dementia sometimes fail to recognize their own children as such. However, that is because the past images' sources of their children have disappeared. Though they recognize their children as individuals of human beings, they do so as strangers because of the loss of those images.
    In contrast, at the second, third, and so on stages, images' sources do not go through them but go through the neural groups memorizing and storing individual images' sources and through the image to image neural ways among them. Their neural groups and ways are activated acquiredly and their activities are easily reduced. The natural reduction of their activities is "being forgotten". Accordingly, what mainly form recollections' habits, that is, what decides them is the resistance to being forgotten. That is, what mainly form them is which of the neural group memorizing and storing individual images' sources and the image to image neural ways among them are activated how much, and how long the activities are retained. After all, it is that complex image is recollected intensely, continuously, or continually. Above all, it is that egos manipulate complex images' sources intensely, continuously, or continually. Simply, what is thought again and again cannot be forgotten.

ASSOCIATIONS' HABITS

    Because an association is a series of recollections of images in more than seconds, it is caused more on the basis of temporal closeness and neural ways than on that of grasps and similarity. Accordingly, what mainly form an association's habit is which image to image neural ways' are activated how much, and how long the activities are retained. After all, it is which associations were caused intensely, continuously, or continually in the past. Above all, it is how egos manipulated images and thought in the past.
    Usually, a complex image is not recollected alone but recollected in an association. However, if that is always explained, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, that explanation is omitted as self-evident, and images' being recollected in associations is merely described as "their being recollected".
    The series of complex images in an association can be looked upon as a huge complex image. Accordingly, a series of associated complex images are included in complex images in these books.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions were defined and explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". In this book, their classification and simple explanations or examples will be enumerated below.

Voluntary movements
  Unitary voluntary movements
    Bending and stretching of joints
  Complex voluntary movements
    Walking, Running, Swimming
Synthetic functions
    Speaking words, writing words, working, playing, interpersonal functions
Pure mental intentional functions
  Manipulations of images
    Combining, resolving, transforming, and switching of images
  Thinkings in a broad sense
    Thinkings in a narrow sense
    Retracings
    Forecastings
    Daydreamings

    When an intentional function is caused and perceived, the images of that intentional function (functional images) are generated, memorized, and stored, and the neural ways (image to function neural ways) from those images' sources to the neural groups causing that intentional function (functional neural groups) are activated.

EGOS

    Egos were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". In this book, they will be explained simply.
    Seemingly, it is rational and efficient that the following "rational system" cause intentional functions.
(1) RATIONAL SYSTEM:
Grasps of the situations → recollections of functional images → recollected functional images' sources → activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions
    However, rational systems are neutral, and so they cannot decide by themselves whether anything is good or bad. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", in recollections or associations on the basis of temporal closeness, cause and effect can be recollected as complex images. However, in them, whether the result is good or bad cannot be recollected or decided. However, nobody or nothing has what can decide it directly and absolutely. It can be decided only indirectly and relatively only by whether something is pleasure or displeasure.
    Accordingly, the above (1) rational system and the following (2) "emotional system" merge and cause an intentional function.
(2) EMOTIONAL SYSTEM:
(recollected functional images' sources →) activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions → pleasure autonomic sensations → functional impulses
The (1) rational system and the emotional system and their merger in the neural system in an individual can be called an "Ego", I, Intending to Do Intentional Functions.
    Metaphorically, in an ego, the rational system proposes some ways as functional images, and the emotional system decides which way to adopt with pleasure or displeasure.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

    They were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", too. In this book, they will be explained simply. The rational system, emotional system, and their merger which can cause an intentional function are limited doubly by the substantially limiting function of recollections of functional images and by that of functional impulses, and they are a limited function. Accordingly, they can be called a "Limited Ego". Such an ego as was explained in the above section contains such a limited function and it is itself a limiting function. Accordingly, it can be called a "Limiting Ego".
    As a whole, the set of the limited egos (e1,e2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (E) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by the substantially limiting function of egos (SLFE) limiting (E). The substantially limiting function of egos (SLEF) is, as was explained above, that of recollections of functional images and that of functional impulses. As for (S1)(S2)(G) and so on, please refer to "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS".
    However, if such limiting egos and limited ones are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear which they are, limiting egos or limited egos are called Egos in these books.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    When intentional functions are caused, the images of them are generated, memorized, and stored, and classified in the way that was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES".
    In these books, out of the groups of intentional functions as were classified in such a way, those which satisfy the following two properties are called "Outlines" of intentional functions.

(1) Usually, it is recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground the concrete and detailed functional images of intentional functions which belong to it are recollected according to the situation, and the whole of the ego containing those functional images and the intentional function belonging to it can be caused.
(2) It can classify intentional functions beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations.

    The most fundamental of intentional functions are confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing, and they were found in the animals where egos or intentional functions are immature. Though intentional functions of the strongest carnivores like lions, tigers, and so on seem to be exceptions, they also escape from natural disasters. Of course, herbivores run away or hide themselves from carnivores. Hiding is included in escapes. Waiting and seeing is an intentional function fit for individuals and the species to exist. For example, herbivores' running away from carnivores instantly sometimes increase the possibility of being noticed by carnivores and of being caught. Some species of carnivores wait and see until their targets come into their ranges. On the other hand, the herbivores which have come into such ranges and have been attacked run away instantly. However, those which have been caught fight desperately. Human beings escape not only from carnivores and natural disasters but also from themselves in violence, war, and so on. Confrontations are not the same as fighting, conflicts, and so on. For example, reconciliation is sometimes a confrontation, and going to war is sometimes an escape. Human beings need to confront their own habits to destroy, to control, and so on in order to secure the existence and liberty of living things including themselves.

OUTLINES OF EGOS

    The set of the limited egos which can cause the intentional functions belonging to an outlines can be called the "Outline of (Limited) Egos". As was explained above, an outline of intentional functions is usually recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground concrete and detailed functional images are usually recollected. Such images of an outline and functional images can be looked upon as a complex image. Accordingly, images of outlines of intentional functions are included in functional images in these books.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

    Most abilities of unitary voluntary movements are decided by the contractile force of striated muscles and by the extensibility of them, tendons, and ligaments, are not affected by central neural systems, and are decided by the training which is relatively simple. Those of the other intentional functions are not so simple.
    The complex intentional functions including complex voluntary movements need the coordination of unitary intentional functions including unitary voluntary movements composing complex ones. The abilities of complex ones are formed by the activations of function to function neural ways among the functional neural groups whose excitements and transmissions cause those unitary intentional functions. They are decided by complex ones' being caused again and again, that is, by training or practicing.
    Accordingly, most complex intentional functions' abilities are formed acquiredly. For example, human beings could not walk, speak, write, or count if they had not imitated or practiced doing it since their baby period.
    There are exceptions. For example, an adult's sucking milk is an intentional function, and it needs some functions of egos. However, it is probable that a baby's doing it is caused without egos. Also in human beings, the function to function neural ways which cause the complex intentional functions essential for the existence soon after delivery are activated innately. Moreover, it is probable that there are some neural ways from drives and pleasure and displeasure sensations to functional neural groups by way of no egos, and that they have already been activated innately. Moreover, even it is probable that they are inactivated acquiredly.

EGOS' HABITS

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", egos' habits are strictly defined as follows.
    The set of limited egos (e1,e2,…) which can be caused in general in a certain situation (S1) being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (E) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by egos' substantially limiting function (SLF).
The set of limited egos (E), egos' substantially limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (E) are a Limiting Ego (LE).
    In the case (C1), a limited ego's capability of being caused is that of arising (This capability is called (AA) here), and in the case (C2), it is that of arising before the arousal and that of being caused while excluding the others (EA) after the arousal. A limited ego's capabilities of being caused in such cases in such situations can be called the limited ego's Capability, Ability, or "Habit" (of being caused). In addition, the matrix of the habits of limited egos belonging to the set (E) in a certain situation (S1) can be called the Habit of Limiting ego (in the situation (S1)).
    Limited egos habits can be quantified by the activities of the neural groups and ways involved and the earliness, the broadness, and the length of their excitements and transmissions theoretically. However, it is impossible practically.
    As was explained earlier, limited egos can be classified into outlines. If the habits of limited egos belonging to an outline could be quantified, their average could be the habit of the outline of limited egos. However, that quantification is impossible practically as was explained above.
    However, caused intentional functions can be observed and can be classified into their outlines. In addition, the intensity, duration, or frequency of the intentional functions belonging to an outline can be quantified. After doing that, limited egos, which cause intentional functions directly, can be classified into their outlines, and the intensity, duration, or frequency of the limited egos belonging to an outline can be quantified. The intensity, duration, or frequency of the limited egos belonging to an outline can be called The Habit (of the Outline) (of Limited Egos) In addition, the matrix of the habits of outlines can be called the Habit (of the Outlines) (of the Limiting Ego). It can be quantified and mathematized like, for example, (the habit of adherence, that of showing off the self, that of control, that of destruction, ...) = (58, 61, 65, 57, ...)
    The habit of the limited egos which belong to the same outline is formed together by their similarity. That is, that habit is formed making an outline a unit. For example, showing off the self is an outline of egos. Though those who have its habit show themselves off in various ways, they make the same impression.
    An outline of egos has (1)(2) explained earlier as properties. Moreover, as was explained in this section, they have (3) that limited egos' habits are formed making it a unit as a property.

FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS

    Though egos' habits are explained strictly in such a way as in the above section, what decides their habits, that is, what mainly forms them, is not so complicated. Though we reached a conclusion after taking account of various things, only the conclusion will be explained in this book. I wish the readers who have some questions to refer to the section which has the same title in that book.
    The whole of a limited ego containing the stage of the formation of its habit is the following (1)-(7).
(1) Its intentional function is sensed and grasped, its functional images' sources are generated, memorized, stored, and their activities are retained.
(2) Its image to function neural ways are activated, and their activities are retained.
(3) The intentional function cause some pleasure emotions and some pleasure autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and their activities are retained.
(4) The situation is grasped, and on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, the functional images arise.
(5) The functional images not only arise but also are recollected.
(6) The recollected functional images cause the activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions.
(7) The recollected functional images cause the image to the activated emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause the pleasure autonomic sensations, and cause the most intense functional impulses as a result.
    (4)(5) propose some ways in the situation. (7) decides which of those ways should be adopted and carried out referring to the past pleasure and displeasure. It is the autonomic sensations which have the most intense pleasure that cause the most intense impulses. In order for them to be caused, the image to emotion neural ways to them need to be activated and their activities need to be maintained. In order for them to be activated, and for their activities to be maintained, the intentional function needs to cause pleasure emotions and pleasure autonomic sensations intensely, continuously, or continually. Accordingly, what decides egos' habits, that is, what mainly forms egos' habits is which image to emotion neural ways are activated, and how intense, often, or long the intentional function cause pleasure emotions and pleasure autonomic sensations.
    For example, in the latter half of the infant period, when a child enter interpersonal relations other than its home and enjoyed them without alienation almost every day for months, the egos' habits which cause interpersonal functions with few interpersonal escapes. In this example, the image to emotional neural ways from the functional images of interpersonal functions to some pleasure autonomic sensations like expectation are activated, and those activities will be maintained for months.

WORD USAGE CONCERNING OUTLINES

    From the beginning, the words of confrontations, escapes, waiting and seeing, and so on designate outlines. Also in our daily lives and science, such outlines are often argued. In addition, if the word of outlines is always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when unnecessary, the word of outlines is omitted, and the outline of confrontations, the outline of escapes, the outline of waiting and seeing, and so on are called simply Confrontations, Escapes, Waiting and Seeing, and so on in these books.
    In addition, temporarily, as outlines, we have found those of intentional functions and those of egos. However, if the words of "of intentional functions", "of egos", and so on are always used, the sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when it is clear from the context whose outline it is, those words are omitted in these books.
    According to the above two, for example, the outlines of egos of confrontations are sometimes called simply Confrontations.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES AND EGOS' HABITS

    It seems that intentional functions' abilities are more important than egos' habits in the human society. The ability to walk and that to run are necessary for everything. The ability to speak words, that to write words, that to calculate, and so on are important both to work and to play. Interpersonal ability is important for everything.
    Interpersonal ability as an ability of intentional functions (1) and interpersonal habit as a habit of limiting egos (2) need to be distinguished. Though (1) is important, when a habit of interpersonal escapes as a habit of outline of limited egos (2') is formed, interpersonal functions are rarely caused, and so (1) often stay immature. When (2') is reduced and when interpersonal functions are often caused, (1) is formed in years. When (2') is not reduced, (1) stay more and more immature. Above all, when the habit of egos to escape and to patch up immature interpersonal ability is formed, (1) is not formed.
    When we see such things, we see that egos' habits are more important than intentional functions' abilities.

THINKINGS' HABITS

    What mainly form what is called ability of thinking is which image to image neural ways are activated how much, and how long the activities are retained, that is, which thinkings were caused intensely, continuously, or continually in the past. Thinkings' abilities can be formed by imitation and repetition concerning philosophical, logical, scientific, and so on thinkings. In addition, they can be formed by such daily activities as conversation, reading, and writing. However, those apply to specialized and professional thinkings.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", in daily life and in a tough situation, egos involved thinkings, it makes no sense to argue the abilities or habits of such involved thinkings. Only egos' habits are important for such egos involving thinkings.


HUMAN HABITS=PERSONALITIES
    The whole of the habits of egos, the abilities of intentional functions, the abilities of thinkings, the habits of mental emotions, and the habits of recollections of images as were explained so far can be called "Human habits" or simply Habits. They are equal to "Personalities" in psychology.
    In such a way, the habits of autonomic functions like hearts' and lungs' contraction and expansion, digestive tracts' movements, and so on are not included in human habits or personalities. They can be called "Bodily Habits" or "Physical Habits".

FORMATION, REDUCTION, OR REFORMATION OF HABITS

FORMATION, REDUCTION, OR REFORMATION OF ABILITIES, HABITS, OR TENDENCIES

(1) Concerning each of the outlines of the mental functions which are not selecting or selected functions, for example, concerning an outline of intentional functions,
that the average of the abilities of the functions belonging to that outline gets larger can be called the outline's ability's "Being Formed" or Formation, and that the average of the abilities of the functions belonging to that outline gets smaller can be called the outline's ability's "Being Reduced" or Reduction.
(2) Concerning each of the outlines of the mental functions which is selected functions including limited functions, for example, concerning an outline of limited egos,
that the average of the tendencies of the functions belonging to that outline gets larger can be called the outline' tendency or habit Being Formed or Formation, and that the average of the tendencies of the functions belonging to that outline gets smaller can be called the outline's tendency or habit Being Reduced or Reduction.
(3) Concerning each of the mental functions which are selecting functions including limiting functions, for example, concerning a limiting ego,
That the tendencies of some outlines of the selected functions belonging to that mental function changing can be called the mental function's habit's Being Reformed or Reformation.
For example, that the habit of interpersonal escapes is reduced and that that of interpersonal confrontations is formed can be called the reformation of interpersonal habits of egos.
    The word "reduction" might give a bad impression. However, when a functions cause some pain, the reduction of the function' tendency reduce the the pain. For example, when isolations cause isolated feeling, anxiety, and so on, the reduction of isolations' tendency reduce such pain.
    In summary,
non-selecting functions, non-selected functionsabilitiesformation or reduction
selecting functions⊃limiting functionshabitsreformation
selected functions(' outlines⊃limited functions(' outlines)tendencies=abilitiesformation or reduction

    However, if their distinction is always made, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, in these books, the mental functions which are non-selecting functions, non-selected functions, selecting functions, or selected functions(' outlines) are also called Functions merely, their abilities, habits, or tendencies are also called Habits merely, and their formations, reductions, or reformations are also called their Formations.

PERIODS DURING WHICH HUMAN HABITS ARE FORMED IN LUMPS

    There are some periods as follows during which human habits are formed in lumps. The functions whose habits are formed mainly in that period will be added.

