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A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS

THE RELATION OF THIS BOOK WITH THE OTHER BOOKS IN OUR-EXISTENCE.NET

  In this book, this "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS" is also called "This Book". This book is on the basis of "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Accordingly, if possible, please read this book after you read the book. However, we will try to write this book so that it can be read even if the book is not read. "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", this book, and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" in this book. These books can also be looked upon as chapters composing a book. Accordingly, these books are also called "PSYCHOLOGIES OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES OR MORE" as a book in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET. These books, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "A SEPARATION OF POWERS FOR EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", and "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENRAL THINGS" are also called "All the Books in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET" or "These Books" in OUR-EXISTENCE.NET.
  In this book, the words of materials, living things, bodies, animals, human beings, neural systems, neural groups, functions, living functions, bodily functions, animal functions, human functions, neural functions, neural groups' excitements and transmissions, their existing and functioning, appearing things, things appearing as images, images, images' sources, sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on designate the same things as in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". Anyway, Neural systems are included in bodies, they are included in living things, they are included in materials, neural functions are included in bodily functions, they are included in living functions, and they are included in (material) functions. Neural functions include sensations, memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on.
  In "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", because their species are important, the words of animals and human beings usually designated their species. In contrast, in these books, because their individuals are important, those words usually designate their individuals.

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS, PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS, SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS, AND AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

VOLUNTARY MOVEMENTS

  Unitary voluntary movements and complex voluntary movements which will be explained below can be called "Voluntary Movements".
  Inseparable moving functions which are caused by some neural groups' excitements and transmissions and striated muscle groups' excitements and contractions from the motor area on frontal lobe of cerebrum to spinal cord and motor nerves or to cranial nerves to striated muscles can be called "Unitary Voluntary Movements". Unitary voluntary movements include bending and stretching of joints, upward, downward, rightward and leftward movements and bending and stretching of tongues, opening and closing and tension and relaxation of vocal cords, upward, downward, rightward, and leftward movements and whirl of eyeballs, tension and relaxation of parts of faces.
  A movement which consists of more than one unitary voluntary movement can be called a "Complex Voluntary Movement". For example, a human being's walking upright on two legs is a complex voluntary movement consisting of more than one unitary voluntary movement like bending forward of left shoulder joint, bending backward of right shoulder one, bending backward of left hip one, bending forward of right hip one, and so on. Vertebrates' complex voluntary movements include walking, running, swimming, flying, uttering cries, and so on. Human beings' complex voluntary movements include walking upright on two legs, running alike, swimming the crawl, butterfly, and so on, pronouncing syllables and short words, and so on. By the way, speaking long words, phrases, clauses, sentences are included in synthetic functions which will be explained later. That is because we have to perceive the words spoken by ourselves and to think what to speak next. In addition, writing or inputting something on papers or into computers are included in synthetic functions.
  Voluntary movements are included in intentional functions which will be explained later.

PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  The functions consisting of some sensations or some recollections of images and containing no voluntary movements can be called "Pure Mental Functions". Pure mental functions include sensations, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, egos, and thinking.
  Recollections of images, perceptions, associations, feelings, egos, thinkings, and so on contain some recollections of images. Sensations, pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives contain no recollections of images.

SYNTHETIC FUNCTIONS

  Functions consisting of some pure mental functions and some voluntary movements can be called "Synthetic Functions". Human beings' synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, talking with other human beings, playing, studying, working, and interpersonal functions. For example, human beings' speaking words is to perceive the words spoken by themselves, to think what to speak next, and to move their mouse, tongue, larynx, and so on, it contains at least perceptions, thinking, and voluntary movements, and so it is a synthetic function.

INTERPERSONAL FUNCTIONS

  Synthetic functions concerned with some other human beings such as talking with, playing with, studying with, working with, keeping company with, breaking up with, fighting with, being conciliated with them, escaping them, and so on can be called "Interpersonal Functions". They are the most important of all human functions for human beings to exist.
  Confrontations and escapes will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Interpersonal functions include interpersonal confrontations and interpersonal escapes. Simply, keeping company with people even with interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal confrontation. In contrast, escaping people because of interpersonal anxiety is an interpersonal escape. Fighting with people is not in the least the same as the interpersonal confrontations. Please do not forget that. Fighting with people is often an interpersonal escape rather than an interpersonal confrontation. Being reconciled is often an interpersonal confrontation. Interpersonal confrontations and escapes include complicated ones and simple ones. For example, not going to school or work because of interpersonal anxiety is a simple interpersonal escape. Talking only superficial things or pretending to be unapproachable are a complicated interpersonal escape.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  Pure mental functions and synthetic functions are also called "Mental Functions" in these books.

AUTONOMIC FUNCTIONS

  Bodily functions which do not involve any sensations, recollections of images, or voluntary movements can be called "Autonomic Functions".
  Autonomic functions include contraction and expansion of heart, blood vessels, and lungs, digestive organ's movement, digestion, and absorption, endocrine, exocrine, immunity, and discharges (excluding evacuation from rectum and urination from bladder). By the way, at least in human beings, it cannot be asserted that evacuation from rectum or urination from bladder is an autonomic function. That is because they think of their schedules and go to restrooms ahead of time.

SITUATIONS

  The words of the "situation" for a material or function were defined in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". This section will complement the definition. With the words, we usually image that for an individual or society. However, as far as the situation for a material or function as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, a part of its situation is in the individual, and the other part is out of it. For example, when an individual was filled with interpersonal anxiety and when he or she thinks how to escape people, the main situation of such thinking is such anxiety, and it is in the individual. If such anxiety is enhanced by certain persons, they are a part of the situation for such anxiety and such thinking, and it is out of the individual. As far as the situation for a material or function as a part of an individual's body and its functions is concerned, the part within the individual can be called the "Internal" Situation or Bodily Situation, and the part out of the individual can be called the "External" Situation. In the above example, such anxiety is the main part of the internal situations for such thinking, and such people are a part of the external situation for such anxiety and such thinking.
  As far as situations are concerned, in general, in law, politics, economics, and sociology, the internal and external situations for the wholes and parts of societies and the external situations for individuals are important, in biology, the internal and external situations for the wholes or parts of individuals are important, and in psychology, the internal and external situations for mental functions of individuals are important. Anyway, in biology and psychology, we need to distinguish internal situations and external ones.
  However, in general, the words of materials, functions, situations, or so designate those excluding bodies, bodily functions, internal situations, or so, and such usages are sometimes used also in these books.

OBJECTS AND MEANS

  Most functions have objects, means, and situations as properties. For example, as for interpersonal functions, general human beings are their objects, spoken words, written words, telephones, mails, and so on are their means, offices, schools, and so on are their external situations, and interpersonal anxiety, desire, and so on are their internal situations.

EMOTIONS

  Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions as will be explained in this chapter can be called "Emotions".

PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE SENSATIONS

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", things appearing on an olfactory sensation, things appearing on a balancing sensation, things appearing on a taste sensation, things appearing on a somatic sensation, or things appearing on an autonomic sensation which have pleasure or displeasure as properties can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation" in general, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Olfactory Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Balancing Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Taste Sensation, Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Somatic Sensation, and Things Appearing on a Pleasure and Displeasure Autonomic Sensation in particular. In things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, a spatial and temporal part where pleasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Pleasure Sensation", and a spatial and temporal part where displeasure is comparatively dominant can be called "Things Appearing on a Displeasure Sensation". In addition, the neural function which is premised on causing things appearing on a pleasure and displeasure sensation, things appearing on a pleasure sensation, or things appearing on a displeasure sensation can be called a "Pleasure and Displeasure Sensation", a "Pleasure Sensation", or a "Displeasure Sensation".
  The pain, itch, hotness, and coldness in the skins, bones, striated muscles, and tendons are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations. Palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, hunger, thirst, and so on are included in things appearing on pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations.
  Excluding visual sensations and auditory sensations, sensations are pleasure and displeasure sensations. Visual sensations and auditory sensations are not pleasure and displeasure sensations. For example, the pain of the eyes or that of the ears is a somatic sensation, autonomic sensation, or metaphor for mental pain.
  Directly and indirectly, each pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin causes palpitation, sweating, and so on indirectly through the autonomic neural system and endocrine one.

DRIVES

  A bodily function which has the following properties can be called a "Drive".

(d1) It contains some pleasure and displeasure sensations.
(d2) When a function peculiar to it is not caused, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d3) When the function peculiar to it is caused to a degree, the displeasure sensations explained in (d2) are reduced, and some pleasure sensations peculiar to it are caused.
(d4) When the function peculiar to it is caused excessively, some displeasure sensations peculiar to it are sometimes caused.
(d5) The above are repeated.

  First, it is clear that hunger and thirst are included in drives, and the former can be called an "Eating Drives", and the latter can be called a "Water Drinking Drive". Second, though not so clear as they are, sexual urges are included in drives, and can be called "Sexual Drives". Third, there may be some gathering drives, controlling drives, defending drives, and so on.
  In (d1)-(d5), (d2) is also called a drive's "Dissatisfaction" or Being Dissatisfied, (d3) a drive's "Satisfaction" or Being Satisfied, and (d4) a drive's "Satiation" or Being Satiated in these books.
  Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are functions which have been generated in evolution, and they have already become suitable functions for individuals and species to exist. For example, the pain on skins which are included in pleasure displeasure somatic sensations prevent injuries from reaching vital organs deeper than skins. Palpitation and dyspnea which are included in the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations prevent us from overworking. Eating and water drinking drives prevent malnutrition and dehydration. Sexual drives, above all, is decisive functions for the existence of the species of most animals.

REVIEW OF "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES"

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, taste, pain, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, images, ideas, and so on can be called "Appearing Things".
  Appearing things are roughly divided into things appearing on sensations and images (=things appearing as images). Simply, things occurring to me, things remembered, things expected, things imagined, and so on are images.
  More than one individual image which appears spatially and temporally closer than the other individual images or things appearing on sensations can be called a "Thing Appearing as a Complex Image", a Complex Image, a Thing Appearing as an Image, an Image. In addition, things appearing as images, things appearing on perceptions, and things appearing on associations are also called a Things Appearing as Images or Images in these books. Particular things which have temporal extent of more than seconds, general things, abstract things, the self, and so on appear as images.
  The things in themselves which are premised to cause an appearing thing by making themselves a source can be called the Appearing Thing's "Source", and in particular, those which are premised to cause an image by making themselves a source can be called the Image's Source or an Image. That is, the words of an image can designate the image's source which is included in appearing things' sources or an image which is included in appearing things.
  The neural function which is premised to cause images can be called the Recollection of the Images, a Recollection, the Images' Being Recollected, or the things' Being Recollected as Images. Though the word "recollection" often designate remembering some past events in daily life, the word designate not only remembering some past things but also thinking of some present things, expecting some future things, imagining some unreal things, dreaming, and so on in these books.
  Though roughly, sensory sources and images' sources are grasped, cut, and images' sources are generated, memorized, stored, arise, and a certain number(n) or less of images' sources are replayed and recollected at once.
  The images' sources which are recollected and those which are not need to be distinguished. That is because, if the latter caused any functions, some of them could be what is called "unconsciousness". The images' sources which are recollected can be called Recollected Images' sources, Recollected Images, Things Recollected as Images, or Recollected Things. However, in case their distinction do not need to be emphasized, recollected images' sources are also called images' sources or images in these books.

IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURAL WAYS

  As was explained earlier, every pleasure and displeasure sensation causes not only some memories, recollections of images, perceptions, associations, and so on but also various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one, endocrine one, immune one, and so on. For example, the pain on the skin which are included in pleasure and displeasure somatic sensations causes palpitation, dyspnea, and so on which are included in pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, sweating, endocrine secretion of epinephrine, and so on which are included in the autonomic functions as was explained earlier.
  Above all, most pleasure and displeasure sensations cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation, dyspnea, nausea, and so on.
  Moreover, most autonomic sensations are caused only by the internal situation. For example 1, autonomic neural systems and endocrine systems sense the blood pressure, increase the heart rate, and cause the autonomic sensation of palpitation. For example 2, those systems sense the osmotic pressure and blood sugar and cause the autonomic sensations of thirst and hunger. In contrast, few visual sensations or auditory sensations are caused without the external situation of light and sound. Though somatic sensations can be caused by the internal situations of inflammation, their main cause is the external situation of pressure and heat.
  Moreover, autonomic sendations can be caused by recollected images, as will be explained below.
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural sources in images' sources are the neural groups' excitements and transmissions or activities. Now, there exist and function some neural ways from the neural groups which the images' neural sources go through to those which cause autonomic sensations, and they have not been activated innately, but can be activated acquiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. Such neural ways from images' neural sources to autonomic sensations are called "Image to Emotion Neural Ways" in these books.

