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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

RELATION OF THIS BOOK WITH THE OTHER BOOKS IN OUR-EXISTENCE.NET

    In this book, this "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" is also called "This Book". This book is on the basis of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after you read the book. However, we will try to write this book so that it can be read even if the book is not read. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", this book, and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" in this book. These books can also be looked upon as chapters composing a book. Accordingly, these books are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" as a book in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENRAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or "These Books" in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET.
    In this book, the words of material things, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, their existing and functioning, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on designate the same things as in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Anyway, neural systems are included in bodies, they are included in living things, they are included in material things, neural functions are included in bodily functions, they are included in living functions, and they are included in (material) functions. Neural functions include sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on.
    In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because their species are important, the words of animals and human beings usually designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, those words usually designate their individuals.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS, PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS, AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

    Unitary voluntary movements and complex voluntary movements which will be explained below can be called "Voluntary Movements".
    The movements of the parts of a body which are caused by some neural groups' excitements and transmissions and striated muscle groups' excitements and contractions from the motor area on frontal lobe of cerebrum to spinal cord and motor nerves or to cranial nerves to striated muscles and which are inseparable can be called "Unitary Voluntary Movements". Unitary voluntary movements include bending and stretching of joints, upward, downward, rightward and leftward movements and bending and stretching of tongues, opening and closing and tension and relaxation of vocal cords, upward, downward, rightward, and leftward movements and whirl of eyeballs, tension and relaxation of parts of faces.
    A movement which consists of more than one unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Complex Voluntary Movement". For example, a human being's walking upright on two legs is a complex voluntary movement consisting of more than one unitary voluntary movement like bending forward of left shoulder joint, bending backward of right shoulder one, bending backward of left hip one, bending forward of right hip one, and so on. Vertebrates' complex voluntary movements include walking, running, swimming, flying, uttering cries, and so on. Human beings' complex voluntary movements include walking upright on two legs, running alike, swimming crawl, butterfly, and so on, pronouncing syllables and short words, and so on. By the way, speaking long words, phrases, clauses, sentences are included in synthetic functions which will be explained later. That is because we are speaking them while perceiving the words spoken by ourselves and thinking what to speak next. In addition, writing or inputting something on papers or into computers are included in synthetic functions.
    Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions which will be explained later.

PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    The functions consisting of some sensations or some recollections of images and containing no voluntary movements can be called "Pure Mental Functions". Pure mental functions include sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, egos, and thinking.
    Recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, egos, thinkings, and so on contain some recollections of images. Sensations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives contain no recollections of images.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

    Functions consisting of some pure mental functions and some voluntary movements can be called "Synthetic Functions". Human beings' synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, talking with other human beings, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions. For example, human beings' speaking words is to perceive the words spoken by themselves, to think what to speak next, and to move their mouse, tongue, larynx, and so on, it contains at least perceptions, thinkings, and voluntary movements, and so it is a synthetic function.

INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

    Synthetic functions concerned with some other human beings such as talking with, playing with, studying with, working with, keeping company with, breaking up with, fighting with, being conciliated with them, escaping them, and so on can be called "Interpersonal Functions". They are the most important of all human functions for human beings to exist. For this very reason, there is some interpersonal anxiety. Every human being has more or less interpersonal anxiety.
    Confrontations and escapes will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Interpersonal functions include interpersonal confrontations and interpersonal escapes. Simply, keeping company with people even with interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal confrontation. In contrast, escaping people because of interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal escape. Fighting with people is not in the least the same as the interpersonal confrontations. Please do not forget that. Fighting with people is often an interpersonal escape rather than an interpersonal confrontation. Being reconciled is often an interpersonal confrontation. Interpersonal confrontations and escapes include complicated ones and simple ones. For example, not going to school or work because of interpersonal anxiety is a simple interpersonal escape. Talking only superficial things or pretending to be unapproachable are a complicated interpersonal escape.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Pure mental functions and synthetic functions are also called "Mental Functions" in these books.

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

    Bodily functions which do not involve any sensations, recollections of images, or voluntary movements can be called "Autonomic Functions".
    Autonomic functions include the contraction and expansion of the heart, blood vessels, and lungs, digestive organ's movement, digestion, and absorption, endocrine, exocrine, immunity, and discharges (excluding evacuation from rectum and urination from bladder). By the way, at least in human beings, evacuation from rectum or urination from bladder is not a complete autonomic function. That is because they can put off it to a degree.

SITUATIONS

    The words of the "situation" for a material thing or function were defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". This section will complement the definition. With the words, we usually imagine that for an individual. However, as far as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, a part of that part's situation is in the individual, and the other part is out of it. For example, when an individual was filled with interpersonal anxiety and when he or she thinks how to escape people, the main situation of such thinking is such anxiety, and it is in the individual. If such anxiety is enhanced by certain persons, they are a part of the situation for such anxiety and such thinking, and it is out of the individual. As far as the situation for a part of an individual and its functions is concerned, the part within the individual can be called the "Internal" Situation or Bodily Situation, and the part out of the individual can be called the "External" Situation. In the above example, such anxiety is the main part of the internal situations for such thinking, and such people are a part of the external situation for such anxiety and such thinking.
    In biology and psychology, because each part of an individual and its functions often matters, the distinction between internal and external situations matters the most in science. However, in general, the words of material things, material functions, or so designate those excluding bodies, bodily functions, or so, and those of situation designate those excluding internal situations. Accordingly, such usages are sometimes done also in these books.

OBJECTS AND MEANS

    Most functions have objects, means, and situations as properties. For example, as for interpersonal functions, general human beings are their objects, spoken words, written words, telephones, mails, and so on are their means, offices, schools, and so on are their external situations, and interpersonal anxiety, desire, and so on are their internal situations.

EMOTIONS

    Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions which will be explained in this chapter can be called "Emotions".

PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", things appearing on an olfactory sensation, things appearing on a balancing sensation, things appearing on a taste sensation, things appearing on a somatic sensation, or things appearing on an autonomic sensation which have pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensation in particular. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation". In addition, the neural function which is premised on causing things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, things appearing on a pleasure sensation, or things appearing on a displeasure sensation can be called a "Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation", a "Pleasure Sensation", or a "Displeasure Sensation".
    The pain, itch, hotness, and coldness in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations. Palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations.
    Excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations, sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. Visual sensations and auditory sensations are not pleasure and displeasure sensations. For example, the pain of the eyes or that of the ears is a somatic sensation, autonomic sensation, or metaphor for mental pain.
    Directly and indirectly, each pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only pure mental functions like memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various autonomic functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin causes not only the perception of that pain but also palpitation, sweating, and so on indirectly through the autonomic neural system and endocrine one.

DRIVES

    A bodily function which has the following properties can be called a "Drive".

(d1) It contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
(d2) When a function peculiar to it is not caused, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d3) When the function peculiar to it is caused to a degree, the displeasure sensations explained in (d2) are reduced, and some pleasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d4) When the function peculiar to it is caused excessively, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are sometimes cause]d.
(d5) The above are repeated.

    First, it is clear that hunger and thirst are included in drives, and the former can be called an "Eating Drives", and the latter can be called a "Water Drinking Drive". Second, though not so clear as they are, sexual urges are included in drives, and can be called "Sexual Drives". Third, there may be some gathering drives, controlling drives, defending drives, and so on.
    In (d1)-(d5), (d2) can be called a drive's "Dissatisfaction" or Being Dissatisfied, (d3) a drive's "Satisfaction" or Being Satisfied, and (d4) a drive's "Satiation" or Being Satiated.
    Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are functions which have been generated in evolution, and they have already become suitable functions for individuals and species to exist. For example, the pain on skins which are included in pleasure displeasure somatic sensations prevent injuries from reaching vital organs deeper than skins. Palpitation and dyspnea which are included in the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations prevent us from overworking. Eating and water drinking drives prevent malnutrition and dehydration. Sexual drives, above all, is decisive functions for the existence of the species of most animals.

REVIEW OF "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES"

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Things Appearing (as Mental Phenomena)".
    Things appearing as mental phenomena are divided into things appearing on sensations and images ( = things appearing as images). Things appearing on sensations are divided into things appearing on visual sensations, things appearing on auditory sensations, and so on.
    Simply, things occurring to me, things remembered, expected, imagined, and so on are images. Out of images, those which are inseparable any more and which are unitary can be called "Individual Images" or Things appearing as individual images.
    More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images or things appearing on sensations can be called a "Complex Image", a Thing Appearing as a Complex Image", an Image, or a Thing Appearing as an Image. Ways, functions, general things, abstract things do not appear as individual images but do appear as complex images. Accordingly, the word "images" usually designate complex images in these books.
    Strictly, things appearing as images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations are distinguished. However, it is complex images that are important in them. In addition, when they are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, things appearing on perceptions and things appearing on associations are included in things appearing as complex images, and they are called images or things appearing images in these books.
    The things in themselves which are premised to cause things appearing as mental phenomena by making themselves sources can be called Their "Sources", and in particular, those which are premised to cause images by making themselves sources can be called the Image's Sources. However, when images and images' sources are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, images' sources are sometimes called images in these books. That is, the word "images" can designate not only images but also their sources in these books.
    Though roughly, the neural function which is premised to cause images can be called the "Recollection" of the Images(' sources), the Recollection, the Images(' sources) Being Recollected, or the things' Being Recollected as Images. Though the word "recollection" often designate remembering some past events in daily life, the word designate not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
    Though roughly, some properties which a part of the sensation's source have are recognized, the part is cut, and an individual image's source is generated, memorized, and stored. At once, more than one individual image's source is generated, memorized and stored while going through a diverging neural group and while classified on the basis of similarity. In addition, the neural ways among the individual images' sources which are generated and memorized temporally close are activated. Such neural ways can be called "Image to Image Neural Ways". They are distinguished from image to emotion neural ways, image to function neural ways, function to function neural ways which will be explained in this book. Next time those properties are recognized, on the basis of those similarity and temporal closeness, a lot of individual images' sources arise and compose complex images(' sources) are recollected.
    However, because the neural group from those memorizing and storing individual images' sources to the replay converges and because the sources which excite and transmit earlier, wider, and longer make the others disappear, at once, a limited number (n) of complex images are recollected. However that limited number (n) fluctuate depending on its situation. For example, when some complex images are recollected very intensely, the number (n) get smaller. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
    The images which are being recollected or which have just been recollected need to be distinguished from other images. That is because, if the latter caused any functions, some of them could be what is called "unconsciousness". The images which are being recollected or which have just been recollected can be called Images(' Sources) Just Recollected or Things Just Recollected as Images. However, in case their distinction do not need to be emphasized, images just recollected are called images simply in these books.

IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURAL WAYS

    As was explained earlier, every pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various autonomic functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin included in pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations causes palpitation, dyspnea, and so on included in pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, sweating included in exocrine secretions, secretion of epinephrine included in endocrine secretions, and so on.
    Above all, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, and so on.
    Moreover, most autonomic sensations are caused only by the internal situation. For example 1, autonomic neural systems detect the decrease of blood pressure, increase the heart rate, and cause the autonomic sensation of palpitation. For example 2, they detect the decrease of blood sugar and cause the autonomic sensations of hunger. In contrast, no visual sensations or auditory sensations are caused without the external situation of light and sound. Though somatic sensations can be caused by the internal situations of inflammation, their main cause is the external situation of pressure and heat.
    Moreover, autonomic sensations can be caused by images' sources just recollected. For example, when tomorrow's interpersonal relations at school or office are recollected as images, some palpitation and dyspnea are caused. This is the feeling of anxiety.
    There exist and function some neural ways from the neural groups which images' sources go through to those which cause autonomic sensations. They have not been activated innately, but they are activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. As a result, the things which were sensed in the past are recollected as images, some autonomic sensations are caused, and some feelings like anxiety and expectation are caused. Such neural ways from the neural groups which some images' sources go through to those which cause some autonomic sensations can be called "Image to Emotion Neural Ways" from the images(' sources) to the autonomic sensations.

FEELINGS

    Now,
(1) Some images' sources are recognized, generated or renewed, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused by some emotions' being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the images sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3) Next time the images' sources are recollected and recognized;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
In (3),

the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations

or

the recollections of the images' sources
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations

can be called the "Feeling" of, about, for, at, or against the images(' sources).
    For example, in the body, above all, neural system of a baby who are battered around by its mother,
(1) The mother's images' sources are recognized, generated or renewed, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused by its skin's pain's being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the mother's images' sources to the autonomic sensations are activated;
next time the mother's images' sources are recollected and recognized;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused.
Such is the feeling of the anxiety about or fear of a certain person or general human beings. In contrast, when a baby has hunger and thirst, and when its mother hugs and nurses it again and again, in the baby's body, the generation of the mother's images and moderate palpitation and dyspnea are simultaneously caused, and the pleasure autonomic sensations are caused when the mother are recollected. Such is the feeling of expectation for or ease to a certain person or general human beings.
    Feelings include anxiety, fear, expectation, ease, disgust at other persons, disgust at the self, and so on.
    Some feelings are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning". For example, it is probable that even Pavlov's dogs had some expectations for food. In such a way, it is possible that not only human beings but also some evolved mammals at least have some feelings. In addition, like the examples taken earlier, human babies have some simple feelings. Of course, human beings after the infant period have various and complicated feelings.
    Sources causing feelings are spread wider and wider in the following ways.
    First, when a feeling is being caused and when some sources are sensed and perceived again and again, the image to emotion neural ways from those sources to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations contained in that feeling are activated, and next time those sources are recollected as images, the feeling similar to it is caused. For example, when a person has some anxiety about some other persons in school or office, its buildings, the way to them, and so on come to cause anxiety.
    Second, when a feeling is being caused and when some sources are associated or thought again and again, the image to emotion neural ways from those sources to the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations contained in that feeling are activated, and next time those sources are recollected as images, the feeling similar to it is caused. For example, while a person has some expectation for her or his boy or girl friend and when a good way to see him or her occurs to her or him, that way comes to cause expectation. In such a way, feelings are generated only in internal situations. In addition, not only objects but also means or ways can cause feelings. In addition, such expectation develops into desires, which will be explained later.
    Such extensive sources' causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations is also included in feelings.
    While feelings are spread in those ways, they are also strengthened and weakened in the following ways. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the activities of neural groups are increased by long-term intermittent repetitions and are decreased without them. That is true to image to emotion neural ways. Accordingly, feelings are strengthened by their repetitions and are weakened without them. For example, if battering or bullying is repeated, interpersonal anxiety is strengthened, and if it is not inflicted for a while, it is sometimes weakened. From the beginning, if feelings were only spread and strengthened and were not weakened, our life would be too hard to live.
    Such being spread, strengthened, and weakened are also true to desires, which will be explained later. The explanation of them will be omitted in the section "DESIRES".
    Feeling where pleasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Pleasure Feelings, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Feelings. The distinction between them is seemingly vague. However, it can distinguish them whether or not they cause indirectly any impulses which will be explained later. Pleasure feelings include expectation, ease, and displeasure feelings include anxiety, fear, disgust at other persons, and disgust at the self.

INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

    This is the best place where general innate formation and acquired formation are explained. Neural groups in themselves are formed mainly by genes and their functions. Such formation mainly by genes and their functions can be called "Innate Formation" or Being Formed Innately.
    In contrast, neural groups which memorize and store individual images' sources, neural ways among them, that is, image to image neural ways, which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", and image to emotion neural ways which were explained above, image to function neural ways which will be explained later in this book, and so on are not activated mainly by genes and their function, that is, innately but are activated depending on situations after the fetal period, above all, after the birth. Such formation can be called "Acquired Formation" or Being Formed Acquiredly.
    All living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. For example 1, no neural function could function if no neural groups were formed innately. For example 2, neural groups' excitements and transmissions could function if no neurotransmitters or receptors were formed innately. However, some functions could not function in the least without acquired formation. For example, because images' sources are all formed acquiredly, recollections of images, perceptions, associations containing them could not function in the least without acquired formation. In contrast, the other living functions function in some ways without acquired formation. Accordingly, the living functions which could not function in the least without acquired formation can be called "Acquired Functions", and the others "Innate Functions". Acquired functions include recollections of images, perceptions, associations, complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and feelings which have been explained so far and desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings which will be explained from now on. Innate functions include sensations, unitary voluntary movements, autonomic functions which have been explained so far. When we look through them, we find that human beings are the animals which have developed acquired functions the most of all the animals on the earth.
    Innate functions are formed
(1) in the situation common to the species
(2) in the time of a lot of generations through genes' spontaneous mutations and natural selections
(3) with little difference among individuals in the species.
In contrast, acquired functions are formed
(1') in the situation particular to the individual
(2') in the time of one generation
(3') with much difference among individuals in the species.
    For example, as for the feeling of anxiety, some persons have generally intense anxiety, some have intense interpersonal anxiety, and some have intense anxiety about being alone. The second and the third kinds of anxiety are formed mainly acquiredly. However, as was explained earlier, all living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. Feelings are also affected by subtypes of neurotransmitter and receptor, and subtypes are formed mainly innately. For example, the first (generally intense anxiety) is formed more innately than acquiredly.

MAKING USE OF THE PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE OF THE PAST, INCREASING OR MAINTAINING THE PLEASURE AND DECREASING THE DISPLEASURE IN THE FUTURE, AND SECURING EXISTENCE

    When some objects cause intense, continuous, or continual displeasure sensations, those sensations cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neural ways from the images' sources of those objects to those displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Next time those objects are recollected as images, those images' sources cause the excitements and transmissions of those image to emotion neural ways and those displeasure autonomic sensations. This is the feeling of anxiety about or fear of those objects. The animals including human beings which have such feelings get rid of those objects in advance. Those objects which cause those intense, continuous, or continual displeasure sensation are usually dangerous for animals' existence. For example, the pain on the skin by another animal's attack predicts that that attack reach some organs deeper than the skin and become vital. Accordingly, animals having feelings get rid of the danger to their existence in advance and secure it. In such a way, feelings are functions which make use of the pleasure and displeasure of the past, increase or maintain the pleasure and decrease the displeasure in the future, and secure animals' existence.
    However, in human beings, feelings interfere existence more often than in other animals. That is because egos function to feelings in short-circuit ways, as will be explained in "A psychology of animals having habits".
    Though a lot of things explained in the previous section and this are true in desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings, they are sometimes omitted in their chapters or sections.

OBJECTIVE IMAGES

    At least in human beings, some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of functions are sensed, perceived, recognized, memorized, stored, and recollected as images. For example 1, some outlines of interpersonal functions like interpersonal confrontations with people, interpersonal escapes from people, and so on are recollected as images. For example 2, general human beings who are the objects of interpersonal functions are recollected as images. For example 3, school, office, or home which is the situation of interpersonal functions is recollected as an image. The images' sources of some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of a function can be called "Objective Images('s Sources".

DESIRES

    Now, when a functions is caused,
(1)the objective images' sources of the function are sometimes recognized, memorized, and stored.
(2)The function sometimes causes, as a result, some pleasure autonomic sensations.
When (1)(2) are temporally close caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the function's objective images' sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3)Next time the objective image's source is recollected and recognized,
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
Simply, when the result of some functions was good, each of us will expect those functions. When the result was bad, he or she has anxiety about the functions.
In (3),

the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways
and the pleasure autonomic sensations

or

the recollections of objective image's source,
objective image's source,
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations

can be called the "Desire" for the objective image's source, the "Desire" for the object, the Desire to do the function, or Wanting to do the function.
    For example, when each of us made interpersonal functions in school or office, the result was good, and enjoyed them, he or she will expect general human beings and interpersonal confrontations. This is an interpersonal desire.
    Human desires include desires to study, to work, and to play, and interpersonal desires, and desires for money, for powers, for friends, for boy or girl friends, for partners, for marriage, for children, for home, for health, and for long life. Love is a complex emotion which will be explained later.
    The relation between desires and drives is explained here. Simply, desires are on the basis of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives. For example, when there are much money and power, much eating drive, drinking drive, and sexual drive are satisfied, the image to emotion neural ways from money and power's images to pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the desire for money and power is formed. In such a way, drives are innate functions, and desires are acquired ones.
    Though desires are included in feelings and in pleasure feelings, {feelings excluding desires} and desires need to be distinguished. That is because desires are close to egos explained later. Accordingly, the former are called Feelings (in a narrow sense), and the latter, desires in these books.
    Anyway, in desires, pleasure is dominant in autonomic sensations. Simply, we do only what we like and do not do what we dislike.
    Some desires are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning".
    In each desire, when the objective images' sources cannot be done with, some displeasure emotions are caused. When they have been done with, some pleasure ones are caused. When they have been done with excessively, some displeasure ones are sometimes caused. The first can be called the desire's Dissatisfaction or Being dissatisfied, the second, its Satisfaction or Being Satisfied, and the third, its Satiation or Being Satiated.
    Because objective images' generations, memorizations, storages and the activations of image to emotion neural ways are caused after the end of the prenatal period, desires are acquired functions. For example, when we carry out some interpersonal functions and they caused pleasure emotions more than displeasure ones, some interpersonal desires are formed.
    After all, feelings and desires are acquired functions. In contrast, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are innate functions. Accordingly, all human beings have some pain on skins, palpitation, dyspnea, eating drives, water drinking drives, and sexual drives.
    As was explained earlier, feelings (in a narrow sense) are acquired functions where the difference among individuals is large and are functions fit to make use of the past, to foresee the future, and to prevent danger in advance. So are desires. For example, the desires to work prevent starvation, those to play prevent overwork, and those for marriage and family prevent loneliness. Moreover, objective images in desires get more and more concrete. For example 1, we need to do concrete work in order to live and to acquire concrete knowledge and skill in order to work, and desires get more and more concrete. For example 2, sexual drives and interpersonal desires develop into desires for certain persons.