[0-3 period] The baby and infant period
    During this period, though a lot of images are generated and recollected, nothing that happens during it will be recollected after it. Averagely, it is the time from the late prenatal period to the age of 3. It is divided into the following period.
[-0 period] The late prenatal period
    Few images' sources are generated because the fetus is protected and isolated in the mother's womb. However, a few pieces of the somatic sensation and autonomic sensations are functioning.
[0-1 period] The neonatal and baby period
    Whether it is from mother's breasts or from bottles, milk is vital even if some baby food is taken.
    Crying⇒smiling⇒moving its eyes⇒moving its face⇒tossing and turning⇒holding up its head⇒crawling⇒standing up while holding onto something⇒starting to walk upright on two legs⇒starting to speak a few isolated words.
    It is, averagely, the time from delivery to the age of 1. However, this is only an average. Not walking or speaking does not always mean any disorders.
[1-3 period] The infant period
    Milk is not vital.
    Walking upright on two legs⇒speaking more isolated words⇒starting to speak a few sentences.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 1 to that of 3.
[3-10 period] The post-infant and preadolescent period
    Something that happens during this period will be recollected after it, and the rapid development of sexual functions has not started yet.
    It is divided into the following.
[3-6 period] The post-infant period (3 to 6 period)
    The self's images which were defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" are generated and recollected during it. The child has not been in the human relations independent of its home yet.
    Running, speaking sentences, starting to write a few words, and making friends through the introductions by mothers, brothers, sisters, and so on.
    Averagely, it is the time form the age 3 to that of 6.
[6-10 period] The preadolescent period
    The child is in the human relations independent of his or her home.
    Doing the crawl or butterfly stroke, writing words, studying, making friends by his or herself, making boy or girl friends in spite of the sexual immaturity.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 6 to that of 10.
[10-15 period] The adolescent period
    From the beginning to ending of the rapid development of sexual functions.
    Broadening or escaping interpersonal relations. Egos as was defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" gets matured.
    Averagely, it is the time from the age of 10 to that of 15. However, this is only an average, and the differences among the sexes and individuals are very large.
[15- period] The post-adolescent period
    It is the time after the end of rapid development of sexual functions. That is, it does not include the adolescent period. In contrast, the adolescent period and the post-adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Later" in these books. And, the time before the adolescent period and the adolescent period are also called the "Adolescent Period or Earlier" in these books.

INFANT, PREADOLESCENT, AND ADOLESCENT FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

[0-3] Infant Functions and Habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the baby and infant period can be called "Infant" Functions, and their habits Infant Habits.
    Infant habits are the most hard to form, reduce, or reform after this period. Infant intentional functions include walking upright on two legs and speaking words, which are the most fundamental of all human intentional functions. If their abilities were not formed in this period, it would be hard to form them after it.
    Moreover, infant outlines of limited egos include adherence, showing the self, control, destruction, destroying complex images, and so on, as will be explained later.
[3-10] Preadolescent Functions and Habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the post-infant and preadolescent period can be called "Preadolescent" Functions, and their habits Preadolescent Habits.
    Preadolescent habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Preadolescent intentional functions include reading and writing words and fundamental interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, the self's images are generated in this period. Infant recollections of images include the gap between the world and the self, the self's going fat, and so on, as will be explained later.
[10-15] Adolescent functions and habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Functions, and their habits Adolescent Habits.
    Adolescent habits are harder to form, reduce, or reform than the following are but easier than the above are. Adolescent intentional function include more complicated interpersonal functions.
    Moreover, preadolescent outlines of limited egos include the escaping and patching up falling habits, as will be explained later.
[15-] Post-adolescent Functions and habits
    Averagely in human beings, the functions whose habits are formed mainly in the post-adolescent period can be called "Postadolescent" Functions, and their habits Post-adolescent Habits.
    Post-adolescent habits are hard to form, reduce, or reform, but easier than the above are. They include the functions and habits of the most complicated interpersonal functions and habits and the complicated way of life and way to die.
[0-] General functions and habits
    Averagely human beings, the functions whose habits are formed through his or her life or fluctuate can be called "General" Functions, and their habits General Habits.
    General outlines of limited egos include confrontation, escaping, waiting and seeing.

CARE OF CHILDREN

    The functions to a child in the baby and infant period by some older human beings which are essential to its existence and development can be called its Care. It includes nursing, diapering, hugging, bathing, letting them play, and weaning.

MOTHERS

    The human beings in the position where they should mainly take care of a child in the baby and infant period can be called its "Mothers". Again, those who are in such a position are mothers, and they do not always take proper care. In addition, they do not always do so with love.
    Though they are usually a real mother, they can be a real father, mothers-in-law, fathers-in-law, grand mothers or fathers, older sisters or brothers, specialists, or so. In addition, mothers are not always one. For example 1, in the case that a child's real father is in unemployment and that its real mother is in employment, the two can be its mothers. For example 2, in the case that a child's real mother died at its age of one and that one of its grandmothers brought it up after her death, the two can be its mothers. Accordingly, the plural form of "mothers" are often used in these books. Nonetheless, most mothers are a real mother. That is because not of an idealistic reason but of a realistic one.

INTERPERSONAL RELATIONS OF CHILDREN IN THE BABY AND INFANT PERIOD

    The interpersonal relations of children before the age of three are limited to their mothers and a few persons. In addition, they have no choice of interpersonal relations. They cannot help acquiring the care for existence and growth, satisfying drives to gather and interpersonal desires, and reducing the anxiety about isolation in such limited interpersonal relations.

MOTHERS' LOVE

    Emotions were explained closely in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called Emotions. Love is a kind of complex emotion which consists of sexual drives, drives to gather, drives to protect and nurse children, anxiety about isolation, interpersonal desires, and so on. Not only human beings but some mammals have some love. Human beings have the most complicated love of all animals.
    Love is very different depending on its object. From the beginning, it might be wrong that mothers' love for children, couple love, love for humanity, and so on are argued with the same word "love".
    Mothers' love for their children is influenced by the change of endocrine systems and neural systems which start with pregnancy. However, such a change is not everything. A part of love is what is caused for the first time when mothers face their babies after delivery. Such a part can be caused not only in a real mother but also in any young or old man or woman who is in the position where he or she should mainly take care of a baby, that is, any mother. In addition, babies or infants grow and change and attract mothers also after the first encounter. The love which is caused by such encounters can be called Mothers' Natural Love. The emotion where such natural love is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    There are some surprise at and curiosity in the birth and growth of human beings or animals in such encounters, and mothers' love contains such emotions. Even if a mother's child is a second, third, or so one for him or her, there are some surprise at and curiosity in the universality and the individual difference of human beings or animals.
    Mothers' love is infused with some selfish desires that children will become some labor force when grown up, that children will take care of mothers when in their old ages, and so on. Such desires are much influenced by social systems. For example 1, in a nation where elderly welfare is much promoted, fewer mothers will want their children to take care of them. For example 2, in a nation where the systems for the protection of laborers' right and for children's education are established, fewer mothers will make their children to work. Anyway, the emotions where such selfish desires are dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, not only it is inevitable that such selfish desires infuse into love to a degree but also such infusion to a degree is harmless for children.
    In addition, mothers' love is accompanied with the feeling of the duty to bring up their children in good health. Such a duty is also based on the customary and written law. The complex emotion where such the feeling of duty is dominant cannot be called mothers' love. However, some feeling of duty is necessary.
    Again, the complex emotion where the natural love as was explained above is dominant can be called Mothers' Love.
    On those ground, mothers do not need to think of love seriously. Though the following is extreme, those who think what is love do not have it.
    In general, other persons' emotions are grasped, perceived, and recognized. However, that recognition is not always correct. For example, the recognition that he or she is hostile to me is often correct, but that he or she is in favor of me is often incorrect. However, in psychology, incorrect recognition is also a mental function which affects other functions.
    Also in the children before the age of three, mothers' love is grasped, perceived, and recognized. In them, mothers' love is easier to feel and recognize than the care essential for their existence and growth and other interpersonal relations. It is after the preadolescent period that they can recognize that care is essential for their existence and growth. It is after the adolescent period that they can recognize complicated interpersonal relations. In contrast, even a baby can recognize whether or not its mothers have love for it. After all, it is mothers' love that a baby or infant grasps, perceives, and recognizes most and seeks most.
    Moreover, children do not seek deep or abundant love but do seek common love where the natural love as was explained above is dominant. Accordingly, mothers do not need to think what is love or how to represent love. Though the following is extreme, the mothers who think of such things do not have any love.

MOTHERS' THINNESS OF LOVE

    In mothers, it happens that their love is thin because some mental functions which cannot be called love are dominant. That mothers' love is thin intensely, continuously, or continually in such a way can be called mothers' "Thinness" of Love. For example, when the anxiety about being isolated is intense in mothers and when they do not let their children get away from them, their love become thin. Simply, they make use of their children in order to reduce their anxiety.
    When mothers function to their children in the baby and infant period with love, they are satisfied with the love, they are sometimes bored with it, they seek the things other than love and function apart from their mothers, and they get independent as human beings little by little from about their age of three. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, their children cannot be satisfied with love, they exclusively seek it forever, and they cannot get independent after about their age of three. Moreover, the habits of adherence, showing off the self, and so on, which will be explained later, are formed by their keeping seeking it forever.
    In addition, when mothers take care of their children in the baby period with love, even if the care is delayed for a while, they come to be able to wait and see about their age of six months. In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, they cannot wait and see, they come to short and to be desperate, and they keep desperately crying. Moreover, the habits of desperation, destruction, and so on, which will be explained later, are formed by being unable to wait and see.
    Mothers' thinness of love are the largest factor in forming falling habits which will be explained later.
    Battering, neglect, and so on are more serious and clearer than mothers' thinness of love. However, we should not pay so much attention to the former so that we neglect the latter. Anyway, the former contain the latter. Accordingly, battering, neglect, and so on are included in mothers' thinness of love in these books.