FEELINGS

  Now,
(1) Some images' sources are grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are caused by some emotions' being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the images' sources from the images sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3)Next time the images' sources are recollected and grasped;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
In (3),
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations
can be called the "Feeling" of, about, for, at, or against the images' sources.
  For example, in the body, above all, neural system of a baby who are battered around by its mother,
(1) The mother's images' sources are grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2) Some displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused by its skin's pain's being caused.
When (1)(2) are temporally closely caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the mother's images' sources to the autonomic sensations are activated;
next time the mother's images' sources are recollected and grasped;
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the displeasure autonomic sensations like palpitation and dyspnea are caused.
Such is the feeling of the anxiety about or fear of a certain person or general human beings. In contrast, when a baby has hunger and thirst, and when its mother hugs and nurses it again and again, in the baby's body, the generation of the mother's images and moderate palpitation and dyspnea are simultaneously caused, and the pleasure autonomic sensations are caused when the mother are recollected. Such is the feeling of expectation for or ease to a certain person or general human beings.
  Feelings include anxiety, fear, expectation, ease, disgust at other persons, disgust at the self, and so on.
  Some feelings are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning". For example, it is probable that even Pavlov's dogs have some expectations for food. In such a way, it is possible that not only human beings but also some evolved mammals at least have some feelings. In addition, like the examples taken earlier, human babies have some simple feelings. Of course, human beings after the infant period have various and complicated feelings.
  Sources causing feelings are usually spread wider and wider. For example, when a person has some anxiety about some other persons in school or office, its buildings, the way to them, and so on come to cause anxiety. This is the substance of what is called "anxiety causes anxiety" and of some parts of "conditioning". Such extensive sources' causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations is also included in feelings.
  When some feelings are being caused, that is, when some images' sources causing some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, when some other images' sources are recollected temporally closely to the former, the image to emotion neural ways from the latter are activated, and the latter sometimes cause the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. This is also included in feelings. That is, some feelings are caused only in pure mental functions, and some are caused by mere means or ways. For example, when a certain person is being recollected and is causing expectations, and when a means or way to meet him or her are recollected, such a means or way sometimes causes some pleasure autonomic sensations. This is included in the expectations for means or ways and is close to a desire which will be explained later. Also in such ways, sources causing feelings are spread wider and wider.
  While feelings are spread in those ways, they are also strengthened and weakened in the following ways. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the activities of neural groups are increased by long-term intermittent repetitions and are decreased without them. That is true to image to emotion neural ways. Accordingly, feelings are strengthened by their repetitions and are weakened without them. For example, if battering or bullying is repeated, interpersonal anxiety is strengthened, and if it is not inflicted for a while, it is sometimes weakened. From the beginning, if feelings were only spread and strengthened and were not weakened, our life would be too hard to live.
  Such being spread, strengthened, and weakened are also true to desires, which will be explained later. The explanation of them will be omitted in the section "DESIRES".
  Feeling where pleasure autonomic sensations are dominant can be called Pleasure Feelings, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Feelings. The distinction between them is seemingly vague. However, it can distinguish them whether or not they cause indirectly any impulses which will be explained later. Pleasure feelings include expectation, ease, and displeasure feelings include anxiety, fear, disgust at other persons, and disgust at the self.

INNATE FORMATION AND ACQUIRED FORMATION

  This is the best place where innate formation and acquired formation are explained. Neural groups in themselves are formed maily by genes and their functions. Such formation mainly by genes and their functions can be called "Innate Formation" or Being Formed Innately.
  In contrast, neural groups which memorize and store individual images' sources, neural ways among them, that is, image to image neural ways, which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", and image to emotion neural ways which were explained earlier, image to function neural ways which will be explained later in this book, and so on are not activated mainly by genes and their function, that is, innately but are activated depending on situations after the fetal period, above all, after the birth. Such formation can be called "Acquired Formation" or Being Formed Acquiredly.
  All living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. For example 1, no neural function could function if no neural groups were formed innately. For example 2, neural groups' excitements and transmissions could function if no neurotransmitters or receptors were formed innately. However, some functions could not function in the least without acquired formation. For example, because images' sources are all formed acquiredly, recollections of images, perceptions, associations containing them could not function in the least without acquired formation. In contrast, the other living functions function in some ways without acquired formation. Accordingly, the living functions which could not function in the least without acquired formation can be called "Acquired Functions", and the others "Innate Functions". Acquired functions include recollections of images, perceptions, associations, complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and feelings which have been explained so far and desires, complex emotions, egos, and thinkings which will be explained from now on. Innate functions include sensations, unitary voluntary movements, autonomic functions which have been explained so far. When we look through them, we find that human beings are the animals which have developed acquired functions the most of all the animals on the earth.
  Innate functions are formed
(1) in the situation common to the species
(2) in the time of a lot of generations through genes' spontaneous mutations and natural selections
(3) with little difference among individuals in the species.
In contrast, acquired functions are formed
(1')in the situation particular to the individual
(2')in the time of one generation
(3')with much difference among individuals in the species.
  For example, as for the feeling of anxiety, some persons have generally intense anxiety, some have intense interpersonal anxiety, and some have intense anxiety about being alone. The second and the third kinds of anxiety are formed mainly acquiredly. However, as was explained earlier, all living things and their functions are formed both innately and acquiredly. Feelings also involve subtypes of neurotransmitter and receptor, and subtypes are formed mainly innately. For example, the first (generally intense anxiety) is formed more innately than acquiredly.

MAKING USE OF THE PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE OF THE PAST, INCREASING OR MAINTAINING THE PLEASURE AND DECREASING THE DISPLEASURE IN THE FUTURE, AND SECURING EXISTENCE

  When some objects cause intense, continuous, or continual displeasure sensations, those sensations cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, and the image to emotion neural ways from the images' sources of those objects to those displeasure autonomic sensations are activated. Next time those objects are recollected as images, those recollected images' sources cause the excitements and transmissions of those image to emotion neural ways and those displeasure autonomic sensations. This is the feeling of anxiety about or fear of those objects, and the animals including human beings which have such feelings get rid of those objects in advance. Those objects as cause those intense, continuous, or continual displeasure sensation are usually dangerous for animals' existence. For example, they can be hard blows by other animals of the same or different species. As a result, those animals can prevent such danger and can survive it. In such a way, feelings are functions which make use of the pleasure and displeasure of the past, increase or maintain the pleasure and decrease the displeasure in the future, and secure animals' existence.

OBJECTIVE IMAGES

  At least in human beings, some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of functions are sensed, perceived, grasped, memorized, stored, and recollected as images. For example 1, some outlines of interpersonal functions like interpersonal confrontations with people, interpersonal escapes from people, and so on are recollected as images. For example 2, general human beings who are the objects of interpersonal functions are recollected as images. For example 3, school, office, or home which is the situation of interpersonal functions is recollected as an image. The images' sources of some parts, outlines, objects, means, ways, situations of a function can be called the function's "Objective Image" or Objective Image's Source.