COMPLEX EMOTIONS

    Drives contain some pleasure and displeasure sensations, and feelings and desires contain some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations caused by some images' sources.
    A function which consists mainly of more than one kind of emotion that has been explained so far and which necessarily contain some feelings or desires can be called a "Complex Emotion".
    What is called "love" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some sexual drives, gathering drives, loneliness, interpersonal desires. What is called "will to power" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some controlling drives, controlling desires, desires to means to control like armed force, money, and so on. When we look through them in such a way, we find that some of the desires whose example was enumerated earlier were complex emotions.
    However, a complex emotion which has a main component can be called with the words of that component. For example, what is called "will to power" can be called a desire to control.
    The complex emotions where pleasure emotions are dominant can be called Pleasure Complex Emotions, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Complex Emotions. For example, the love where sexual drives' dissatisfactions and interpersonal desires' dissatisfactions are dominant is displeasure love.

PLEASURE AND PAIN

    Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Emotions".
    Pleasure sensations, drives' satisfactions, pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Pleasure Emotions or Pleasures. Displeasure sensations, drives' dissatisfactions and satiations, displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiation, and displeasure complex emotions can be called a Displeasure Emotion, Displeasures, or "Pain". The word of "pain" as an uncountable noun designates both physical and mental pain. In addition, the word of pain is used more often than that of displeasure in our daily life. Accordingly the former is often used also in these books.
    Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can be called "Physical Emotions". Pleasure sensations and drives' satisfactions can be called Physical Pleasure, and displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions and satiations can be called Physical Displeasures or Physical Pain.
    Feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Mental Emotions". Pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Pleasures, and displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiations, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Displeasures or a Mental Pain.

OBJECTS OF EMOTIONS

    In each feeling, the recollected images' sources can be called its "Objects", and in each desire, the recollected objective images' sources its Objects. For example, not only particular persons but also general human beings are the objects of an interpersonal desire.
    As for pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, they form some feelings or desires directly or indirectly. For example 1, some pain on the skins directly form the fear of human violence, diseases, accidents, natural disasters, and so on which cause it. For example 2, eating drives directly form some desires for food. For example 3, what is called "love" directly forms some desires for particular persons or general human beings. For example 4, what is called "will to power" directly forms desires to control and power. As for pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, the objects of the feelings or desires which they form directly can be called their Objects.

PURPOSES

    In each human being, some objects of emotions are thought and reformed again and again by egos which will be explained later. Then, the objects can be called the human being's "Purposes". For example, supporting his or her family, getting money or power sometimes becomes some persons' purposes. It is quite another problem whether such purposes are good or bad. Anyway, purposes are thought and reformed again and again in each human beings.

MEANS     So far, the images' sources of some parts of functions, objects, means, ways, situations, and so on which cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations have been called objects in a plump. However, they sometimes need to be distinguished.
    In human beings, what are primarily means for some purposes to be accomplished, for some drives or desires to be satisfied, for pleasure emotions to be increased or maintained, or for displeasure emotions to be decreased sometimes become purposes or objects. For example 1, money, which is primarily the means for the satisfactions of eating, drinking, sexual drives, interpersonal desires, and so on sometimes become a purpose. For example 2, power, which are primary the means for the satisfactions of the controlling drives or desires, sometimes become a purpose.
    Human beings do not destroy themselves, other living things, and the nature only by their bare body and bodily functions. They destroy them including themselves on a large scale using means like tools, weapons, science and technology, and so on. Above all, the human means of the manipulations of atomic nuclei and genes are the most serious. When that needs to be emphasized, the human beings, human functions, and the means which they make and use are called "Means" in these books. Above all, "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" uses the word of means in this sense.

HABITS OF EMOTIONS

    Emotions are a kind of function and have habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". For example, some persons feel anxiety easily, and it can be said that they have large habits of general anxiety.
    In the habits of emotions, those of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are formed mainly innately. In contrast, the decisive part of habits of feelings and desires is which image to emotional neural ways are activated. Accordingly, the habits of feelings and desires are formed acquiredly. For example, when interpersonal relations are enjoyed again and again and when the neural ways from the images' sources of general human beings to some pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, interpersonal desires come to be caused easily. In contrast, when interpersonal relations cause pain again and again and when the ways from their sources to displeasure ones are activated, interpersonal anxiety comes to be caused easily.
    Most emotions are suitable functions for animal individuals and species to exist. However, those of human beings are exceptions. That will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".
    Most animals including human beings have pleasure and displeasure sensations. Vertebrates, and some arthropods, and so on have drives. Some mammals including human beings have feelings, desires, and complex emotions.

EGOS Ⅰ

IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS, FUNCTIONAL IMAGES, FUNCTIONAL NEURAL GROUPS

    In cerebrums, there exist and function some, actually many, neural ways from the neural groups which images' neural sources go through to those which can cause some functions including, at least, unitary voluntary movement. Such neural ways can be called "Image to Function Neural Ways".
    Images are all generated, memorized, stored, and recollected acquiredly. So are the images of functions. First, other persons' functions are sensed, perceived, generated, memorized, and stored, and arise, and are recollected as images. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking, the images of the complex voluntary movement of walking upright on two legs are generated, memorized, stored and recollected acquiredly. Simply, that is the beginning of imitation. Second, the self's functions are sensed, perceived, generated, memorized, and stored, and arise, and recollected as images more firmly than other persons'. For example, we cannot master any skills if we see them done by others without doing them ourselves.
    Moreover, when functions are caused again and again, images' sources of functions are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected, and image to function neural ways are activated acauiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking upright on two legs and when it tries to do it again and again, the images of doing it are generated, memorized and the image to function neural ways from those images' sources to the neural groups on the frontal lobes which can cause the unitary voluntary movements of limbs that compose doing it are activated.
    In addition, when images' sources of functions are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways activated in the above ways. For example, when the images' sources of walking upright on two legs are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of the image to function neural ways which were exemplified above.
    The images' sources of functions which can cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to function neural ways can be called "Functional Images (' Sources)". In addition, the functional images' sources which were recollected milliseconds or tenths of a second ago can be called Functional Images(' sources) Just Recollected, a Thing Recollected as a Functional image, or so. Functional images are the images of what are called "ways" or "how to".
    In addition, the neural group which is reached by some image to function neural ways and which can cause a function including, at least, a unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Functional Neural Group".
    In addition, the function which can be caused by recollected functional images' sources, by the excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways, and by those of a functional neural group can be called an "Intentional Function". It will be explained closely after the definition of egos. At least, intentional functions include unitary voluntary movements. Simply, for example, each of us can bend and stretch joints intentionally. Intentional functions also include complex voluntary movements like walking upright on two legs and pronunciations.
    In each of the neural systems of vertebrates, images' neural sources and the neural groups which generate, memorize, store, and recollect them are in the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. In contrast, functional neural groups are in the frontal lobes. Image to function neural ways stretches from the former to the latter, and their axons are in the white cortexes. Paying attention to the direction of neural groups' excitements and transmissions, metaphorically, image to function neural ways are forward looking.
    Images' sources including functional images' are all generated acquiredly, and image to function neural ways are all activated acquiredly when some functional images' sources' generation and some intentional functions are caused temporally close. Accordingly, not that intentional functions in themselves are innate or acqauired functions, but that most of them are rarely caused innately. However, it is possible that some seeming intentional functions are caused innately without any recollections of images and without any excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways. For example, an adult's sucking milk is caused with them, and it is clear that it is an intentional function. In contrast, it is possible that newborn's doing it is innately caused without them. By the way, tendon reflexes are caused without any functions of cerebrums, not to mention them.

UNITARY AND COMPLEX INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    The unitary intentional function which do not consist of any smaller intentional functions like unitary voluntary movements can be called "Unitary" Intentional Functions. In contrast, the intentional functions consisting of unitary ones can be called "Complex" Intentional Functions. For example, walking upright on two legs consists of unitary intentional functions (unitary voluntary movements) like bending and stretching of knee, hip , elbow, and shoulder joints, and so it is a complex intentional functions (complex voluntary movement).