ENCLOSURES

    In his or her both synthetic and pure mental functions, an individual's, above all, a mother's keeping other individuals, above all, her children to herself and not letting them go apart from them can be called the individual's "Enclosure" of the other individuals or Enclosing them.
    In mothers, when their desires' dissatisfaction is intense in general, the desires concerning their children are increased, and the former often enclose the latter. Above all, when mothers are isolated and when their interpersonal relations are narrow, they often enclose their children in order to reduce their loneliness.
    Not only enclosure is distinct from love but also it results in and is equal to mothers' thinness of love. That is because the mental functions to satisfy the self's desires are dominant in it.
    Enclosures overlap in a large part with what is called "interference". Seeming love's overflow is sometimes enclosure.
    Mothers' enclosure of their children also forms large part of the latter falling habits.

IMITATIONS

    While other animals' intentional function is perceived and generated as images and while the ego of an animal repeats that intentional function, the animal's ability of that intentional function and the habit of the ego causing it are sometimes formed. This can be called the Imitation of or Imitating that intentional function and that ego. We need to pay attention to not only intentional functions' being imitated but also egos' being imitated and to not only intentional functions' abilities' being formed but also egos' habits' being formed by imitations.
    Imitations are essential functions for human beings to walk upright on two legs, to speak words, to write words, and so on. They are the formation of intentional functions' habits by imitations.
    However, above all, destructions are imitated, and egos' habits to destroy are formed. Regrettably, the children of destructive parents often get destructive.

CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

    When a thing (O) causes some pain (OP) and when the intentional function (I) dealing with (O) also causes some pain (IP),
when (I) can increase or maintain some pleasure or can decrease some pain in the future,
when the pain (OP) caused by (I) is more intense than the pain (IP) caused by (I), that change of emotions in the future's being recollected as images and egos' causing (I) can be called egos' confrontation with or confronting (O),
and that pain at present's being recollected as images and egos' not causing (I) can be called egos' escape from (O) or escaping (O),

when the pain (IP) caused by (I) is more intense than the pain (OP) caused by (O), that change of emotions in the future's being recollected as images and egos' causing (I) can be called egos' confrontation with or confronting (I),
and that pain at present's being recollected as images and egos' not causing (I) can be called egos' escape from (I) or escaping (I).
    Confrontations and escapes can be looked upon as two of egos' outlines.
    For example 1, it is a confrontation to the intentional function of running away that the people involved in war carry out dangerous running away for the sake of the safety in the future. In such a way, escape is different from running away. In addition, in this case, it is the confrontation to the intentional function (I) of running away.
    For example 2, as will be explained later, egos sometimes switch images as cause some pain. It is the escape from things (O) of images. We sometimes switch and escape some of the self's images as cause the pain like self-hatred, anxiety, and so on.
    However, there are a lot of egos' outlines which cannot be looked upon as confrontations or escapes, and many of them can be looked upon as "Waiting and Seeing". Not in an idealistic mean but in a realistic mean, waiting and seeing occupy most of our daily life. It can be said that waiting and seeing is a function fit for human individuals and the species to exist.
    In addition, not waiting and seeing and confronting or escaping instantly are sometimes looked upon as "Short-Circuit". This short-circuit is often not fit for human individuals and the species to exist. For example, if we started a fight or a war with a little hostility, human individuals and species could not exist. However, as will be explained later, it is fit for some small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on to short and running away.
    Though they are not so clear as the egos' outlines of human beings, a kind of prototype of egos' outlines like confrontations, escapes, waiting and seeing, short-circuit, desperation, adherence, showing off the self, destruction, control, and so on are recognized at least in higher mammals, and switching them depending on situations is fit for them and their species to exist. For example, switching the confrontation of hunting and eating and the waiting and seeing of ambushing or resting is fit for the strong carnivores like lions and tigers to exist, switching the confrontation of running away and eating and the waiting and seeing of hiding themselves and resting is fit for the he herbivores like zebras and sitatungas. Switching the confrontation of eating, short-circuit of running away instantly, and the waiting and seeing of hiding themselves and resting is fit for small mammals like mice and squirrels. Animals' babies cannot exist unless they adhere to their parents or show themselves off. There are some individuals controlling others and others submitting themselves in a herd or flock. The herbivores caught by carnivores try to destroy anything desperately. Such a kind of prototype is included in egos' outlines in these books.
    Anyway, in order to prevent overwork, animals including human beings cannot always confront, and we sometimes need to escape, to wait and see, to rest, and so on. The question is what we need to confront.

CONFRONTATIONS WITH IMAGES AND ESCAPES FROM IMAGES

    Some recollected images cause some pain. This is a displeasure feeling as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the recollected images of the self's immature interpersonal habits cause pain like anxiety, fear, shame, self-hatred, and so on.
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", it is hard or impossible for any egos to bring farther or extinguish any recollected images directly. Accordingly, each ego brings some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This is a "switch" from some images to some other images. When some recollected images cause intense pain, all that egos need to do is to reduce that pain and to switch from them to some trifles. Simply, what are switched to makes no difference. In such a case, switching from some images to some other images can be called egos' Escape from or Escaping some images. For example, when the self's immature interpersonal habits are recollected as images and when those images cause anxiety, fear, shame, self-hatred, and so on, some egos escape from those images and switch to the images of some other habits of theirs like intelligence, physical ability, appearance, and so on which they think to be excellent.
    In contrast, egos' not escaping from some recollected images causing some pain and manipulating them or start to thinking about them can be called egos' Confrontation with or Confronting some images.
    When an ego confronts some images, the confrontation with those images is recollected as the most complicated functional image. Simultaneously, the increase or maintenance of some pleasure or the decrease of some pain in the future is recollected as images, and some pleasure autonomic sensations like moderate palpitation and dyspnea are caused in the way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". For example, the future ease, cheers, and so on caused by the formation of interpersonal habits are recollected as images. Accordingly, egos confront the self's immature interpersonal functions recollected as images.
    Confrontations with and escapes from images can be represented by the words of mental confrontations and mental escapes. These words will sometimes be used in these books.

QUANTITIES OF CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

    Each confrontation or escape has a quantity, that is, intensity. When an ego confront something though the pain at present that the intentional function causes is intense, that confrontation can be said to be intense. Concerning escapes, it cannot always be said. For example, as will be explained later, because the confrontation with the self's falling habits accompanies intense mental pain, the quantity of that mental confrontation can be said to be very intense.

HABITS OF CONFRONTATIONS AND ESCAPES

    Confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing are also outlines of egos and have their habit. For example, some human beings confront frequently and intensely, some escape frequently and intensely, some frequently and moderately wait and see.
    However, the quantities and habits of confrontations, escapes, and so on are not so important. What egos confront, what egos escape from, that is, the objects of confrontations and escape are the most important. These books never say that all human beings always need to confront all the things intensely. They say that all egos sometimes need to confront the falling habits, above all, the falling habits escaping and patching up falling habits, as will be explained later.

FALLING HABITS

FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

    functions' outlines of (X, Y, Z, and so on) which have the following properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".

(a) Each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) traverses images' sources, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, emotions, egos, intentional functions, thinkings, and so on. However, (X, Y, Z, and so on) are mainly outlines of egos.
(b) Each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) temporarily reduces the self's pain. However, each of (X, Y, Z, and so on) intensely, continuously, or continually causes the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(c) The habits of most of (X, Y, Z, and so on) are formed together. By some of (X, Y, Z, and so on), that is, X and Y's being caused intensely, continuously, or continually, the habits not only of X and Y but also of Z and so on are not reduced but formed. Above all, by hindering egos from confronting (X, Y, Z, and so on) and their habits, the habits of (X, Y, Z, and so on) are not reduced but formed.
(d) By the habits of (X, Y, Z, and so on)'s not being reduced but being formed, (X, Y, Z, and so on) are caused intensely, continuously, or continually and cause more and more the self's and other persons' pain, above all, the self's mental pain.
(e) (a)(b)(c)(d) are repeated.