DESIRES

  Now, when a functions is caused,
(1)the objective images' sources of the function are sometimes grasped, memorized, and stored.
(2)The function sometimes causes, as a result, some pleasure autonomic sensations.
When (1)(2) are temporally close caused again and again,
the image to emotion neural ways from the function's objective images' sources to the autonomic sensations are sometimes activated.
(3)Next time the objective image's source is recollected and grasped,
the activated image to emotion neural ways excite and transmit,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations are sometimes caused.
Simply, when the result of some functions was good, each of us will expect those functions. When the result was bad, he or she has anxiety about the functions.
In (3),
the excitements and transmissions of the image to emotion neural ways,
and the pleasure autonomic sensations
can be called the "Desire" for the objective image's source, the Desire to do the function, or Wanting to do the function.
  For example, when each of us made interpersonal functions in school or office, the result was good, and enjoyed them, he or she will expect the general human beings and interpersonal confrontations. This is an interpersonal desire.
  Human desires include the desires to study, those to work, those to play, the interpersonal desires, those for money, those for powers, those for marriage, those for children, and those for home, and sometimes include those for loneliness.
  The relation between desires and drives is explained here. Simply, desires are on the basis of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives. For example, when there are much money and power, much eating drive, drinking drive, and sexual drive are satisfied, the image to emotion neural ways from money and power's images to pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the desire for money and power is formed. In such a way, drives are innate functions, and desires are acquired ones.
  Though desires are included in feelings and in pleasure feelings, {feelings excluding desires} and desires need to be distinguished. That is because desires are close to egos explained later. Accordingly, the former are called Feelings (in a narrow sense), and the latter, desires in these books.
  Anyway, in desires, pleasure is dominant in autonomic sensations. Simply, we do only what we like and do not do what we dislike.
  Some desires are the substance of some parts of what is called "conditioning".
  In each desire, when the objective images' sources cannot be done with, some displeasure emotions are caused. When they have been done with, some pleasure ones are caused. When they have been done with excessively, some displeasure ones are sometimes caused. The first can be called the desire's Dissatisfaction or Being dissatisfied, the second, Satisfaction or Being Satisfied, and the third, Satiation or Being Satiated.
  Because objective images' generations, memorizations, storages and the activations of image to emotion neural ways are caused after the end of the prenatal period, desires are acquired functions. For example, when we carry out some interpersonal functions and they caused pleasure emotions more than displeasure ones, some interpersonal desires are formed.
  After all, feelings and desires are acquired functions. In contrast, pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are innate functions. For example, all the human beings have some pain on skins, palpitation, dyspnea, eating drives, water drinking drives, and sexual drives.
  As was explained earlier, feelings (in a narrow sense) are acquired functions where the difference among individuals is large and are functions fit to make use of the past, to foresee the future, and to prevent danger. So are desires. For example, the desires to work prevent starvation, those to play prevent overwork, and those for marriage and family prevent loneliness. Moreover, desires indicate concrete objects, ways, and means. For example 1, we need to do concrete piece of work in order to live, need to acquire concrete pieces of knowledge and skill and to get concrete pieces of experience in order to do that, and desires get more and more concrete. For example 2, sexual drives and interpersonal desires develop into the desires for certain persons.

COMPLEX EMOTIONS

  Drives involve some pleasure and displeasure sensations, and feelings and desires involves some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations caused by some recollected images.
  A function which consists mainly of more than one kind of emotion that has been explained so far and which necessarily involves some feelings or desires can be called a "Complex Emotion".
  What is called "love" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some sexual drives, gathering drives, loneliness, interpersonal desires. What is called "will to power" is a complex emotion which consists mainly of some controlling drives, controlling desires, desires to means to control like arms, money, and so on.
  However, a complex emotion which has a main component can be called with the words of that component. For example, what is called "will to power" can be called a controlling drive or desire.
  The complex emotions where pleasure emotions are dominant can be called Pleasure Complex Emotions, and the contrary can be called Displeasure Complex Emotions. For example, the love where sexual drives' dissatisfactions and interpersonal desires' dissatisfactions are dominant is displeasure love.

PLEASURE AND PAIN

  Pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Emotions".
  Pleasure sensations, drives' satisfactions, pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Pleasure Emotions or Pleasures. Displeasure sensations, drives' dissatisfactions and satiations, displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiation, and displeasure complex emotions can be called a Displeasure Emotion, Displeasures, or "Pain". The word of "Pain" as an uncountable noun designates both physical and mental pain. In addition, the word of Pain is used more often than that of Displeasure in our daily life. Accordingly the former is often used also in these books.
  Pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives can be called "Physical Emotions". Pleasure sensations and drives' satisfactions can be called Physical Pleasure, and displeasure sensations and drives' dissatisfactions and satiations can be called Physical Displeasures or Physical Pain.
  Feelings, desires, and complex emotions can be called "Mental Emotions". Pleasure feelings, desires' satisfactions, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Pleasures, and displeasure feelings, desires' dissatisfactions and satiations, and pleasure complex emotions can be called Mental Displeasures or a Mental Pain.

OBJECTS OF EMOTIONS

  In each feeling, the recollected images' sources can be called its "Objects", and in each desire, the recollected objective images' sources its Objects. For example, not only particular persons but also general human beings are the objects of an interpersonal desire.
  As for pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, they form some feelings or desires directly or indirectly. For example 1, some pain on the skins directly form the fear of human violence, diseases, accidents, natural disasters, and so on which cause it. For example 2, eating drives directly form some desires for food. For example 3, what is called "love" directly forms some desires for particular persons or general human beings. For example 4, what is called "will to power" directly forms desires to control and power. As to pleasure and displeasure sensations, drives, and complex emotions, the objects of the feelings or desires which they form directly can be called their Objects.

PURPOSES

  In each human being, some objects of emotions are thought and reformed again and again by egos which will be explained later. Then, the objects can be called the human being's "Purposes". For example, supporting his or her family, getting money or power sometimes becomes some persons' purposes. It is quite another problem whether such purposes are good or bad. Anyway, purposes are thought and reformed again and again in each human beings.

MEANS   So far, the images' sources of some parts of functions, objects, means, ways, situations, and so on which cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations have been called objects in a plump. However, they sometimes need to be distinguished.
  In human beings, what are primarily means for some purposes to be accomplished, for some drives or desires to be satisfied, for pleasure emotions to be increased or maintained, or for displeasure emotions to be decreased sometimes become purposes or objects. For example 1, money, which is primarily the means for the satisfactions of eating, drinking, sexual drives, interpersonal desires, and so on sometimes become a purpose. For example 2, power, which are primary the means for the satisfactions of the controlling drives or desires, sometimes become a purpose.
  Human beings do not destroy themselves, other living things, and the nature only by their bare body and bodily functions. They destroy them including themselves on a large scale using means like tools, weapons, science and technology, and so on. Above all, the human means of the manipulations of atomic nuclei and genes are the most serious. When that needs to be emphasized, the human beings, human functions, and the means which they make and use are called "Means" in these books. Above all, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" and "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY" uses the word of means in this sense.

HABITS OF EMOTIONS

  Emotions are a kind of function and have habits as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". For example, some persons feel anxiety easily, and it can be said that they have large habits of general anxiety.
  In the habits of emotions, those of pleasure and displeasure sensations and drives are formed mainly innately. In contrast, the decisive part of habits of feelings and desires is which image to emotional neural ways are activated. Accordingly, the habits of feelings and desires are formed acquiredly. For example, when interpersonal relations are enjoyed again and again and when the neural ways from the recollected images of general human beings to some pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, interpersonal desires come to be caused easily. In contrast, when interpersonal relations cause pain again and again and when the ways from them to displeasure ones are activated, interpersonal anxiety comes to be caused easily.
  Most emotions are suitable functions for animal individuals and species to exist. However, those of the human beings are exceptions. That will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS".
  Most animals including human beings have pleasure and displeasure sensations. Vertebrates, and some arthropods, and so on have drives. Some mammals including human beings have feelings, desires, and complex emotions.