FUNCTION TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS

    A unitary intentional function can be caused by one functional images sources and the excitements and transmissions of one image to function neural way and one functional neural group. In contrast, a complex intentional function cannot be caused so easily. In order for complex intentional functions to be caused, it is necessary (1) that the images' sources of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex intentional function be all recollected, (2) that image to function neural ways diverge, or (3) that there be neural ways among functional neural groups. Maybe, the mixture of (1)(2)(3) exists and functions.
    At the stage of the formation of a complex intentional function, mainly (1) functions. For example, when we learn a new manual labor, we should remember all its procedure. While (1) is repeated again and again, the neural ways in (2)(3) are activated, and (2)(3) come to function. As a result, even if not all the functional images' sources of the unitary intentional functions composing a complex one is recollected, the complex one comes to be able to be caused. For example, even if we do not think that the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on, we can walk and can think something like tomorrow's schedule other than walking while walking.
    Now, the neural ways in (1) and those before divergence in (2) can be called an Image to Function Neural Way again, and those after divergence in (2) and those in (3) can be called "Function to Function Neural Ways". In addition, the functional neural groups causing unitary intentional functions can be called "Unitary" Functional Neural Groups, and the unitary neural groups and the function to function neural ways causing complex intentional functions can be called "Complex" Functional Neural Group. In addition, when they do not need to be distinguished, they can be called Functional Neural Groups.
    When we review the above example, we find the following. We cannot think that when human babies walk, they think the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on. Accordingly, in fundamental intentional functions, part of function to function neural ways have already been activated innately.
    Nonetheless, walking upright on two legs is not easy for babies. While they see their parents doing it and while they try to do it themselves, crawl, stand, and tumble again and again,

(1) the image to function neural ways from the functional images' sources of doing it to the unitary functional neural groups and the function to function neural ways among them causing the complex voluntary movement of doing it

and

(2) the function to function neural ways among them

are activated, and the baby or infant do it sooner or later.
    Anyway, image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways need to be clearly distinguished from image to image neural ways, that is, the neural ways among individual images' sources which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", and image to emotion neural ways which were defined earlier.
    In addition, intentional functions are distinct from tendon reflexes. That is because the latter do not involve even functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions.

IMPULSES

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sensations and memories are caused by neural groups' excitements and transmissions from the sensory organs to sensory nerves to sensory areas in a broad sense, and so on which are in order. In addition, image to emotion neural ways, image to function ones, and function to function neural ways explained in this book are not as in order as them but more in order than the following.
    Every emotion, which contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations, causes various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one and endocrine one, immune one, and so on.
    Moreover, some emotions cause neural groups' excitements and transmissions which diffuse toward the cerebrum and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Such neural groups' excitements and transmissions which diffuse toward the cerebrums and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery can be called "Impulses". They are different from neural groups' excitements and transmissions in order which cause sensations and memories, and they go through different ways.
    More than one emotion can be caused at once. For example, the pain on the skin and the anxiety about its continuing or gaining can be caused simultaneously. Even the anxiety about and the expectation for a thing can be caused simultaneously. Accordingly, more than one impulse can arise, that is, can begin to be caused by more than one emotion at once. However, in one neural system of one individual, because impulses diffuse to the cerebrums or their periphery, and some of them that excite and transmit earlier, longer, and wider make the others disappear, only a few impulses, usually, only one is caused at once. In such a way, an impulse's diffusing earlier, longer, and wider can be called its Being More Intense. When it is defined so, it is said that the most intense ones of all the impulses that are caused at once reach the cerebrums or their periphery while making the others disappear.

FUNCTIONAL IMPULSES

    Some of the recollected functional images cause the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neural ways and some feelings like expectation and anxiety. Moreover, some of those feelings cause impulses. The impulses which are caused by functional images in such a way can be called "Functional impulses".

ACTIVATIONS OF IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURAL WAYS

    Feelings, desires, complex emotions contain some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Accordingly, emotions contain or cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasure ones, and displeasure emotions contain or cause some displeasure ones.
    When a displeasure emotion is intensely, continuously, or continually caused by an intentional function's being caused, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources of that intentional function to some displeasure autonomic sensations contained or caused by that displeasure emotion are activated. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those displeasure autonomic sensations, and do not cause any functional impulses. For example, after a child does a dangerous play and is severely scolded by its parents, even if that play occurs to it, it has a kind of anxiety or fear and has no functional impulses to do that play.
    In contrast, when a pleasure emotion is intensely, continuously, or continually caused or some displeasure emotions are clearly reduced by an intentional function's being caused, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources of that intentional function to some pleasure autonomic sensations contained or caused by that pleasure emotion are activated. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, and can cause some functional impulses.
    In such a way, functional impulses are potent functions which refer to pleasure and displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future.
    However, it is not easy to know whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused and whether or not functional impulses are caused. For example, though extreme, when we are on board a burning ship only with life jackets, it is dangerous both to stay on board and to jump into the sea. If we have even the slightest expectation for jumping in the midst of the physical and mental pain on board, we will have functional impulses to jump. In such a way, in the midst of a lot of anxiety or fear, even the slightest expectation can cause functional impulses.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS

    Before egos are explained, limiting functions will be explained. Some functions have the following properties.

The set of functions (f1,f2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by a function (SLF) limiting (F).
In this case, the set of functions (F), the limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), each element of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called a "Limited Function" (lf), and the function (SLF) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function".
    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural ways from the neural groups memorizing and storing images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number (n) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
    In addition, as was explained earlier, because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions.
    In addition, egos, which will be explained later, contain the limiting functions of recollections of images at the beginning and the limiting ones of impulses at the ending, and so they are limiting ones.

EGOS' SITUATIONS

    Simply, egos cause intentional functions in situations. It can be said that egos mediate between situations and intentional functions. Ego's situations are those where intentional functions need to be caused. For example, a situation where I need to cause some interpersonal functions, more concretely, where somebody is knocking at the door or where the telephone is ringing is an ego's situation. If I pretend that I am not at home, it is an interpersonal function, and an intentional function.
    As was explained earlier, situations are divided into external one and internal one. The door's being knocked and the telephone's ringing are external situations. In external situations, the present things are sensed, perceived, and recognized, and egos can be caused.
    Things Recollected, associated, and thought and emotions can be recognized and can be egos' internal situation. For example 1, because what have to be done tomorrow are anticipated, an ego intends to prepare for them. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its future external situation indirectly. For example 2, because its own past shameful behavior is recollected in a narrow sense, an ego intends to escape from the images of those behaviors in such a way as will be explained later. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its past external situation and the self indirectly. In such ways, egos respond not only to the present but also to the future, the past, and the self. In other words, concerning them, it is internal situations that egos respond directly.
    In addition, emotions can be recognized and become egos' internal situations. For example 1, when there is some thirst, it is recognized, and the ego intends to drink water. For example 2, when there is some anxiety or fear, it is recognized, its cause is associated, and the ego intends to escape from it.

EGOS

    At the beginning of an ego, the situation is recognized, as was explained in "a psychology of animals having memories", on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, some intentional functions' images, that is, functional images arise, and some of them are recollected. Simply, some ways to respond with situation are recollected. For example, the situation where somebody is knocking at the door is recognized, the functional images of pretending not to be at home, making sure who it is and then opening the door, opening the door and then making sure who it is, and so on are recollected.
    It is seemingly probable that only recollected functional images' sources and image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. That is, it is seemingly probable that only

(1) RATIONAL SYSTEM:
Recpgnitions of the situations → recollections of functional images → recollected functional images' sources → activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions

cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. (1) does not involve any emotions or impulses, and so (1) can be called "Rational Systems". Only such rational systems' causing intentional functions is seemingly more rational and efficient than only emotions' or both rational systems and emotions' causing them.
    However, rational systems are too weak to cause intentional functions by themselves. They need emotions and impulses' support to cause intentional functions. That was often felt to be real through the daily thought that, no matter what a good idea occurs to us, we cannot carry out it without any motivation.
    In addition, in the time of a second, more than one functional image is usually recollected, and more than one intentional function can be caused. Who or what selects one from more than one function? Does not pleasure or displeasure select one?
    Accordingly, let us suppose that (1) rational systems and the following (2) "Emotional Systems" merge and cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions.

(2) EMOTIONAL SYSTEM:
(functional images' sources just recollected→) activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions → pleasure autonomic sensations → functional impulses

    As was explained earlier, emotional systems are potent functions which refer to pleasure and displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future. Pleasure or displeasure is directly concerned with animals' existence. (1) Rational systems' proposing some intentional functions, that is, what are called "ways" or "how to", and (2) emotional systems' deciding one referring to pleasure or displeasure is fit for animals to exist. (1) and (2)'s collaboration has evolved in struggles for existence and natural selections.
    From the beginning, rational systems are neutral, and so they cannot decide by themselves whether anything is good or bad. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", in recollections or associations on the basis of temporal closeness, cause and effect can be recollected as complex images. However, in them, whether the result is good or bad cannot be recollected or judged. However, nobody or nothing has what can judge it directly and absolutely. It can be decided only indirectly and relatively only by whether something is pleasure or displeasure.
    Accordingly, usually in the neural system of each individual of, at least, higher mammals including human beings, (1) rational system and (2) emotional system merge and cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and cause intentional functions. Those (1) and (2) and their merger are the substance of what is called the "Ego". Those (1) and (2) and their merger exist and function as one thing in the neural system of an individual, and countable in a group or a species. For example, when there are ten human beings, there are ten egos. Accordingly, those (1) and (2) and their merger can be called An "Ego" as a countable noun. A little stricter description of an ego is as follows.
    A certain situation is recognized, some functional images' sources are recollected, some of them cause some activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions. Simultaneously, some of the functional images' sources just recollected cause some activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, and some of them cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Moreover, some of them causes usually some functional impulse. Finally, both those image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions and the most intense functional impulse cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and cause the intentional function corresponding to one of those functional images just recollected. In this case, the recollections of functional images' sources, the functional images' sources just recollected, the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the pleasure and displeasure sensations, and the impulses including the most intense functional one can be called an "Ego".
    In addition, such an ego is the substance of what is called "I" in our daily life. Accordingly, an ego can be called "I", Each of Us, Human Being, Intending to Do an Intentional Function, and so on.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

    Such an egos as was explained in the above section can be a limiting function. Let us examine it closely.
    Again, the set of functions (f1,f2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by a function (SLF) limiting (F).
In this case, the set of functions (F), the limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), each element of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called a "Limited Function" (lf), and the function (SLF) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function".

(lf) Limited egos
    In a certain situation, each of the functional images' sources which can arise can cause the whole of the rational system, the emotional system, and their merger even with a little possibility. With more possibility, each of the functional images' sources which have arisen, those which have been recollected, and so on is a part of and can cause the whole of the rational system, the emotional system, and their merger. Accordingly, in a certain situation, each of the functional images' sources which can arise and a part or the whole of the rational system, the emotional system, and their merger is a limited function and can be called a "Limited Ego".
(S1) Egos' situations
    Outlines of them were explained in the section "EGOS' SITUATIONS". They will be defined here. Situations can expand endlessly. For example, in an individual, when interpersonal anxiety is recognized as a part of its internal situation, the whole of its situation can expand from its present interpersonal relations to its past interpersonal relations to the process of the formation of its habits from its baby period, and so on. Though the formation of egos' habits is the most important, we had better not designate it with the word "situation". It had better be designated with the direct words "the formation of egos' habits". Accordingly, an ego's situation is defined as the sources which can cause the arousals of the ego's functional images' sources directly in these books. When it is defined in such a way, in the above example, the ego's situation is only the interpersonal anxiety. As for that anxiety, the question is the process of its formation, and as for interpersonal relations, the question is the precess of egos' habits' formation through which ego is caused by them.
(S2) Another situations of egos
    When a functional image is recollected intensely, the others are recollected faintly or are not, and so the number (n) of limited egos caused at once usually gets small. When a functional image causes an intense pleasure autonomic sensation and causes an intense functional impulse, (n) usually gets small. For example, a limited ego to escape from very dangerous thing, the others are not caused. Anyway, limited egos are limited doubly, the number of limited egos caused at once (n) is usually one. The exceptions will be explained later.