That is, those are a vicious circle. Accordingly, again, functions' outlines of (X, Y, Z, and so on) which have the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) can be called "Functions Falling into a Vicious Circle" or "Falling Functions".
    In addition, the habits of falling functions can be called Habits Falling into a Vicious Circle or a "Falling habits.
    Moreover, each of functions' outlines of (X, Y, Z, and so on) which has the above properties (a)(b)(c)(d)(e) and whose habit's quantity is much larger than the average of that quantity in the same species and age can be called a Function Falling into a Vicious Circle or a Falling Function, and its habit can be called a Habit Falling into a Vicious Circle or a Falling habit. That is, the words of falling functions and falling habits sometimes designate comparative ones in the same species and age.
    Though the word "reduction" would make a bad impression, the intense, continuous, or continual pain of the self and other persons, above all, the mental pain of the self are reduced by reducing falling habits.
    Falling functions and habits include the following, and the following occupy most of them.

SHORT-CIRCUIT

    Egos' not waiting and seeing and not thinking much and causing intentional functions can be called "Short-circuit", Short-circuiting, or Shorting. The contrary is waiting and seeing, bypassing, thinking much, and so on.
    Some short-circuit is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. For example, the small animals like mice, squirrels, and so on could not exist if they did not run away instantly when attacked by large ones.
    In addition, some waiting and seeing and bypathing is fit for individuals and the species to exist. For example, small animals need to keep still for a while after they run away or hide themselves. In addition, some carnivores ambush others.
    Averagely in animals, babies short-circuit, and they come to wait and see and bypath step by step. That is also fit for them to exist.
    Also in human beings, a newborn cry and cry and short-circuit when it has hunger and thirst. However, when its mothers takes care of it with love, even if care like nursing is delayed, it comes to be able to wait and see for minutes around the middle of the neonatal and baby period (about the age of 0.5), and the habit of short-circuiting is reduced.
    In contrast, when mothers' love is thin, it cannot wait and see, it keeps short-circuiting and crying desperately, and the habits of short-circuit, desperation, and destruction are formed.
    When the habit of short-circuit is formed, egos only cause intentional functions which are short-circuiting and whose habits have already been formed, above all, falling functions. Accordingly, the habits of the other functions are hardly formed, and falling habits are hardly reduced and easily formed. This is also a vicious circle.

DESPERATION

    When their mothers' love is thin and when babies cannot wait and see if care is delayed, they cry desperately and go desperate. When most animals including human babies go desperate, they hardly stop themselves from destroying themselves or others. Accordingly, the habit of desperation and that of destruction are often formed together.
    In addition, babies can attract mothers' attention by being desperate and destructive. Above all, higher mammals' babies including human beings' go desperate and destructive in order to attract mothers' attention. After all, the habit of short-circuit, that of desperation, that of destruction, and that of showing off the self are often formed together.

DESTRUCTION

    When animals suffer the attacks from the same or different species or natural disasters, they protect themselves, fight back, run away, hide themselves, and so on. Switching them depending on the situation is fit for animal individuals and species to exist. However, when they are not effective, some animals go desperate and destroy anything. Such destruction sometimes involves the self as a result. Though their success rate is smaller than the functions mentioned above, desperation and destruction are sometimes fit for the animals facing danger to exist and are usually the last resort.
    Destruction is directed toward the same species in human beings more often than in other animals. For example, battering, bullying, violence, war, slaughter, and so on are included in destruction.
    In addition, in human beings, destruction is sometimes directed toward the self intentionally. Not only suicide and self-injury but also anorexia, bulimia, drug abuse, and so on are included in the destruction of the self. Such destruction of the self is included in destruction.
    Animal babies also go desperate and destroy. For example, human babies cry and kick their beds when mothers' nursing is delayed.
    In human beings, when a baby is taken care of with love by its mothers, around the middle of the neonatal and baby period (around age of 0.5), it comes to be able to wait and see, do not need to destroy anything, and cause some interpersonal functions other than destruction to its mothers and other persons, and its destructive habit is reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' care and love are not enough, it goes on shorting, going desperate, and destroying, and its destructive habit is not reduced but formed.
    In such a way, the habit of destruction is formed also in the baby period by babies' being shorting and desperate by mothers' thinness of love. The destruction whose habit is formed in the baby period is usually directed toward the self. The origin of the habit of self-injury after the adolescent period like wrist cutting, overdose is formed in such a way in the baby period. In addition, such a habit of destruction leads to drug dependence, eating disorder, and so on.
    In contrast, the habit of destruction is formed also in the pre-adolescent period by children's imitation of seniors. For example 1, though the following is a pity, the children of destructive parents are often destructive. For example 2, though the following is really a pity, the children brought up by terrorists are often destructive. Those are caused by children's imitation of seniors. Such destruction whose habit is formed after the pre-adolescent period is usually directed toward other persons.
    In addition, mothers and other persons' enclosure of children and children's intense destruction of that enclosure in the adolescent period often form destructive habits. Children need to rebel against their parents and to destroy their enclosure in order to win independence. That is, moderate destruction of enclosure is necessary. However, when parents' enclosure and children's destruction are too intense and frequent, destructive habits are formed.
    In addition, though moderate rebellion promote children's independence, in excessive rebellion, they rebel wholly and rarely cause other functions, and so their independence are hindered.

ADHERENCE

    Ego's outlines not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other individuals belonging to the same species, and in human beings, not only not coming apart from and not letting go a lot of things including other persons but also intending to get love from other persons can be called "Adherence" to or Adhering to them. Being sticky, persistent, dangling, and so on are included in adherence. In human beings, not only the adherent interpersonal functions but also the adherent pure mental functions like certain things including some other persons are recollected as images biasedly continually are included in adherence.
    Adherence is a fit function for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they went apart from their parents. For example, dog babies dangle about their parents crawling.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, around the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of the post-infant and preadolescent period (around the age of 3), being weary of its mother's love and its own adherence, it is separated from its mother and cause some interpersonal functions other than adherence against some persons other than its mother, and its adherent habit is reduced.
    In contrast, if its mothers' love is thin, a baby or infant goes on seeking love and goes on adhering to its mothers, and its adherent habit is not reduced but formed after the baby and infant period. Moreover, the child adheres to persons other than its mother after that period, and a general adherent habit is formed.
    Mothers' thinness of love is the main factor forming adherent habits acquiredly. In the factors forming acquiredly adherent habits, there are also mothers' enclosure and children's imitation. Mothers' enclosure can hinder their children from going apart from them. Children imitate their mothers' adherence.
    When adherent habit is not reduced around the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of the post-infant period (around the age of 3), often, it is not reduced later, the differences between it and the average in the same species and age gets larger in the positive direction. Adherence is directed toward friends, classmates, and teachers in kindergarten or school, later toward colleagues, staffs, and bosses in office, and toward friends and boy or girl friends everywhere, husbands or wives and children home, and general adherent habits are formed. The adherence after the adolescent period is complicated and cunning. For example, they come to involve and to manipulate other persons.
    Adherent habits cause intense pain. First, they cause intense anxiety and solitude when they cannot adhere to other persons and they cannot help adhering to others desperately. Second, they cause isolation and solitude by being kept away from others. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more.
    Moreover, because they wholly adhere to others by adherent habits, the interpersonal habits other than adherent ones are hardly formed. Also for this reason, they cannot help adhering more and more. This is also a vicious circle.
    In addition, adherence, showing off the self, control, destruction, isolation, and so on often exist together. That is because human beings try to show themselves off in order to adhere and get love. When they cannot adhere or get love, they try to control or destroy others. As a result they are isolated.
    The habits of adherence, showing off the self, control, destruction, and isolation are often formed together. That is because they can exist together, as was explained above, because the main factors forming them acquiredly are the same mothers' thinness of love and enclosure and the child's imitation of the same mothers. This is also a vicious circle.
    Most falling functions and habits are the same as adherent functions and habits. Accordingly, the following explanations will be simplified.

SHOWING OFF THE SELF

    Showing off the self to other animals of the same species can be called "Showing Off the Self". In human beings, it includes putting on airs, talking too much about the self, boasting of the self, talking too much about his or her past, talking the self as exaggerated or fabricated.
    Showing off the self is fit for animal babies to exist. That is because they could not exist if they did not attract their parents' attention and care. For example, the babies of cats, dogs, human beings, and so on cry in the way to attract their parents' attention.
    We sometimes think that somebody else's child is lovely. That is a natural feeling. In addition, we sometimes praise a child frankly. All the more in mothers, they think that their child is lovely, and this feeling overlap with love. When they have such love, they praise their child frankly.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is loved and praised by its mothers in such a way, around the end of the baby and infant period (about the age of 3), being weary of its mothers' love and praise and its own showing off the self, it causes some interpersonal functions other than it to some persons other than its mothers, and its habit of showing off the self is reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers' love and praise are not enough, it cannot be weary of them and its own showing off the self, it goes on doing that, and its habit is not reduced but formed. In such a way, the main factor forming the habit of showing off the self acquiredly are the shortage of mothers' love and praise'.
    The formation of the habit of showing off the self and their relation with other falling habits are much the same as those of adherent habits. Accordingly, most of their explanation is omitted, and only the things characteristic of them will be explained. In showing off the self, though the exaggerated or fabricated self is shown to others, the self's images are exaggerated or fabricated to a degree, and the real ego is hard to recognize. As a result, the habit of showing off the self hinders egos from confronting their falling functions and habits. Also because of this reason, falling habits are hard to reduce.