EGOS T

IMAGE TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS, FUNCTIONAL IMAGES, FUNCTIONAL NEURAL GROUPS

  In cerebrums, there exist and function some, actually many, neural ways
from the neural groups which images' neural sources go through
to those which can cause some functions including unitary voluntary movement at least. Such neural ways can be called "Image to Function Neural Ways".
  Images are all generated, memorized, stored, and recollected acquiredly. So are the images of functions. First, other persons' functions are sensed, perceived, generated, memorized, and stored, and arise, and are recollected as images. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking, the images of the complex voluntary movement of walking upright on two legs are generated, memorized, stored and recollected acquiredly. Simply, that is the beginning of imitation. Moreover, the self's functions are sensed, percieved, generated, memorized, and stored, and arise, and recollected as images more firmly than other persons'. For example, we cannot master any skills if we see them done by others without doing them ourselves.
  Moreover, when functions are caused again and again, images' sources of functions are generated, memorized, stored, and recollected, and image to function neural ways are activated acauiredly on the basis of temporal closeness. For example, when a baby sees its parents walking upright on two legs and when it tries to do so again and again, the images of doing so are generated, memorized and the neural ways from those images' sources to the neural groups on the frontal lobes which can cause the unitary voluntary movements of limbs that compose doing so are activated.
  In addition, when some images' sources of functions are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of some of the activated image to function neural ways. For example, when some of the images' sources of walking upright on two legs are recollected, they sometimes cause the excitements and transmissions of some of the neural ways which were exemplified above.
  The images' sources of functions which can cause the excitements and transmissions of some image to function neural ways can be called "Functional Images (' Sources)". In addition, the functional images' sources which are recollected can be called Recollected Functional Images(' sources), a Thing Recollected as a Functional image, or so. Functional images are the images of what are called "ways" or "how to".
  In addition, the neural group which is reached by some image to function neural ways and which can cause a function including a unitary voluntary movement at least can be called a "Functional Neural Group".
  In addition, the function which can be caused by recollected functional images' sources, by the excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways, and by those of a functional neural group can be called an "Intentional Function". It will be explained closely after the definition of egos. At least, intentional functions include unitary voluntary movements. Simply, for example, each of us can bend and stretch joints intentionally. Intentional functions also include complex voluntary movements such as walking upright on two legs, pronunciations, and so on.
  In each of the neural systems of vertebrates, images' neural sources and the neural groups which generate, memorize, store, and recollect them are in the parietal, occipital, and temporal lobes. In contrast, functional neural groups are in the frontal lobes. Image to function neural ways stretches from the former to the latter, and their axons are in the white cortexes. Paying attention to the direction of neural groups' excitements and transmissions, metaphorically, image to function neural ways are forward looking.
  Images' sources including functional images' are all generated acquiredly, and image to function neural ways are all activated acquiredly when some functional images' sources' generation and some intentional functions are caused temporally close. Accordingly, not that intentional functions in themselves are innate or acqauired functions, but that most of them are rarely caused innately. However, some intentional functions are sometimes caused innately by some neural ways involving no image to function neural ways. For example, a human being's sucking milk is an intentional function, and an adult's doing so is caused through those way, so is possible that newborn's doing so is innately caused directly by eating and drinking drives.

FUNCTION TO FUNCTION NEURAL WAYS AND COMPLEX INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  One unitary intentional function like a unitary voluntary movement is caused by one unitary functional neural group's excitement and transmission. In contrast, a complex intentional function like a complex voluntary movement is caused the excitements and transmissions of more than one unitary functional group and some neural ways. In the latter case, the following three patterns of neural ways are thinkable.
(1) one functional image's source→one image to function neural way→one unitary neural group.
(2) one functional image's source→one diverging image to function neural way→more than one unitary neural group.
(3) one functional image's source→one image to function neural way→more than one unitary neural group and some neural ways among them.
  Probably, not one of (1)(2)(3) but the mixture of them exist and function. Above all, (2)(3) do so. It is thinkable that (1) rarely do so. If (2)(3) did not exist or function, for example, while walking, we would always have to think that the right arm ahead, the left one back, the right leg back, the left one ahead, and so on, and so we could not think anything other than walking like tomorrow's schedule.
  Anyway, there exist and function some neural ways (IF) betweem functional images' sources and unitary functional neural groups which cause unitary intentional functions (UF). In addition, there exist and function some neural ways (FF) among (UF). It is clear that (FF) make more than one unitary intentional function collaborate and to make those collaborating a complex intentional function. The latter half of (IF) which has already diverged do so, too. In contrast, the first half of (IF) which has not diverged yet is involved in deciding which intentional function is caused from the beginning. The first half of (IF) is involved in it, and the latter half of (IF) and (FF) decide the detailed and technical aspects of intentional functions. Accordingly, more precisely again, the first half of (IF) which has not diverged yet can be called a Image to Function Neural Way, and the latter halves of (IF) which have already diverged and (FF) can be called "Function to Fuction Neural Ways". In addition, (UF) can be called "Unitary" Functional Neural Groups, and (UF) and function to function neural ways can be called "Complex" Fuctional Neural Group or, simply, Functional Neural Groups.
  As was explained earlier, most of image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways are activated acquiredly when intentional functions are caused, sensed, and perceived again and again. Unitary functional groups are activated innately. Again, the activations of image to function neural ways are involved in deciding which intentional function is caused and are involved in the formation of egos' habits. Those of function to function neural ways decide the detailed and technical aspects of decided intentional functions, and form the abilities of intentional functions. For example, while a human baby sees their parents walking upright on two legs and while it tries to do so themselves, crawl, stand, and tumble again and again, the image to function neural ways from the functional images' sources of doing so to the functional neural groups causing the complex voluntary movement of doing so and the function to function neural ways among the unitary functional neural groups which cause the unitary voluntary movements composing the complex voluntary movement are activated, and the baby or infant do so sooner or later.
  Anyway, image to function neural ways and function to function neural ways need to be clearly distinguished from image to image neural ways, that is, the neural ways among individual images' sources which were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", and image to emotion neural ways which were defined earlier.
  In addition, intentional functions are distinct from tendon reflexes. That is because the latter do not involve even functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions.

IMPULSES

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", sensations and memories are caused by neural groups' excitements and transmissions from the sensory organs to sensory nerves to sensory areas in a broad sense, and so on which are in order. In addition, image to emotion neural ways, image to function ones, and functional neural groups explained in this book are not as in order as them but more in order than the following.
  Every emotion that involve some pleasure and displeasure sensations causes various functions spreading over the neural system, above all, autonomic neural one and endocrine one, immune one, and so on.
  Moreover, some emotions cause neural groups' excitements and transmissions
which are different from neural groups' excitements and transmissions which cause sensations and memories,
which diffuse toward the cerebrum,
and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery.
Such neural groups' excitements and transmissions which diffuse toward the cerebrums and which can reach the cerebrums or their periphery can be called "Impulses".
  More than one emotion is able to be caused at once. For example, the pain on the skin and the anxiety about its going on or gaining are able to be caused simultaneously. Even the anxiety about and the expectation for a thing are able to be caused simultaneously. Accordingly, usually, more than one impulse arises, that is, begins to be caused by more than one emotion at once. However, in one neural system of one individual, because impulses diffuse to the cerebrums or their periphery, and some of them that excite and transmit earlier, longer, and wider make the others disappear, only a few impulses, usually, only one is caused at once. In such a way, an impulse's diffusing earlier, longer, and wider can be called its Being More Intense. When it is defined so, it is said that the most intense ones of all the impulses that are caused at once reach the cerebrums or their periphery while making the others disappear.

FUNCTIONAL IMPULSES

  Some of the recollected functional images cause the excitements and transmissions of image to emotion neural ways and some feelings like expectation and anxiety. Moreover, some of those feelings cause impulses. The impulses which are caused by functional images in such a way can be called "Functional impulses".