(G) The meaning of being caused "in general" concerning limited egos
    As far as egos are concerned, it means being able to be caused even in a few human beings in that era. That is because though the egos which seem abnormal are rarely caused, their functional images are often generated, or they sometimes arise in general human beings. A little more closely, though some abnormal functional images are generated, they do not arise from the recognition of the situation, or though they arise, they are not recollected, or though they are recollected, they do not cause the most intense functional impulses and do not cause the whole of the ego. For example, though few of us commit grave crimes, they are not connected with the situation, they arise as functional images and are not recollected, or they are recollected and cause displeasure autonomic sensations with penalties feared.
    However, it means being caused "in that era". For example, in the era when there are no automobiles, there cannot be any egos intending to drive them or get on them. It is not a great problem for egos whether the means to go somewhere is an automobile, a carriage, or so. It matters where to go, what to do, and how to do. Egos have what are common for every era, too.

(SLF) Egos' substantially limiting functions
    Egos contain recollections of functional images, at the beginning, and functional impulses, at the ending, both of which are limiting functions. The substantially limiting functions of the two are an ego's substantially limiting function. That is, egos are limited doubly. That is,
(SLF1) that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, longest make the others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected, and (SLF2) that impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery
are a limited ego's substantially limiting functions.

(LF) Limiting egos
    The set of limited egos (F), egos' substantially limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a Limiting Function.
    Capabilities of being caused while excluding the others will be explained later together with egos' habits.

THE WHOLE OF A LIMITING EGO FROM THE FORMATION OF ITS HABIT

  A Limited ego needs completely to climb the following stairs in order for them to be caused. (1)-(3) of the following are preliminary stages, that is, the stage of the formation of egos' habit.
(1) Its intentional function is sensed and recognized, its functional images' sources are generated, memorized, stored, and their activities are retained.
(2) Its image to function neural ways are activated, and their activities are retained.
(3) The intentional function cause some pleasure emotions and some pleasure autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and their activities are retained.
(4) The situation is recognized, and on the basis of recognition and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, the functional images arise.
(5) The functional images not only arise but also are recollected.
(6) The recollected functional images cause those image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions.
(7) The recollected functional images cause the image to those emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause the pleasure autonomic sensations, and cause the most intense functional impulses as a result.
    When it climbs all of (1)-(7), all of the limited ego and the intentional function are caused. The most important of them is (7) and, when we trace back to the preliminary stages, (3). The reason will be explained in the section "FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS".

AROUSALS OF A LOT OF LIMITED EGOS AT ONCE

    In a situation at once, usually, a lot of functional images' sources arise, but a limited number of them are recollected. Moreover, even if a functional image's source is recollected, if it does not cause the most intense functional impulse indirectly, it does not cause the whole of the ego and does not cause any of the intentional function which it is causing. Metaphorically, even if the rational system proposes an intentional function, the emotional system rejects it. In such a way, though a lot of limited egos arise at once, usually one limited ego is caused at once.
    For example, when a limiting ego with interpersonal anxiety is in the situation of interpersonal relations where it needs to cause some interpersonal functions, the following course is possible. By the way, its situation in this case contains not only the interpersonal relations but also interpersonal anxiety. In such a way, egos' situations contain not only external situations but also internal ones.
    For example, the functional images of interpersonal escapes are recollected (1). However, the necessity to cause some interpersonal functions is recognized, and those functional images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations and do not cause the most intense functional image. Then, the functional images of interpersonal confrontations are recollected (2). However, those functional images increase that interpersonal anxiety and do not cause the most intense functional impulse. After all, the functional images of vague interpersonal functions which are seemingly confronting something but actually escaping interpersonal relations are recollected, cause some ease, cause the most intense functional impulse, and cause such an interpersonal function. Those take place in a second.
    However, actually, a lot of concrete and detailed limited egos as follows, for example, arise also in each of (1)(2)(3).
(1-1)Not going to office or school
(1-2)Though going to office or school, escaping the interpersonal relations
(1-3)Faking sickness and being absent
(2-1)Though with interpersonal anxiety, going to office or school and entering the interpersonal relations
(2-2)Improving the interpersonal relations when they are thought to be abnormal
(3-1)Behaving lightly
(3-2)Exhibiting one's appearances which other persons are hard to come close to
However, those, too, are no more an example, actually, more limited egos arise. In addition, functional images cause a quick shift of pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, expectation, and so on.
    In addition, a lot of limited egos usually arise even in a second. That is, those are happenings in a second. In addition, limiting egos containing such limited egos function as long as animals having egos are awake. That is, egos are not temporary or special functions but continuous and fundamental ones.
    Accordingly, egos are different from what is called "conflict" or "hesitation". While the former are continuous and fundamental functions, the latter is temporary and special functions. In addition, egos are different from thinking, which will be closely explained later. Simply, it is egos that decide what to think, what to think of, and how to think.
    The number of the egos being caused at the then present is usually one. Such egos being caused at the then present can be called "Current" Egos.
    From the beginning, images shift one after another rapidly. So do functional images. So do pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses, corresponding to them. In addition, so do situations. Accordingly, current egos shift one after another rapidly. Such rapid shifts are not temporary and special states but continuous and fundamental ones.
    If limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when the distinction is clear in the context or is unnecessary, limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are called Egos in these books.

SUBTLETY OF PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE AUTONOMIC SENSATION CONTAINED IN EGOS

    If the functional images just recollected cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, no functional impulse is caused, the limited ego is not caused, and it end up only with an arousal. However, it is very subtle whether those autonomic sensations are pleasure or displeasure. For example, when none of the thinkable ways seem to break the deadlock, an only a little better way can cause some pleasure ones like expectation. For example, though extreme, when none of the thinkable way to appeal seem to prevent heavy penalties, the way to prevent the maximum one can cause some hopes.
    However, it is an extreme example. The autonomic sensations contained in egos are usually not so dramatic but daily and subtle ones. For example, when we are about to be late for something, we think that we will be in time if we take a taxi, and an expectation is caused. However, we think that it cost too much, and some anxiety is caused. Then, we compare the cost of being late and that of taking a taxi. If the latter is larger, we think that it is not so bad to be late, and we feel easy. At last, we are late for it. That is all. Usual pleasure and displeasure sensations contained in egos are such daily and subtle ones, and they consist of light anxiety and expectation. The times when they get heavy are so rare that we can count them. That is our life.

CONTINUITY OF CURRENT EGOS

    Including such light and heavy egos and egos taking steps which will be explained later, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously. An example of shifts of current egos will be taken below. A daily example will be taken in order to exemplify that those shifts are continuous and fundamental ones. For example, intending to going out, intending to get up, intending to go to the bathroom, intending to wash myself, intending to dress myself, intending to take the key, wallet, cell phone, and so on, intending to make sure whether I have got everything, intending to go to the door, intending to lock up, intending to make sure whether it has been locked, intending to think how to go, and so on.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    While others' or the self's intentional functions are sensed, recognized, generated, memorized, stored, and recollected as functional images, their sources can be classified into some groups while they go through the diverging neural ways in such a way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". For example, we, human beings, classify intentional functions into confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing.
    By the way, confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing are the most fundamental groups of intentional functions not only in human beings but also mammals at least. For example, even carnivores escape from natural disaster. Herbivores' escaping instantly from carnivores sometimes increases the risk that the former are found and caught by the latter, and waiting and seeing is sometimes fit for individuals and the species to exist. In human beings, confrontation is different from fighting. For example, talking is sometimes confrontation.
    Moreover, such groups of intentional functions can be recollected as images. For example, in human beings, the groups of confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing are recollected as images.
    Moreover, though the images of such a group is abstract and rough, it is usually recollected at first or, as it were, in the background, and then or in the foreground, the concrete and detailed functional images which belong to it are sometimes recollected according to the situation, and the whole of the ego containing those functional images and the intentional function belonging to it are usually caused. For example, in some danger, escaping it is already occurring to us, and some concrete and detailed ways hit upon us.
    In addition, the functional images which belong to the same group often cause similar pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses because of their similarity.
    Moreover, some of such groups can classify intentional functions beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations. Confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing was exemplified above.
    The group of intentional functions which satisfies the following two properties is called an "Outline" of Intentional Functions in these books.

(1) Usually, it is recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground the concrete and detailed functional images of the intentional functions which belong to it are recollected according to the situation, and the whole of the ego containing those functional images and the intentional function belonging to it are caused.
(2) It can classify intentional functions beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations.

OUTLINES OF EGOS

    The set of the limited egos which can cause the intentional functions belonging to an outline can be called the "Outline of (Limited) Egos". As was explained above, an outline of functional images of intentional functions is usually recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground concrete and detailed functional images are usually recollected. Accordingly, images of outlines of intentional functions are included in functional images, and they are called Outlines of Functional Images in these books. When they are defined in such a way, an outline of egos usually contains the outline of functional images at the first stage of recollections of functional images.
    When the properties which outlines of intentional functions have are applied to outlines of egos, each of the latter has the following properties.
(1) It is the set of the limited egos which can cause the intentional functions belonging to an outline. In each of those limited egos, usually, the outline of functional images of those intentional functions is recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground the concrete and detailed functional images of intentional functions which belong to that outline are recollected according to the situation.
(2) It can classify limited egos beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations.
    As will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", outlines of egos and intentional functions include confrontation, escape, waiting and seeing, adherence, showing off the self, destruction, control, and so on.