CONTROL

    An individual or group's controlling other individuals or groups of the same species is called its "Control" of them or Controlling them in these books. For example, human beings' controlling other living things or the nature is not included in control in these books. In human beings, it includes presiding over anything, even over trifles, rising anyway, expanding territories, monopolizing anything.
    Switching between control, entrustment, and submission depending on situations is fit for animal individuals and the species to exist. Animal babies including human ones also try to get care and love by controlling their mothers, and it is a fit function for them to exist. For example, human babies control mothers' nursing by crying loud.
    All the more in case they cannot get care and love, they have to control their mothers. In case they still cannot get them, they have to destroy their mothers. Though they cannot get love all the more by doing so, babies or infants and some adults control and destroy others when they cannot get love.
    In human beings, when a baby or infant is taken care of by its mothers with love, it do not need to control them, it causes some interpersonal functions other than control to its mothers and other persons, and its controlling habits are reduced.
    In contrast, when its mothers care and love are not enough, it goes on controlling, and its controlling habit is not reduced but formed. In such a way, the main cause forming controlling habits are mothers' thinness of love.
    Many of the human beings who have large controlling habits seek power, authority, and so on, some of them also have intensely destructive habits, and some of them who can get powers sometimes cause despotism, war, massacres, and so on. In addition, when they cannot get strong power, they become what is called lions at home and mice abroad, try to control home, and sometimes cause their enclosure of children and partners, domestic violence, and so on.

DESTRUCTIONS OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    In human beings, when some things recollected as complex images cause displeasure feelings like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on, the egos after the adolescent period switch images from such ones to others through escapes of images as was explained earlier. However, the egos in the baby and infant period are immature, and so they cannot perform such a switch. Accordingly, some of them where some images cause severe pain try to destroy them in any way. Such destruction is different from the dissolution which mature egos can perform. As a result, some of the complex images, recollections of images, associations, egos, thinkings, the self's images, and so on sometimes become unexpected things for general human beings and even for psychologists or psychiatrists. It can be thought that "dissociative disorder" is one of those examples. Destroying images causing pain in any way and the result caused by it is called "Destruction of Images" or Destroying Images in these books.
    It is probable that some destruction of images develop into some dissociation in dissociative disorder and some split in borderline personality disorder.
    For example, a battering mother's images cause anxiety and fear. The children in the post-infant period or later can escape such images. However, those in the baby and infant period can hardly escape them, and so they destroy them at random.
    The habits of destruction of images are usually formed by mothers' thinness of love, above all, by the extremes like battering, neglect, and so on.

ISOLATIONS

    Going apart from its group like herd, flock, home, society, and so on is not fit for animal babies to exist. However, when an individual is destroyed, attacked, or alienated and when it has been grown to a degree, going apart from such a group is sometimes fitter for it to exist than staying in it.
    Physically in human beings, also children are protected through legal and social systems. In contrast, mentally, they can be alienated and isolated. However, human beings can play even if they are alone. Even if they cannot play alone, they can play with images as in day dreams. In these books, that human beings exist mentally with such plays even if they are alone is called "Isolation" or Being Isolated.
    In human beings, when their mothers' love is thin, babies gather in their voluntary movements and synthetic functions but are isolated in their pure mental functions, they play alone or play with images, and their isolated habits start to be formed from the middle of the neonatal and baby period (about the age of 0.5). Simply, though they are in groups in appearance, it is isolated in heart. When there is some battering or neglect, they are isolated in its voluntary movements and synthetic functions and in appearance, and their isolated habits are intensely formed. Anyway, when they are isolated till the end of the baby and infant period (the age of 3), their isolated habits are intensely formed and are often not reduced later.
    Isolation prompts the formation of the falling habits concerning the self which will be explained later.

NARCISSISM

    Each of the children who have not been loved or praised in the baby and infant period comes to love the self by itself. That form intense what is called "narcissism". Each child needs to be loved and praised to a degree so that its narcissism can be formed moderately. When it is loved and praised moderately, it comes to be weary of being done so and of loving the self, it loves other persons and things, and moderate narcissism is formed. Anyway, everybody has narcissism, and the question is the degree.

MOTHERS' FALLING HABITS, THINNESS OF LOVE, AND ENCLOSURE, AND CHILDREN'S IMITATION OF MOTHERS' FALLING FUNCTIONS

    Adherence does seek love but does not give it. Destricton does not accompany love. Though human beings sometimes love something and destroy it, that is often because that love cannot be won. Showing off the self and narcissism do not love others. Accordingly, when those who have falling habits become mothers, their love for children is often thin, too.
    In addition, those who have falling habits have various desires' dissatisfaction mainly because they are isolated and alienated. Accordingly, as was explained earlier, they often increase the desires concerning children, enclose their children, and try to satisfy those desires. Simply, they try to make a monopoly of their children.
    In addition, even babies or infants imitate familiar persons. Though it is hard for them to imitate the falling functions like escaping, patching up, and so on whose habits will be formed in the later period, it is easy for them to imitate the falling functions like desperation, destruction, adherence, showing off the self, and so on whose habits are formed in the baby and infant period. Of course, mothers' falling ones are imitated. After all, children imitate seniors' falling functions from the baby period to the adolescent period, and they imitate those particular to each period.
    On those ground, when mothers have falling habits, the possibility that their children will have them is large. Mothers' thinness of love and enclosure caused by their falling habits and children's imitation of their falling functions are the major factor forming children's falling habits.

BABY AND INFANT FALLING HABITS

    Averagely in the human beings, the falling habits of the falling functions which have been explained in the previous sections are reduced by the end of the baby and infant period or the beginning of post-infant period (around the age of 3). However, those habits is not reduced but formed mainly by their mothers' thinness of love, mothers' enclosure, and children's imitation of adults' falling functions. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Baby and Infant" Falling Functions, and those habits can be called Baby and Infant Falling Habits.
    Not only baby and infant falling habits but also general falling ones are formed together. Moreover, above all, baby and infant ones are formed together because of the following reason. The situations of the formation of baby and infant habits are almost only homes, above all, the relations with mothers. Accordingly, that formation are affected directly by mothers' thinness of love, their enclosure, and children's imitation of their falling functions.

GENERATION OF THE SELF'S IMAGES

    The self was defined in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY". In human beings, the self is recollected as complex images consisting of the past, present, and future bodies, emotions, thinkings, and so on. The self's images are generated and recollected in the beginning of the post-infant period, that is, around the age of four, and get the most clear in the adolescent period.

THE ANXIETY ABOUT THE SELF'S DYING SOONER OR LATER

    In a little time after the generation of the self's image, the temporal limitation of the self and the self's dying sooner or later are recollected as images, and they come to cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later. Such anxiety is the ultimate anxiety. The decisive way to transcend it was explained in "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY".

ATTEMPTS TO MAKE THE SELF ETERNAL

    The anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later causes some desires and attempts to make the self eternal anyway. Such desires can be called "Desires to Make the Self Eternal", and such attempts can be called "Attempts to Make the Self Eternal".
    Attempts to make the self eternal overlap with love, religion, control, will to power, and so on. For example, they overlap with a holder of powers' building his or her massive tomb.