ACTIVATIONS OF IMAGE TO EMOTION NEURAL WAYS

  Feelings, desires, complex emotions contain some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Pleasure and displeasure sensations cause some pleasure and displeasure sensations. Accordingly, emotions contain or cause some pleasure and displeasure sensations. Pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasuere ones, and displeasure emotions contain or cause some displeasure ones.
  When a displeasure emotion is intensely, continuously, or continually caused by an intentional function's being caused, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources of that intentional function to some displeasure autonomic sensations contained or caused by that displeasure emotion are activated. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those displeasure autonomic sensations, and do not cause any functional impulses. For example, after a child does a dangerous play and is severely scolded by its parents, even if that play occurs to it, it has a kind of anxiety or fear and has no functional impulses to do that play.
  In contrast, when a pleasure emotion is intensely, continuously, or continually caused or some displeasure emotions are clearly reduced by an intentional function's being caused, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources of that intentional function to some pleasure autonomic sensations contained or caused by that pleasure emotion are activated. Next time those functional images are recollected, they cause those activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause those pleasure autonomic sensations, and can cause some functional impulses.
  In such a way, functional impulses are potent functions which refer to pleasure and displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future.
  However, it is not easy to know whether pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations are caused and whether or not impulses are caused. For example, though extreme, when we are on board a burning ship only with life jackets, it is dangerous both to stay on board and to jump into the sea. If we have even the slightest expectation for jumping in the midst of the physical and mental pain on board, we will have functional impulses to jump. In such a way, in the midst of a lot of anxiety or fear, even the slightest expectation can cause functional impulses.

LIMITING FUNCTIONS

  Before egos are explained, limiting functions will be explained. Some functions have the following properties.

The set of functions (f1,f2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by a function (SLF) limiting (F).
In this case, the set of functions (F), the limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), each element of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called a "Limited Function" (lf), and the function (SLF) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function".
  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the neural ways from the neural groups memorizing and storing images' sources to the replay converge. In addition, though a lot of images' sources arise at once, a certain number (n) of them which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected. Accordingly, recollections of images are limiting functions.
  In addition, as was explained earlier, because impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery. Accordingly, impulses are limiting functions.
  In addition, egos, which will be explained later, contain the limiting functions of recollections of images at the beginning and the limiting ones of impulses at the ending, and so they are limiting ones.

EGOS' SITUATIONS

  Simply, egos cause intentional functions in situations. It can be said that egos mediate between situations and intentional functions. Ego's situations are those where intentional functions need to be caused. For example, a situation where I need to cause some interpersonal functions, more concretely, where somebody is knocking at the door or where the telephone is ringing is an ego's situation. If I pretend that I am not at home, it is a interpersonal function, and a intentional function.
  As was explained earlier, sutuations are divided into external one and internal one. The door's being knocking and the telephone's ringing are external situations. In external situations, the present things are sensed, perceived, and grasped, and egos can be caused.
  Recollected, associated, and thought things and emotions can be grasped and can be egos' internal situation. For example 1, because what have to be done tomorrow are anticipated, an ego intends to prepare for them. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its future external situation indirectly. For example 2, because its own past shameful behavior is recollected in a narrow sense, an ego intends to escape from the images of those behaviors in such a way as will be explained later. This can be looked upon as the ego's responding to its past external situation and the self indirectly. In such ways, egos respond not only to the present but also to the future, the past, and the self. In other words, concerning them, it is internal situtions that egos respond directly.
  In addition, emotions can be grasped and become egos' internal situations. For example 1, when there is some thirst, it is grasped, and the ego intends to drink water. For example 2, when there is some ainxiety or fear, it is grasped, its cause is associated, and the ego intends to escape from it.

EGOS

  At the beginning of an ego, the situation is grasped, as was explained in "a psychology of animals having memories", on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, some intentional functions' images, that is, functional images arise, and some of them are recollected. Simply, some ways to respond with situation are recollected. For example, the situation where somebody is knocking at the door is grasped, the functional images of pretending not to be at home, making sure who it is and then opening the door, opening the door and then making sure who it is, and so on are recollected.
  It is seemingly probable that only recollected functional images' sources and image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. That is, it is seemingly probable that only

(1) RATIONAL SYSTEM:
Grasps of the situations → recollections of functional images → recollected functional images' sources → activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions

cause functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions. (1) does not involve any emotions or impulses, and so (1) can be called "Rational Systems". Only such rational systems' causing intentional functions is seemingly more rational and efficient than only emotions' or both rational systems and emotions' causing them.
  However, rational systems are too weak to cause intentional functions by themselves. They need emotions and impulses' support to cause intentional functions. That was often felt to be real through the daily thought that, no matter what a good idea occurs to us, we cannot carry out it without any motivation.
  In addition, in the time of a second, more than one functional image is usually recollected, and more than one intentional function can be caused. Who or what selects one from more than one function? Does not pleasure or displeasure select one?
  Accordingly, let us suppose that (1) rational systems and the following (2) "Emotional Systems" merge and cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and intentional functions.

(2) EMOTIONAL SYSTEM:
(recollected functional images' sources →) activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions → pleasure autonomic sensations → functional impulses

  As was explained earlier, emotional systems are potent functions which refer to pleasure and displeasure in the past and can secure pleasure and prevent displeasure in the future. Pleasure or displeasure is directly concerned with animals' existence. (1) Rational systems' proposing some intentional functions, that is, what are called "ways" or "how to", and (2) emotional systems' deciding one referring to pleasure or displeasure is fit for animals to exist. (1) and (2)'s collaboration has evolved in struggles for existence and natural selections.
  From the beginning, rational systems are neutral, and so they cannot decide by themselves whether anything is good or bad. As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", in recollections or associations on the basis of temporal closeness, cause and effect can be recollected as complex images. However, in them, whether the result is good or bad cannot be recollected or decided. However, nobody or nothing has what can decide it directly and absolutely. It can be decided only indirectly and relatively only by whether something is pleasure or displeasure.
  Accordingly, usually in the neural system of each individual of, at least, higher mammals including human beings, (1) rational system and (2) emotional system merge and cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and cause intentional functions. Those (1) and (2) and their merger are the substance of what is called the "Ego". Those (1) and (2) and their merfer exist and function as one thing in the neural system of an individual, and countable in a group or a species. For example, when there are ten human beings, there are ten egos. Accordingly, those (1) and (2) and their merger can be called "An Ego" as a countable noun. A little stricter description of an ego is as follows.
  A certain situation is grasped, some functional images' sources are recollected, some of them cause some activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions. Simultaneously, some of the recollected functional images' sources cause some activated image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, and some of them cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations. Moreover, usually one of the caused pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations which has the most intense pleasure causes usually one functional impulse which is the most intense. Finally, both those image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions and the most intense functional impulse cause functional groups' excitements and transmissions and cause the intentional function corresponding to one of those recollected functional images. In this case, the recollections of functionai images' sources, the recollected functional images' sources, the image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, the pleasure and displeasure sensations, and the impulses including the most intense functional one can be called an "Ego".
  In addition, such an ego is the substance of what is called "I" in our daily life. Accordingly, an ego can be called "I", Each of Us, Human Being, Intending to Do an Intentional Function, and so on.