EGOS' HABITS

    The set of limited egos (e1,e2,…) which can be caused in general in a certain situation (S1) being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (E) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by egos' substantially limiting function (SLF).
The set of limited egos (E), egos' substantially limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (E) are a Limiting Ego (LE).
    In the case (C1), a limited ego's capability of being caused is that of arising (this capability is called (AA) here), and in the case (C2), it is that of arising before the arousal and that of being caused while exclusing the others (EA) after the arousal. A limited ego's capabilities of being caused in such cases in such situations can be called the limited ego's Capability, Ability, or "Habit" (of being caused). In addition, the matrix of the habits of limited egos belonging to the set (E) in a certain situation (S1) can be called the Habit of Limiting ego (in the situation (S1)).
    Limited egos habits can be quantified by the activities of the neural groups and ways involved and the earliness, the broadness, and the length of their excitements and transmissions theoretically. However, it is impossible practically.
    As was explained earlier, limited egos can be classified into outlines. If the habits of limited egos belonging to an outline could be quantified, their average could be the habit of the outline of limited egos. However, that quantification is impossible practically, as was explained above.
    However, intentional functions can be observed and can be classified into their outlines. In addition, the average of the intensity, duration, or frequency of the intentional functions belonging to an outline can be quantified. Because limited egos cause intentional functions directly, that average can be looked upon as the habit of the same outline of limited egos. Habits of outlines of limited egos can be quantified indirectly in such a way. In addition, the habit of a limiting ego can be mathematized as a matrix. For example, it can be mathematized like (the habit of adherence, that of showing off the self, that of control, that of destruction, ...) = (58, 61, 65, 57, ...).
    The habit of the limited egos which belong to the same outline is formed together by their similarity. That is, that habit is formed making an outline a unit. For example, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", showing off the self is an outline of egos. Though those who have an intense habit to show off the self do so in various ways, they make the same impression in any interpersonal relation.
    An outline of egos has (1)(2) explained earlier as properties. Moreover, as was explained in this section, it has (3) that limited egos' habits are formed making it a unit as a property.
    Seemingly, the habit of a limiting ego equals what is called personality. It is true that the former is the most important part of the latter, but the latter includes the habits of emotions, those of perceptions and associations, and the abilities of intentional functions, and the abilities and habits of thinkings, too.
    Because the habit of a limiting ego is the matrix of the habits of the outlines of limited egos, the former include the latter. However, if they are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when the distinction is clear or unnecessary, the former or the latter are called "Habits of Egos" in these books.

FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS

    What mainly forms egos' habits? That is, what decides them decisively? That is, what decides which outline of limited egos is caused?
   &nbs;As was explained earlier, an ego consists of (1) a rational system, (2) an emotional one, and (3) their merger, and it is (2) the rational system that are the most decisive of the three. Metaphorically, (1) proposes some ways, and (2) decides which of them is adopted.
    In addition, as was explained earlier, more than one functional image is usually recollected at once. Moreover, excluding stepping or inertia which will be explained later, that is, in important situations, most of the functional images which are recollected in general are recollected to most of the individuals. Accordingly, it does not matter which functional image is recollected, but it does matter which functional image causes the most intense functional impulse. For example, in an important interpersonal relation, interpersonal confrontations, escapes, and waiting and seeing are recollected as functional images, but it matters which functional image causes some expectation.
    Accordingly, it is in emotional systems that are decisive for the formations of egos' habits. Let us trace back to what is decisive in an emotional system. The most intense functional impulse and the image to functions neural ways' excitements and transmission cause the functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and cause the intentional function. When the intentional function is caused in this way, the whole of the limited ego has already been caused. It is the autonomic sensation with the most intense pleasure that cause the most intense functional impulse. So that such an autonomic sensation can be caused in an ego, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources to it need to be activated, and the activities need to be maintained to a degree. In order for them to be activated and for their activities to be maintained, the following needs to be caused intensely, continuously, or continually. That is, an intentional function is caused, the intentional function causes some pleasure emotions, the pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images of that intentional function to that pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the activities are maintained to a degree. Again, the above needs to be caused intensely, continuously, or continually.
    The activities of all the neural cells and groups decrease sooner or later. So do those of image to emotion neural ways. Accordingly, things similar to being forgotten, which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" are caused. In order to prevent such things, those image to functional neural ways need to be activated intensely, continuously, or continually.
    Of course, functional images in rational systems need to be recollected intensely, continuously, continually, the neural groups and ways which were explained in "a psychology of animals having egos" need to be activated, and the activities need to be maintained to a degree. However, as was explained earlier, rational systems is not decisive for the formation of egos' habits. In addition, image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways need to be activated, and their activities need to be maintained to a degree. However, as was explained earlier, this has something to do with the formation of intentional functions' abilities.
    After all, what mainly forms egos' habits is which image to emotion neural ways are activated how much and how intensely, continuously, or continually the intentional functions cause the pleasure emotions. For example, in the latter half of the infant period, when a child enter interpersonal relations other than its home and enjoyed them without alienation almost everyday for months, the egos' habits which cause interpersonal functions with few interpersonal escapes. In this example, the image to emotional neural ways from the functional images of interpersonal functions to some pleasure autonomic sensations like expectation are activated, and those activities will be maintained for months.

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES IN EGOS, EGOS' OUTLINES, OBJECTIVE IMAGES IN DESIRES

    It may be thought that functional images in egos resemble objective images in desires. However, from the beginning, functional images can directly cause both the excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways and those of image to emotion ones. In contrast, objective images in desires can directly cause only the former. Simply, objective images are not linked to intentional functions directly. As a result, while functional images are contained in egos, objective images are not. From the beginning, while functional images are generated by the perceptions of intentional functions themselves directly, objective images are generated through those of not only intentional functions but also their object, means, and so on.
    While the objective images in desires are general and abstract ones, the functional images in egos are particular and concrete ones. For example, the objective images in desires to work consist of the images of making his or her or his or her family's living, gaining experience, and so on. In contrast, the functional images in egos to work consist of the images of meeting certain persons in a certain place at a certain time, drawing up this document now, and so on.
    It may be thought that outlines of egos resemble objective images in desires in another way. It is true that they are abstractive. However, outlines of intentional functions can classify intentional functions, and outlines of egos can classify limited egos. In addition, though both outlines of egos and objective images in desires can cause functional images indirectly, the latter do so more indirectly.
    As a result, functional images, egos, egos' outlines are more difficult to recognize in an individual and to talk about among individuals than objective images and desires are. There are confrontation, escape, waiting and seeing, adherences, showing off the self, and so on as outlines of egos, there are desire to work, desire to play, and so on as desires, and the former will be less familiar than the latter in daily life or science. Accordingly, though egos' habits are the most important in what is called personality and though they are at least more important than desires', we sometimes lose sight of egos' outlines behind desires' objects. We need to pay attention not to do this.

GENERAL IMPULSES AND FUNCTIONAL ONES

    For example, when we are stunned by some sudden changes of the situation, our egos hardly function, and such an impulse needs to be distinguished from functional impulses in egos. It can be thought that such an impulse diffuses into the first half of the rational system, confuse it, and forces the ego hardly to function.

EGOS TAKING STEPS

    For example, even if an ego intends to see its boy or girl friend, it cannot do that at once. Some egos need to call him or her, to arrange when and where to meet, to take a shower, to make up, to dress up, and to lock the door of his or her house. Some egos intend to get on a train, but they needs to walk to the station to do that. Walking, some egos should stop at some traffic signals or ignore them. In this case, some egos need to function to stop at them, and some need to function more intensely to ignore them than to stop. While walking some egos think what to do after they get to his or her house. If a thinking finished in vain, another ego needs to start another thinking. After getting to the station, some egos need to get a ticket and in order to do that, a lot of egos need to get to the vending machines, to take his or her purse out of his or her pocket or bug, to take some coins, bills, or a card out of it, to put them into the slot of the machine, to take the change, and to head for the gate. In this way, a lot of egos functions before seeing his or her girl or boy friends and even before getting on a train. In such a way, egos need to take steps in situations, and most of our daily life is steps.
    Anyway, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously.

THE PHYLOGENESIS AND ONTOGENESIS OF EGOS

    In human ontogenesis, in general, the human beings in the adolescent period or later have the most clear and intense egos. However, there are some immature egos in the pre-adolescent, infant, and baby period. Though it may be unthinkable that fetuses have any egos, it would be no wonder if they had. For example, they might intend to go out of here.
    In animal phylogenesis, it is probable that such higher mammals as apes, dogs, cats, and so on have some immature egos.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    Intentional functions will be specified before some other things about egos are explained. That is because the understanding of the former will help that of the latter.
    When egos have been defined in the above way, intentional functions are defined as the functions which can be caused directly by egos.
    An ego and the intentional functions caused by it can be called an "Ego and Intentional Function" or Intending to Do Intentional Functions and Doing Intentional Functions.
    When we want to make sure whether or not a function is an intentional function, let us examine whether or not we can do it instantly by intending to do it. For example, we can bend our elbow joints instantly by intending to do so, and so bending elbow joints is an intentional function and is included in unitary voluntary movements which was explained earlier. In addition, not only unitary but also complex voluntary movements are included in intentional functions. For example, though we cannot walk instantly when we sit down, we can stand up instantly, and we can walk instantly after we stand up. Accordingly, standing up and walking are intentional functions. In such a way, voluntary movements including unitary and complex ones are included in intentional functions. However, not only voluntary movements but also the following are intentional functions. For example, when a circle and a square are recollected to us, we can inscribe the former into the latter or inscribe the latter into the former instantly by intending to do so. Doing those are intentional functions and are included in manipulations of images which will be explained later. In contrast, for example, feelings like anxiety and fear cannot be felt instantly by intending to feel, and so they are not intentional functions.
    Intentional functions are divided into voluntary movements and synthetic functions which were defined earlier and manipulations of images and thinkings which will be explained later. Manipulations of images include combining, dissolving, transforming, and so on. Thinkings are divided into ones in a narrow sense, retracings, forecastings, and daydreamings. Human synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, eating, drinking, sexual functions, studying, working, playing, interpersonal functions, and so on. In human beings, as for even sexual functions, most of them are included in synthetic functions and in intentional functions. For example, in human beings, sexual drives cannot cause sexual functions directly. They usually need to agree to do them. Agreement is included in interpersonal functions, in synthetic functions, and in intentional functions.