EXPANSION OF GAPS BETWEEN THE SELF AND THE WORLD

    In the recollected images, there are some gaps between the images of the self and those of the things other than the self. Such gaps can be called the "Gap between the Self and the World".
    When a baby or infant is not isolated, because such a gap is filled with its mothers, some other persons, pets, toys, and so on, it is small.
    In contrast, in each human individual who was isolated in the baby and infant period, such a gap is expanded. While the falling functions which has explained were mainly egos' outlines and while they are caused by egos' falling habits, such expansion is caused by falling habits of recollections of images.
    The human beings where the gap between the self and the world is small can easily get to the way to transcend the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later because of the continuity of the images of the self and those of the things other than the self, and that anxiety are rarely caused and, if ever, faintly caused.
    In contrast, the human beings where that gap is expanded can hardly get to the way to transcend that anxiety, and that anxiety are caused frequently and intensely. In addition, as was explained above, the desire to make the self eternal gets intense.
    The expansion of the gap between them often cause the anxiety about the self's dying sooner or later and the desire to make the self eternal, and they often enhance the habits of showing off the self, control, and so on. For example, those who have gotten large powers often try to control the people and try to leave their glory or massive tomb. Moreover, because falling habits are formed together, they often have large destructive habits, too, and they try to hold powers, to destroy liberal rights, social rights, democratic systems, separations of powers, and the rule of law, to run wildly to despotism, autocracy, war, the research, development, and hold of totally destructive means, and so on. Accordingly, reducing such falling habits is also one of the ways to secure existence and liberty.

SELF'S GOING FAT

    In the expansion of the gap between the self and the world, that gap is often filled with the self's images. That is because it cannot be filled with the things other than the self's because of isolation. If the relations with some other persons, animals, or the nature are resumed, that gap is filled with others to a degree. If the isolation continues, it keeps on being filled with the self's. The self's image goes larger as a result. This can be called the "Self's Going Fat". It is caused by habits of recollections of images in the same way as the expansion of the gap between the self and the world.
    The self's going fat is formed together with not only the expansion of the gap between the self and the world but also the hanits of showing off the self, control, and so on which were explained earlier and the beautification of the self which will be explained below.

BEAUTIFICATION OF THE SELF

    The images of the self where falling habits are formed cause pain like anxiety, fear, self-hatred, and so on. The immature egos of children as they are beautify the self in order to reduce such pain. For example, they beautify the self as a pitiful one who is not loved by and is alienated from their mother and general human beings. The beautified self's images are generated by such beautification. Such beautification of the self also hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits.

PREADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

    Most of the falling habits of falling functions explained in the previous sections are formed in the post-infant and preadolescent period after the self's images were generated. Accordingly, those functions can be called "Preadolescent" Falling Function, and their habits can be called Preadolescent Falling Habits.
    We can trace back from preadolescent falling habits to, at least, those of isolation, and they are included in baby and infant falling habits. In addition, most of the baby and infant falling habits are formed together. In addition, most of the preadolescent ones are formed together. Accordingly, a lot of baby and infant falling habits and preadolescent ones coexist. Anyway, it is impossible for one of them to be exclusively formed.

FALLING INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS AND IMMATURITY OF ABILITIES OF INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    When the habits of isolation are formed, isolated egos rarely cause interpersonal functions as intentional functions, and the abilities of interpersonal functions as abilities of intentional functions are hardly formed and stay immature. For example, in not only children but also adults, after they are cloistered for months, interpersonal functions will not go well.
    Moreover, when falling habits are formed, in general, falling egos cause falling interpersonal functions, while their abilities are formed, those of interpersonal functions other than them are not formed, and the general abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature. For example, when a person always resorts to controlling and destructive interpersonal functions, the abilities of cooperative ones are not formed.
    In addition, those who have intense falling habits and often cause falling interpersonal functions are often alienated and isolated, and their abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature.
    Moreover, because the abilities of interpersonal functions stay immature, they are alienated and isolated, and those abilities stay immature.
    Those are vicious circle, too. Above all, the habits escaping and patching up interpersonal functions which will be explained later cause interpersonal habits' immaturity.
    However, when falling habits are reduced, interpersonal habits are formed unexpectedly quickly. After all, falling interpersonal habits are more serious than interpersonal habits' immaturity.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    Because falling functions and habits cause intense, continuous, and continual pain like anxiety, fear, solitude, self-hatred, and so on, above all, adolescent egos which have gotten mature to a degree patch up the self's falling functions and habits. In addition, if the self's falling functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes the pain of shame, egos hide and patch up them in interpersonal relations. In addition, if not only falling functions and habits but also immature interpersonal functions and habits are found by other persons, because it causes shame, egos hide and patch up the latter, too. Those can be called "Patching Up" Falling Habits or Functions Patching Up Falling Habits, and their habits can be called Habits Patching Up Falling Habits.
    Interpersonal habits patching up falling interpersonal habits are the clearest of them. They include behaving themselves cheerfully not naturally but intentionally, beautifying solitude, showing off their positions and powers, talking only of superficial things, showing off their destructive appearances which other persons are hard to come close to.
    When habits patching up falling habits are large, patching functions are almost always caused, important functions other than them are rarely caused, and important habits other than patching ones are not formed. For example, the habits to talk with other persons frankly are not formed.
    In addition, patching up falling habits hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits. As long as patching up goes well, egos do not confront them. Only when it does not go well, egos confront them. For example, as long as showing off positions and powers goes well, he or she does not confront his or her falling interpersonal functions and habits.
    On those grounds, functions patching up falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits patching up falling habits in falling habits.
    When some falling interpersonal habits were formed or when interpersonal habits were immature in the preadolescent period, some boys or girls in the adolescent period are sometimes alienated from their classmates and suffer some bullying, neglect, and so on in school, and some habits patching up falling habits are sometimes formed.
    Interpersonal functions patching up falling habits by causing interpersonal ones which are extremely opposite to falling interpersonal ones can be called an "Opposite Representation". For example, some persons who were disliked by others as sober sometimes behave themselves light-minded. Opposite representation often brings misunderstanding. That is because few people can see that it is opposite representation on the basis of falling habits.
    In such ways, habits patching up falling habits are formed mainly acquiredly in the adolescent period.

ESCAPES FROM FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    When the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, those images cause intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on. Accordingly, egos sometimes escape the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images by means of switching of images as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". Escaping the self's falling functions and habits recollected as images can be called Escapes from Falling Habits(' Images), Escaping Falling Habits(' Images), Escaping Falling Habits (recollected as images). In addition, their habits can be called Habits Escaping Falling Habits. For example, when the self's adherence, simply, being sticky is recollected as an image, it causes intense mental pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, and so egos switch images from it to harmless ones.
    When habits escaping falling habits are large and when escapes from falling habits are caused every time falling habits are recollected as images, egos cannot confront the self's falling functions and habits, and falling habits in general are not reduced. Accordingly, escapes from falling habits are included in falling functions, and habits escaping falling habits are included in falling habits. Far from that, they are the most vicious cycles and are the most serious falling ones.
    When compared with the time of the formation of habits patching up falling habits as was explained above, the time when habits escaping falling habits are formed fluctuates. However, they are formed mainly in the adolescent period.

PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    The images of the self's falling habits are not only escaped. As was explained earlier, though the self's images are beautified in the baby and infant period, that beautification is that of the general self. In contrast, in the adolescent period, because the self's falling functions and habits are recognized though vaguely and cause displeasure, egos enhance the covers of them and hinder them from being recollected. This can be called Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images) or Patching Up Falling Habits (Recollected as Images).
    For example 1, the girls, boys, ladies, and gentlemen who have confidence in their looks sometimes enhance their looks' images and patch up their falling habits. Not that excellent looks are harmful in general, but that they are so if they are taken advantage of in such a way. For example 2, those who have money or power sometimes enhance its images and patch up their falling habits. They are troublesome, above all, for their subordinates.

HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS' IMAGES

    Escaping falling habits' images and patching up them are alike in egos' intention to reduce pain temporarily and in the result that the falling habits' images are not intensely, continuously, or continually recollected. In addition they are alike in the harm that they hinder egos from confronting falling functions and habits. Accordingly, they can be called Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images) or Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits (Recollected as Images), and their habits can be called Habits Escaping and Patching Up Falling Habits(' Images).
    Because egos escape and patch up falling habits, they cannot confront them, and so falling habits including habits escaping and patching up falling habits are not reduced but formed more and more. This is the most vicious cycle and they are the most severe falling functions and habits.

ENHANCING THE SELF'S IMAGES AS THE PERSECUTED AND REACTION OR REVENGE

    Those who have falling habits are often alienated and isolated, and they sometimes consider such alienation and isolation to be the persecution by other persons, general human beings, or the society.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted and cover their falling habits with them, such enhancement and cover is patching up falling habits' images which was explained above.
    If they enhance the self's images as the persecuted more intensely than they patch up their falling habits, such enhancement can lead to some reaction or revenge against the alleged persecutors. If such enhancement accompanies desperation, destruction, and so on which were explained earlier, such reaction or revenge can be fierce. In addition, such destruction is sometimes directed toward the self.