LIMITING EGOS AND LIMITED EGOS

  Such an egos as was explained in the above section can be a limiting function. Let us examine it closely.
  Again, the set of functions (f1,f2,…) which can be caused in general (this generality's being (G) ) in a certain situation (S1) being (F),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (F) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (F) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by a function (SLF) limiting (F).
In this case, the set of functions (F), the limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a "Limiting Function" (LF), each element of the set (f1,f2,…) can be called a "Limited Function" (lf), and the function (SLF) can be called a "Substantially Limiting Function".

(lf) Limited egos
  There are more than one intentional function that can be caused in general in a certain situation, and they can compose a set.
  If one functional image cause one image to function neural way's excitement and transmission, one image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission, one pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensation, one functional impulse, and one intentional function, those before the intentional function can be looked upon a function converging on the merger of the image to function neural way's excitement and transmission and the functional impulse. Moreover, it is limited doubly by the substantially limiting function of the recollection of the functional image and by that of the functional image, and it is possible that it is not caused even if it arises, and so it is a limited function. However, the supposition is not always true. Above all, the complex intentional functions which we have not been accustomed to yet are caused by more than one functional image. For example, when we are not accustomed to the butterfly stroke, the awkward movement is caused by two functional images of the movement of arms and that of legs. In addition, if one functional image is recollected and if one functional impulse is caused, more than one image to emotion neural way's excitement and transmission and more than one pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensation are often caused, and one functional impulse is often caused by the mixture of expectation, anxiety, and so on.
  However, even so, they can be looked upon a function, after all, converging on the merger of the image to function neural way's excitement and transmission and the functional impulse. Moreover, it is limited doubly by the substantial limiting function of the recollections of the functional images and by that of the functional image, and it is possible that it is not caused even if it arises, and so it is a limited function.   Accordingly, the rational system, the emotional system, and their merger which can cause an intentional function can be called a "Limited Ego". Limited egos are classified into the outlines of egos which will be explained later. Practically, limited egos are argued with such an outline made a unit.
  First (1), even if some functional images as a part of a limited ego are generated, if they do not arise from the grasp of the situation, the whole of the limited ego is not caused. Second (2), even if the functional images arise, if they are not recollected, the whole of the limited ego is not caused. Third (3), even if they are recollected, if they do not cause any image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, any pleasure autonomic sensations, and the most intense functional impulse, the whole of the limited ego is not cause. The above (2)(3) are that that limited ego arises but that it is not caused.

(S1) Egos' situations
  Most of them were explained in the section "EGOS' SITUATIONS". The situation is grasped, as was explained in "a psychology of animals having memories", on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, some intentional functions' images, that is, functional images arise, and some of them are recollected.
  Situations can expand endlessly. For example, in an individual, when interpersonal anxiety is grasped as a part of its internal situation, the whole of its situation can expand from its present interpersonal relations to its past interpersonal relations to the process of the formation of its habits from its baby period, and so on. Though the formation of habits is the most important, we had better not designate it with the word "situation". In order to prevent such endlessness and confusion, the situation is defined as follows. It is defined as the sources which can be grasped at the then present by a general human being and the sources which can be recollected or associated from them.

(S2) Another situations of egos.
  When an functional image is recollected intensely, the others are recollected faintly or are not, and so the number of limited egos caused at once (n) usually gets small. When an functional image causes an intense pleasure autonomic sensation and causes an intense functional impulse, (n) usually gets small. For example, an limited ego to escape from very dangerous thing, the others are not caused. Anyway, limited egos are limited doubly, the number of limited egos caused at once (n) is usually one. The exceptions will be explained later.

(G) The meaning of being caused "in general" concerning limited egos
  As far as egos are concerned, it means being able to be caused even in a few human beings in that era. That is because though the egos which seem abnormal are rarely caused, their functional images are often generated, or they sometimes arise in general human beings. A little more closely, though some abnormal functional images are generated, they do not arise from the grasps of the situation, or though they arise, they are not recollected, or though they are recollected, they do not cause the most intense functional impulses and do not cause the whole of the ego. For example, though few of us commit grave crimes, they are not connected with the situation, they arise as functional images and are not recollected, or they are recollected and cause displeasure autonomic sensations with penalties feared.
  However, it means being caused "in that era". For example, in the era when there are no automobiles, there cannot be any egos intending to drive them or get on them. It is not a great problem for an ego whether the means to go somewhere is an automobile, a carriage, or so. Egos have what are common for every era, too.

(SLF) Egos' substantially limiting functions
  Egos contain recollections of functional images, at the beginning, and functional impulses, at the ending, both of which are limiting functions. The substantially limiting functions of the two are an ego's substantially limiting function. That is, egos are limited doubly. That is,
(SLF1) that the complex images' sources which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, longest make the others disappear in the converging neural ways, reach the replay, and are recollected, and (SLF2) that impulses diffuse toward the cerebrums, those which excite and transmit the earliest, broadest, and longest make the others disappear and reach the cerebrums or their periphery
are a limited ego's substantially limiting functions.

(LF) Limiting egos
  The set of limited egos (F), egos' substantially limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (F) can be called a Limiting Function.
  Capabilities of being caused while excluding the others will be explained later together with egos' habits.

THE WHOLE OF AN LIMITING EGO FROM THE FORMATION OF ITS HABIT

 A Limited ego needs completely to climb the following stairs in order for them to be caused. (1)-(3) of the following are preliminary stages, that is, the stage of the formation of egos' habit.
(1) Its intentional function is sensed and grasped, its functional images' sources are generated, memorized, stored, and their activities are retained.
(2) Its image to function neural ways are activated, and their activities are retained.
(3) The intentional function cause some pleasure emotions and some pleasuere autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images to the pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and their activities are retained.
(4) The situation is grasped, and on the basis of grasps and similarity and on that of temporal closeness and neural ways, the functional images arise.
(5) The functional images not only arise but also are recollected.
(6) The recollected functional images cause the activated image to function neural ways' excitements and transmissions.
(7) The recollected functional images cause the image to the activated emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions, cause the pleasure autonomic sensations, and cause the most intense functional impulses as a result.
  When it climbs all of (1)-(7), all of the limited ego and the intentional function are caused. The most important of them is (7) and, when we trace back to the preliminary stages, (3). The rason will be explained in the section "FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS".