SPONTANEOUS PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

    Voluntary movements and synthetic functions are all intentional functions. In contrast, in pure mental functions, sensations, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions are not directly caused by any egos. Though they are sometimes caused indirectly by some egos, they are usually caused without egos what is called "spontaneously". Accordingly, they can be called "Spontaneous" Pure Mental Functions.
    In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings which will be defined later are pure mental intentional functions.

MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

    Intentional functions include not only voluntary movements and synthetic functions which were explained earlier but also manipulations of images which will be defined in this section and thinkings which will be defined in the next section.
    The following are caused at least in human beings.
(1)How to manipulate some recollected images (ri) are sometimes recollected as functional images (fi),
(2)the ego which involve (fi) are caused,
(3)and (ri) are manipulated in the way of (fi). Such (3) is an intentional function. Such (3) can be called a "Manipulation of Images" or Manipulating Images, and (1)(2)(3) can be called an Ego's Manipulating Images.
    More complicated pure mental intentional functions like thinking, retracing, forecasting, daydreaming, and so on consist of some associations and manipulations of images.
    Manipulations of images include the following. Simple examples of them will be taken. Please try.

(1)Combining images
Circumscribing two circles' images which were separated.
(2)Dissolving images
Separating two circles' images which were circumscribed.
(3)Transforming images
Transforming a circle's image into an ellipse's.
(4)Bringing images closer
Bringing a person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.
(5)Taking images farther
Taking a person's face's image farther which was recollected closer.
(6)Switching images
Taking a person's face's image farther or extinct which was recollected closer by bringing another person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.

    As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the recollection of an image has comparative quantity, and an image is recollected comparatively "intensely or faintly". However, because such quantity is easy to understand with visual images, being intense or faint is also called being "Close or Far" visually and metaphorically in these books. Each ego can bring images more intensely (closer) which was recollected more faintly (farther). This can be also called Bringing images Closer, and the contrary can be called Taking Images farther. However, the latter is harder than the former. Far from that, the harder an ego tries to take images farther, the closer they will get, and the more persistently they will be recollected. From the beginning, it is impossible for each ego to directly make unrecollected images recollected. In addition, it is hard or impossible to directly make recollected images unrecollected, that is, to extinguish them completely. In addition, a limited number (n) or less of images are recollected at once. When some images are recollected intensely, (n) gets smaller, and the other images are recollected faintly or are not recollected. In addition, recollections of images have not only intensity in a short time but also persistence in a long time. For example, the objects of anxiety will be recollected persistently. On those grounds, it is only by bringing some other images closer that each ego can take some images farther which were recollected intensely and persistently. An Ego's taking some images father which were recollected intensely and persistently by bringing some other images closer can be called the ego's "Switching" images from some images to some other images. It is hard or impossible for each ego to what is called "repress" images. Each ego usually switches images.
    Without any manipulations of images by egos, complex images are generated only in memories which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". However, by egos' combining images, dissolving them, transforming them, combining them again and again, more complicated complex images are generated.
    In addition, the images manipulated by egos are memorized intensely. Simply, the things which we pay some attention to are memorized, and the contrary are not.

THINKINGS

    As was explained earlier, sensations, recollections, perceptions, and associations, are spontaneous pure mental functions, and they are caused without egos. In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are not spontaneous ones but intentional ones, and none of them are caused without egos. They can be called "Pure Mental Intentional Functions".
    Human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings almost always contain some lingual images. However, if the phrase of "containing or containing some lingual images" was always used, the sentence would be complicated. Accordingly, it is usually omitted in these books.
    At least in each human being, some problems are associated, the ego brings some of the problems closer and propose them, various answers are associated, the ego manipulates some of the answers again and again, various answers are associated again and again, the ego brings one of the answers and adopts it, the remaining problems are associated, and the same are repeated. Such collaboration of manipulations of images and associations can be called a "Thinking".
    Egos intend to think of something and think of it. Thinkings are included in pure mental intentional functions. For example, I, the writer of this section, intend to think of its contents and think of them. Such a point of view distinguishes egos from manipulations of images and associations, and looks upon thinkings as consisting of manipulations of images and associations. In contrast, it is possible that egos are looked upon as being contained in thinkings, and that thinkings are looked upon as consisting of egos, manipulations of images, and associations. Accordingly, it is natural that Descartes thought that "I think, therefore I am (Cogito ergo sum)". However, if we looked upon them in such a way, we would looked upon every ego and the intentional function caused by it as being a unity. They need to be distinguished. That is because, in egos, their habits matter and because, in intentional functions, their abilities matter. Accordingly, these books distinguish egos and thinkings, and look upon thinkings as consisting of manipulations of images and associations.
    Thinking where recollections of the real, the past, the future, or the unreal are dominant can be called Thinkings in a narrow sense, "Retracings", "Forecastings", or "Daydreamings" respectively.
    Thinkings include those where manipulations of images are dominant and those where associations are dominant. In the latter, thinkings seem to be caused spontaneously. What is called "thinking random things and then coming to oneself" is that the latter change into the former.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS AND LANGUAGE

    Again, images almost always contain some lingual images in human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings. If no language had been generated, no complicated mental functions could have been generated. In contrast to complicated ones, simple ones can be generated. For example, in newborns, who have not acquired a single word, feelings like anxiety, fear, expectation, and so on occur, and their objective images are recollected. In such a way, feelings and desires sometimes contain no lingual images.
    In addition, it seems that thinkings are the most complicated, and that language is the most dominant in them. However, it is not always true. For example, after an ego manipulated lingual images, some words are sometimes recollected according to acquired grammar and usage in associations for seconds. Language can be more dominant in associations than in egos in this case. In addition, it is probable that egos transcend language in manipulations of images and thinkings.

CONSTRUCTIONS, DISSOLUTIONS, BEING FORGOTTEN OF COMPLEX IMAGES

    Some complex images are combined, dissolved, or transformed through egos' manipulations of images in a thinking, and memorized, stored, and recollected in a memory, and again combined, dissolved, or transformed, and the same are repeated. In such a way, some complex images get more complicated when combinations are dominant, some get simpler when dissolutions are dominant, and some are simply forgotten in the way that were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". In thinkings of an individual, a complex image's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its "Construction" or Being Constructed, its getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its "Dissolution" or Being Dissolved, and a complex image's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its "Reconstruction" or Being Reconstructed.
    Dissolutions and reconstructions are harder and more important functions than constructions are. For example, the dissolution of the Creation and the reconstruction of evolutionism were hard or impossible for some people in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and even now. However, from the beginning, the complex images which are rarely manipulated or thought by egos are usually not dissolved but forgotten simply.

IDEAS=THOUGHTS

    Some of the complex images' sources are not only constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual in the way that was explained in the above section but also transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on in the human society and history, some of them are again constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual, transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on, and the same are repeated. Such complex images constructed, dissolved, forgotten, and transmitted in such a way or their sources can be called an "Idea" or "Thought".
    By being manipulated, thought, and transmitted, an idea's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its Construction or Being Constructed, an idea's getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its Dissolution or Being Dissolved, and an idea's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its Reconstruction or Being Reconstructed.
    Dissolutions and reconstructions of ideas in the society and history are harder than those of complex images in each individual. That is because those who have gotten powers and profits through old ideas strive to protect old ones and to destroy new ones. This was typified by the idea of Ptolemaic system against that of Copernican one, the idea of monarchy against that of democracy, and the idea of the Creation against that of evolution.

REALITY

    Without any egos, complex images are all generated only in memories. All the images that have been generated only in memories without any egos are real. More accurately, no reality can be a problem without any egos.
    In contrast, by manipulations of images in thinkings, some unreal images are generated, and the reality becomes a problem. In addition, around the reality, some research, dispute, and so on are caused.
    In addition, human beings construct some unreal complex images intentionally in literature, art, and so on. This is a "Fiction".
    Moreover, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal complex images intentionally. This is a "Lie".
    In addition, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal images unintentionally. This is close to an "Illusion" or "Misunderstanding".

ABILITIES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    In the human society, the abilities of intentional functions matter so much that they seem to be almighty. For example, the abilities to run, to swim, to speak, to write, to think, to calculate, to use computers, and to work and interpersonal abilities are problems.
    Intentional functions are divided into unitary and complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and pure mental intentional functions. Simultaneously, they are divided into unitary and complex intentional functions. Unitary voluntary movements are unitary intentional functions, and the others are complex ones.
    The abilities of unitary voluntary movements are actually the contractile force of striated muscles and the flexibility of joints, and they are formed both innately as what is called "constitution" and aquiredly through what is called "muscle training" and "stretch". As for each of the other kinds of intentional functions, much larger part is formed acquiredly.
    The abilities of complex voluntary movements are formed by their being caused intensely, continuously, or continually by their functional images' being generated, by their being caused again and again, by those being repeated, and by the activations of image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways. The example of this formation is enumerated earlier as that of walking upright on two legs. Simply, it can be said that their activities are formed by what is called "training". It can be said that they are formed by repetitions, too. The abilities of synthetic functions like speaking words and writing words are formed in the same way.

意識的機能の亜群

    The intentional functions most important for us, human beings, are interpersonal functions, and the abilities most important are those of interpersonal functions. A little more closely, we find that there are technical interpersonal functions like serious ones, superficial ones, and businesslike ones and that their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, in a person whose ability of serious intentional functions are much developed, those of businesslike ones are often underdeveloped, and his or her work efficiency are low quantitatively, but he or she does a good job qualitatively.
    When we review them in such a way, we find that, excluding unitary voluntary movements, there are "subgroups" in intentional functions which have been classified seemingly, and their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, even the abilities to walk gracefully, with dignity, simply, and so on are formed separately to a degree, and it is hard for those who have walked gracefully suddenly to walk simply.