DESTROYING MIRRORS

    Through its genes and gene functions, its mother's thinness of love, enclosures, and its imitations, habits, above all, falling habits of each child resemble its mother's, father's, brothers', sisters', and so on. This is as if a mirror reflected its own. In addition, each child has pain like anxiety, self-hatred, and so on against its falling habits. Accordingly, each child has pain against its mother, father, and so on's falling habits as if they were its own. Accordingly, such a child or young man or woman as has large falling habits tries to destroy its mother, father, and so on or their images. This can be called Destroying Mirrors, and its habit can be called a Habit Destroying Mirrors.
    Though destroying mirrors overlaps with what is called rebellion, as long as falling habits continue, most habits destroying mirrors are not reduced after the adolescent period. It is the adolescent period that destroying mirrors get clear for the first time.
    Destroying mirrors also hinders egos from confronting the self's falling functions and habits. That is because the self's falling habits have been projected on others. Accordingly, destroying mirrors is included in falling functions, and habits destroying mirrors are included in falling habits.

EXCESSIVE REBELLIONS

    When its parents' enclosure and control are intense and go on after the adolescent period and when a child, young men, or women always try to rebel against them, sometimes, the functions other than rebellions are not caused, and the habits other than rebellious ones are not formed. For example, some young men or women get separated or married in order not to be independent but to be separated from his or her parents. The habit living independently is not formed by such separation or marriage. Accordingly, excessive rebellions are included in falling functions, and excessively rebellious habits are included in falling ones.

ADOLESCHENT FALLING HABITS

    Those falling functions whose habits are formed mainly in the adolescent period can be called "Adolescent" Falling Functions, and their habits can be called Adolescent Falling Habits.
    Habits escaping and patching up falling habits are the most serious of all adolescent falling habits. Far from that, they are the most serious of all falling habits.
    Being alienated, bullied, neglected, and so on in school in the adolescent period form habits escaping and patching up falling habits.
    About destructive habits and controlling ones which were explained earlier, not small parts of them are formed by adolescent egos' imitation. Their formation, above all, in violent groups is serious. Destructive functions and habits and controlling ones are included not only in baby and infant ones but also in adolescent ones in these books.
    Anyway, adolescent and post-adolescent habits are more or less formed on the basis of preadorescent and baby and infant ones.

POS-TADOLESCENT FALLING HABITS

    The functions whose habits are formed mainly in the post-adolescent period can be called post-adolescent functions, and their habits can be called post-adolescent habits. Post-adolescent habits include complicated interpersonal habits, the complicated way of life, way to die, and so on. Post-adolescent falling habits include interpersonal ones which are cunning, flattering, superficial, and so on, habits patching up falling habits with power, money, appearance, and so on, and so on. Anyway, falling functions and habits escaping and patching up falling habits go more and more complicated and cunning.
    Anyway, the habits formed before the adolescent period are hardly reduced, and the habits after it are formed on the basis of them.

BLAMING OTHER PERSONS

    As was explained earlier, there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, and children's imitation of their seniors as some of the causes of falling habits, and it is certain that there are mothers as some of those causes.
    However, those causes are sometimes attributed to fathers, brothers, and sisters wrongly. For example, they are often attributed to fathers, who are violent or have dependence on alcohol or other drugs.
    Going back to the past and searching those causes accurately is an important step to confront falling habits.
    However, as will be explained later, the most serious of falling habits are falling habits escaping and patching up falling habits. It is not mothers or fathers but adolescent egos that escape and patch up them. That is, the greatest causes for the self's falling habits are not in any other persons but in the adolescent self's egos.
    It is sure that there are mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, children's imitation of their seniors as the causes for adolescent egos' escaping and patching up them. However, falling habits are deeply rooted in post-adolescent egos and are the self's. It is no use blaming other persons. Again, going back to the past and searching those causes is a step to confront falling habits. That is, it is a step to go back to the past, and it is no use blaming other persons.
    Nonetheless, if a post-adolescent person blames others, it is a new kind of falling function or it overlaps with patching up falling habits.

CONFRONTATION AND STOP

  

STOPPING FALLING FUNCTIONS

    As was explained earlier, most falling functions are falling egos, and most falling habits are falling egos' habits. In addition, what decide egos' habits, that is, what form them mainly is the following.
(1) In the situation, which functional images are recollected how intensely? That is, which image to image neural ways are activated how much?
(2) From the recollected functional images, which pleasure autonomic sensations are caused how intensely? That is, Which image to emotion neural ways are activated how much?
    However, as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", the more decisive of (1)(2) is (2). Though more than one functional image is recollected at once, some of them which do not cause intense pleasure autonomic sensations or which cause some displeasure ones do not cause any functional impulses and do not cause the whole of the egos. Then, the habits of such egos are reduced. Falling egos function in the same way and their habits are formed or reduced in the same way, too. For example, even if adherence or showing off the self is recollected as a functional image, when it causes displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, self-hatred, or shame, it is not caused, and its habit is reduced. Simply, even if the idea to do it occurs to us, when we feel bad, we stop it.
    That a functional image is recollected but that the whole of the ego is not caused is the ego's stop, and is not its complete stop but incomplete stop. Even if an ego is stopped incompletely, when that stop is caused continuously or continually, the ego's habit is not formed but reduced. Falling egos' habits are reduced in the same way. Even if the functional images of a falling intentional function are recollected, when they do not cause pleasure autonomic sensations but cause displeasure ones, the whole of the falling ego is not caused. This is the ego's incomplete stop. When that stop is caused continuously or continually, the falling ego's habit is not formed bur reduced.
    Then, what makes recollected functional images of falling intentional functions cause displeasure autonomic sensations. Please do not foresee a behaviorist ending. The writers of these books are never behaviorists or so.

CONFRONTING FALLING FUNCTIONS AND HABITS

    Falling functions, from the baby period to the adolescent period, reduce pain temporarily. For example 1, short-circuit clearly reduce pain temporarily. For example 2, escaping and patching up falling habits reduces the pain caused by the images of falling functions and habits. However it is temporarily and from the baby period to the adolescent period that they reduce pain. Falling habits cause intense, continuous, or continual pain after the adolescent period. However, falling functions are caused continuously and continually by falling habits after that period, and those habits are hardly reduced.
    When the self's falling functions and habits are recollected as images, they cause intense pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on. Accordingly, egos have escaped and patched up them. Accordingly, falling habits have not been reduced.
    In contrast, when egos do not escape or patch up but do confront the images of the self's falling functions and habits, those images cause intense pain, and falling egos can be stopped, even if falling functions are recollected as functional images, they cause intense pain, and falling egos can be stopped. However, only in such a way, egos escape and patch up them. In addition, post-adolescent egos escape and patch up them more cunningly than ever.
    In contrast, when egos confront the images of falling functions and habits again and again, the pain caused by them changes from anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on to emotions like being bored with them and scoffing at them, and their images come to be recollected not as the self's but the past self's as if they were other persons'. Thereafter, though the images of falling functions and habits are recollected for months or years, they cause the displeasure sensations like the above, falling egos are stopped, and falling egos' habits go on being reduced.
    For example, because the images of the self's adherent functions and habits, simply, being sticky cause anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on, egos have been escaped and patched up their images. For example, egos have switched from their images to the self's power or appearance. In contrast, if egos do not do that and do confront their images, they cause pain like anxiety, self-hatred, shame, and so on. However, only in such a way, egos escape and patch up them again. In contrast, when egos confront them again and again, the pain caused by them changes from the above to the pain like being bored with them and scoffing at them. Thereafter, even if their images occur to us, we are bored with them and scoff at them, adherent egos are not caused, and adherent habits are reduced.

EGOS' CONFRONTING THE SELF'S HABITS ESCAPING AND PATCHING UP FALLING HABITS

    However, escaping and patching up falling habits is persistent, and it is often caused even thereafter. We are often escaping and patching up falling functions and habits actually while we are intending to confront them. For example, only by confronting a few falling functions or habits in a half way, we often emphasize the images of the self as those who complete confrontation and patch up the self's falling functions and habits. Accordingly, it is the functions and habits escaping and patching up falling habits that egos need to confront again and again above all. For example, we need to again and again confront switching from the images of the self's falling functions and habits to the self's position, power, appearance, or so.
    After all, the most serious cause of falling habits are habits escaping and patching up falling habits, and they are formed by adolescent egos. That is the most serious cause of falling habits are not mothers' thinness of love, enclosure, or children's imitation of seniors but adolescent egos' functions. The egos in the adolescent period are closer to the present ones than those in the baby and infant or preadolescent period are. Accordingly, the confrontation with the former is easier than that with the latter.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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