ABILITIES OF THINKINGS

    As for the abilities of thinkings, as was explained earlier, thinkings consist of manipulations of images and associations. Accordingly, their abilities are not only activities of image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways corresponding manipulations of images but also those of image to image neural ways corresponding associations.
    Such abilities of thinkings are formed through acquisition of language, calculation, conversation, lecture, reading, writing, observation, experiment, data processing, and so on.
    In the same way as in the other complex intentional functions, also in thinkings, there are subgroups like mathematical, scientific, legal, economic, daily, political, administrative thinkings, and their abilities are formed separately to a degree. For example, legal and political thinkings, which seems to be similar, are actually different and are formed separately to a degree. Simply, the ways to think of judges and politicians are very different.
    The following is what may be mistaken for abilities of thinkings.
    There are confrontations and escapes also in thinkings, but they are included not in subgroups but in outlines of intentional functions, and which outlines are caused is decided not by abilities of thinkings but by egos' habits. Escapes as outlines of thinkings are included switchings of images, which was explained earlier. Simply, we intend not to think of anything causing pain. As a result, the abilities of thinkings concerning the things causing pain are not formed.
    In addition, there are confrontations and escapes also in interpersonal functions, but they are included not in subgroups but in outlines of intentional functions, and which outlines are caused is decided not by abilities of interpersonal functions but by egos' habits. When egos escapes from interpersonal relations, as a result, abilities of interpersonal functions are not formed but stay immature. However, when egos' habits of interpersonal escapes are reduced and when they carry out interpersonal functions, the abilities of interpersonal functions, which have been immature, are formerd in months or years.
    When we review them, we find that egos' habits are more important for us, human beings, than abilities of intentional functions are.

EGOS Ⅱ

EGOS INVOLVING THINKINGS

    Usually in each of the egos of human beings, egos manipulate and think of the situations recollected as images, manipulate and think of the ways, that is, "how to do" recollected as images, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and they cause some pleasure and displeasure sensation, the whole of the ego, and the intentional function. Such totality can be called an "Ego Involving Thinkings".
    Such thinkings involved in egos are different from such technical thinkings as were explained earlier like mathematical, scientific, legal, and economic thinkings. Egos involving thinkings are daily functions of human beings.
    Such egos involving thinkings are functions fit for individuals and the species of human beings to exist, and sometimes seem to be the fittest. They seem to be functions at human beings' best. In addition, human beings seem to be free for the first time through such egos involving thinkings.
    Anyway, usually, egos are involving thinkings in such a way. However, if that is always explained, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, that explanation is usually omitted, and egos involving thinkings are merely called egos in these books.
    Now, I should enumerate some examples showing that human beings are not so fit or free in the following sections.

EMOTIONS AS INTERNAL SITUATIONS FOR EGOS

    As was explained earlier, in general, the situations of bodily functions in an individual are divided into external situations and internal situations. So are those of egos.
    The most important of egos' external situations are, of course, interpersonal relations. They are important in order to live, to work, to study, and to play.
    The most important of egos' internal situations are the self's emotions.
    Emotions are perceived, egos think how to increase or maintain pleasure and to reduce displeasure in situations, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and egos cause some intentional functions. For example 1, when intense hunger is perceived, of course, egos think the way to get and eat some food. For example 2, when we perceive some fear of or anxiety about something, we think how to escape it and prevent danger. Reducing the pain of fear and anxiety is a way to prevent danger, too. In such ways, the reference both to external situations and to internal ones, above all, to emotions seems to be the fittest function.

EGOS' HABITS AND IMMATURITY OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

    Let us take the most important example. When a child suffers mental or physical pain like violence, neglect, and alienation in its home or its periphery in the infant period, intense interpersonal anxiety continues thereafter. As a result, ever if interpersonal functions are recollected as functional images, they cause intense displeasure autonomic sensations similar to interpersonal anxiety. In contrast, when interpersonal escapes are recollected as functional images, they cause slight pleasure ones similar to expectation. When most of the autonomic sensations are intense displeasure, such slight pleasure causes the most intense functional impulse and cause a personal escape. interpersonal escapes are caused continuously or continually in such a way. As a result egos' habits of interpersonal escapes are formed. As a result, few interpersonal functions other than escapes are caused, the abilities of interpersonal functions are hardly formed, and they remain immature. This is a vicious circle.

ESCAPES FROM IMAGES

    Images just recollected can cause some image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions and some pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations. That is a feeling or a desire in short. In addition, recollected functional images can cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations in the same way. That is a part of an ego. Moreover, egos can switch image in such a way as was explained in the section "Manipulations of images". Surprisingly, egos can switch from images causing displeasure ones to some others and can reduce displeasure ones temporarily. This is not a special function of egos but is usual in our daily life. For example, we sometimes try not to think of our own shameful deeds, and this is it.
    However, it is only mental pain that can reduce in such a way. Physical pain can never be reduced by switching images. From the beginning, egos can change mental emotions, which are caused by images just recollected, only temporarily and indirectly by manipulating images. An ego's reducing mental pain temporarily and indirectly by switching from images causing some pain to some other images can be called the ego's Escape or Escaping from the images.
    The most serious is that egos escape from the self's falling habits recollected as images, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Because the self's falling habits like those of adherence, showing off the self, and so on recollected as images cause intense pain like self-hatred, shame, anxiety, and so on, egos switch from them to those of their powers, appearance, and so on and escape from them. As a result, falling habits are hardly reduced.

INTENSITIES OF LIMITED EGOS

    More than one ego (e1, e2, …) is sometimes caused at once. For example, when we are thinking while walking, the limited ego intending to think and that intending to walk are caused at once. In such a case, there are some comparative differences among the intensities and clearnesses of recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of (e1, e2,…). For example, when we are thinking of a complicated thing (e1) while walking on a familiar street (e2), those of e1 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of e2. In such a case, e1 can be called an "Intense Limited Ego" and e2 a "Faint Limited Ego".
    Moreover, it is probable that the functional images of e3 are recollected the most clearly and intensely and that the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of e4 are caused the most intensely and clearly. For example, when we are walking on a steep path (e3) while we are thinking of changing the route (e4), the functional images of e4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of e3, and the pleasure and displeasure sensations and functional images of e3 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of e4. In such a case e3 can be called a "Limited Ego with Intense Emotion" or an Emotional Limited Ego, and e4 a "Limited Ego with Intense Rationality" or a Rational Limited Ego.
    In addition, the same applies to the limited egos caused one after another in seconds or minutes. For example 1, when we are home (et1) and then are going out on a holiday (et2), the recollections of functional images, the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of et2 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of et1. In this case, et1 can be called a faint limited ego, and et2 an intense limited ego. For example 2, when we begin to destroy something with fury (et3) and refrain from doing that (et4), the functional images of et4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of et3, and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of et3 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of et4. In this case, et3 can be called a limited ego with intense emotion or an emotional ego, and et4 a limited ego with intense rationality or a rational limited ego.
    When there are such differences among outlines of egos which were explained earlier, such differences are caused by habits of egos which were explained earlier, and most of them are formed aquiredly. In addition, when there are such differences among sets of outlines, such differences are caused by falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", and most of them are formed aquiredly.
    Not depending on such outlines or their sets, if there are some differences among the intensities and clearnesses of the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of general limited egos, the following (1)-(4) are thinkable.
(1) depends on some functional or organic disorders of the neural system including the ego. For example, drugs abuse.
(2) depends on some natural changes of the neural system including the ego. For example, just after awakening or before falling asleep.
(3) depends on the confusion of the rational system by the intense impulses caused by some intense emotions. An example was taken earlier.
(4) depends on the seeming intensity and clearness by representing the self's thinkings and emotions intensely and clearly. This is not the intensity or clearness of egos in themselves.

SEMI-AUTOMATIC INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

    For example, egos can think of a boy or girl friend of theirs, while walking to the station, and while carrying a bag. Thinking (1), walking (2), and carrying (3) are all intentional functions. In such a way, it is possible that more than one ego and intentional function is caused at once. However, (2)(3) can be looked upon as going on as, it were, "automatically". In addition, the limited egos of (2)(3) are functioning faintly and, as it were, in the background. However, such intentional functions as can go on automatically are confined to unitary and complex voluntary movements. Synthetic functions and pure metal intentional functions cannot do so. In the above example, (1) cannot do so. Such intentional functions as can go on automatically can be called "Semi-automatic" Intentional Functions.
    The word "automatic" was modified by the prefix "semi-" for the following reason.
    Egos are functioning actively when they begin semi-automatic intentional functions and when some great changes concerning the intentional functions are caused in the situation. For example 1, when we are beginning to walk, egos do so while thinking which route to take. For example 2, when the bag is slipping off the hand or shoulder, egos hold it while thinking how to prevent slipping.
    In addition, also when the complex voluntary movements which are being formed are caused, egos are functioning actively. For example, when a baby walks, its immature egos almost always intend to walk. In addition, even in adults, in order to cause hard semi-automatic intentional functions, egos are almost always functioning. For example, when we are walking in the darkness, our egos are almost always functioning.
    By the way, thinkings often seem to go on automatically. However, thinkings consist of associations and manipulations of images by egos. Though the thinkings where associations are dominant often seem to go on automatically, associations are not intentional functions but spontaneous mental functions. Such spontaneousness and automaticity need to be distinguished. While spontaneousness is spontaneous from the beginning, automaticity was intentional at the beginning.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AS STEPS OR MEANS

    In real situations, most intentional functions cannot instantly be carried out, they need to take steps. In addition, egos understand that, and the functional images of steps or means are recollected and cause intentional functions as steps or means. For example, though it was taken earlier, when I intend to see a boy or girl friend of mine, I cannot see him or her instantly. I need to call him or her and to make an appointment to see him or her. Moreover, in order to go to the appointed place, I need to get on a train. In order to do that, I need to walk to the station. In order to do that, I need to go out. In order to do that, I need to take a shower, to make up, and to dress up, and the same are repeated. Most of our daily life is steps or means in such a way.
    Here can be the multilayer formation of egos as follows. Functional images from general and abstract ones to particular and concrete ones are recollected, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations from weak and vague ones to intense and clear ones are caused, and functional impulses from broad and weak ones to narrow and intense ones are caused. In addition, the original general and abstract functional images keep recollected as, as it were, backgrounds.

INERTIAL EGOS

    As was explained in the above sections, when more than one limited ego is caused, when semi-automatic intentional functions are caused, when intentional functions as steps or means are caused, and so on, egos where the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses are faint and vague are caused. Such limited egos can be called "Inertial" (Limited) Egos.
    When there is no intense pain or no great change in the situation, usually, most of the limited egos caused in a limiting ego are inertial in the time from seconds to hours. Such a limiting ego can be called an Inertial (Limiting) Ego. Simply, most of our daily life is inertial.

EGOS' LIBERTY

    Now, we find that seemingly free egos indulge themselves with their own habits, emotions, and inertia and are not so free. Moreover, egos indulge themselves with their own falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". However, in the way that will be explained in that same book, egos can decrease their own falling habits. When egos do that, they get the closest to freedom.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS

EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY


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