AROUSALS OF A LOT OF LIMITED EGOS AT ONCE

     In a situation at once, usually, a lot of functional images' sources arise, but a limited number (n) of them are recollected. Moreover, even if a functional image's source is recollected, if it does not cause the most intense functional impulse indirectly, it does not cause the whole of the ego and does not cause any of the intentional function which it is causing. Metaphorically, even if the rational system proposes an intentional function, the emotional system rejects it. In such a way, though a lot of limited egos arise at once, usually one limited ego is caused at once.
  For example, when a limiting ego with interpersonal anxiety is in the situation of interpersonal relations where it needs to cause some interpersonal functions, the following case of (1)(2)(3) are thinkable. By the way, its situation in this case contains not only the interpersonal relations but also interpersonal anxiety. In such a way, egos' situations contain not only external situations but also internal ones.
(Example 1) The functional images of interpersonal escapes are recollected (1). However, the necessity to cause some interpersonal functions is grasped, and those functional images cause some other displeasure autonomic sensations and do not cause the most intense functional image. Then, the functional images of interpersonal confrontations are recollected (2). However, those functional images increase that interpersonal anxiety and do not cause the most intense functional impulse. After all, the functional images of halfway interpersonal functions which are neither confrontations nor escapes are recollected, cause some ease, cause the most intense functional impulse, and cause such a interpersonal function. Those take place in a second.
  However, actually, a lot of concrete and detailed limited egos as follows, for example, arise also in each of (1)(2)(3).
(Example 2)
(1-1)Not going to office or school
(1-2)Though going to office or school, escaping the interpersonal relations
(1-3)Faking sickness and being absent
(1-4)Behaving lightly
(1-5)Exhibiting one's appearances which other persons are hard to come close to
(2-1)Though with interpersonal anxiety, going to office or school and entering the interpersonal relations
(2-2)Improving the interpersonal relations when they are thought to be abnormal
(3-1)Consulting psychologists
(3-2)Taking anti-anxiety drugs

However, those, too, are no more an example, actually, more limited egos arise, but only one is usually caused at once. In addition, functional images cause a quick shift of pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations like anxiety, expectation, and so on.
  In addition, a lot of limited egos usually arise even in a second. That is, those are happenings in a second. In addition, limiting egos containing such limited egos function as long as animals having egos are awake. That is, egos are not temporary or special functions but continuous and fundamental ones.
  Accordingly, egos are different from what is called "conflict" or "hesitation". While the former are continuous and fundamental functions, the latter is temporary and special functions. In addition, egos are different from thinking, which will be closely explained later. Simply, it is egos that decide what to think, what to think of, and how to think.
  The number of the egos being caused at the then present is usually one. Such egos being caused at the then present can be called "Current" Egos.
  From the beginning, arising and recollected images shift one after another rapidly. So do functional images. So do pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses, corresponding to them. In addition, so do situations. Accordingly, arising and caused limited egos and current egos shift one after another rapidly. Such rapid shifts are not temporary and special states but continuous and fundamental ones.
  If limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when the distinction is clear in the context or is unnecessary, limiting egos, limited ones, and current ones are called Egos in these books.

SUBTLETY OF PLEASURE AND DISPLEASURE AUTONOMIC SENSATION CONTAINED IN EGOS

  If the recollected functional images cause some displeasure autonomic sensations, no functional impulse is caused, the limited ego is not caused, and it end up only with an arousal. However, it is very subtle whether those autonomic sensations are pleasure or displeasure. For example, when none of the thinkable ways seem to break the deadlock, an only a little better way can cause some pleasure ones like expectation. For example though extreme, when none of the thinkable way to appeal seem to prevent heavy penalties, the way to prevent the maximum one can cause some hopes.
  However, it is an extreme example. The autonomic sensations contained in egos are usually not so dramatic but daily and subtle ones. For example, when we are about to be late for something, we think that we will be in time if we take a taxi, and an expectation is caused. However, we think that it cost too much, and some anxiety is caused. Then, we compare the cost of being late and that of taking a taxi. If the latter is larger, we think that it is not so bad to be late, and we feel easy. At last, we are late for it. That is all. Usual pleasure and displeasure sensations contained in egos are such daily and subtle ones, and they consist of light anxiety and expectation. The times when they get heavy are so rare that we can count them. That is our life.

CONTINUITY OF CURRENT EGOS

  Including such light and heavy egos and egos taking steps which will be explained later, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously. An example of shifts of current egos will be taken below. A daily example will be taken in order to exemplify that those shifts are continuous and fundamental ones. For example, intending to going out, intending to get up, intending to go to the bathroom, intending to wash myself, intending to dress myself, intending to take the key, wallet, cell phone, and so on, intending to make sure whether I have got everything, intending to go to the door, intending to lock up, intending to make sure whether it has been locked, intending to think how to go, and so on.

OUTLINES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  While others' or the self's intentional functions are sensed, grasped, generated, memorized, stored, and recollected as functinal images, their sources can be classified into some groups while they go through the diverging neural ways in such a way as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". For example, we, human beings, classify intentional functions into confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing.
  By the way, confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing are the most fundamental groups of intentional functions not only in human beings but also mammals at least. For example, even carnivores escape from natural disaster. Herbivores' escaping instantly from carnivores sometimes increases the risk that the former are found and caught by the latter, and waiting and seeing is sometimes fit for individuals and the species to exist. In human beings, confrontation is different from fighting. For example, talking is sometimes confrontation.
  Moreover, such groups of intentional functions can be recollected as images. For example, in human beings, the groups of confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing are recollecdted as images.
  Moreover, though the images of such a group is abstract and rough, it is usually recollected at first or, as it were, in the background, and then or in the foreground, the concrete and detailed functional images which belong to it are sometimes recollected according to the situation, and the whole of the ego containing those functional images and the intentional function belonging to it are usually caused. For example, in some danger, escaping is already occurring to us, and some concrete and detailed ways hit upon us.
  In addition, the functional images which belong to the same group often cause similar pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses because of their similarity.
  Moreover, some of such groups can classify intentional functions beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations. Confrontation, escape, and waiting and seeing was exemplified above.
  The group of intentional functions which satisfies the following two properties is called an "Outline" of Intentional Functions in these books.

(1) Usually, it is recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground the concrete and detailed functional images of the intentional functions which belong to it are recollected according to the situation, and the whole of the ego containing those functional images and the intentional function belonging to it are caused.
(2) It can classify intentional functions beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations.

OUTLINES OF EGOS

  The set of the limited egos which can cause the intentional functions belonging to an outlines can be called the "Outline of (Limited) Egos". As was explained above, an outline of intentional functions is usually recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground concrete and detailed functional images are usually recollected. Such images of an outline and functional images can be looked upon as a complex image. Accordingly, images of outlines of intentional functions are included in functional images in these books. When they are defined in such a way, an outline of egos usually contains the images of the outline of intentional functions.
(1) It is the set of the limited egos which can cause the intentional functions belonging to an outlines. In it, usually, that outline of intentional functions is recollected as images at first or in the background, and then or in the foreground the concrete and detailed functional images of inteitional functions which belong to that outline are recollected according to the situation.
(2) It can classify limited egos beyond individuals, societies, species, and situations.
  As will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", outlines of egos and intentional functions include confrontation, escape, adherence, showing off the self, destruction, control, and so on.

EGOS' HABITS

  The set of limited egos (e1,e2,…) which can be caused in general in a certain situation (S1) being (E),
a number which fluctuates depending on another situation (S2) being (n), at once,
when (n) or less of (E) arise (C1), all of them are caused,
and when more than (n) of (E) arise (C2),
(n) of them which have the largest capability of being caused while excluding others (EA) are caused
by egos' substantially limiting function (SLF).
The set of limited egos (E), egos' substantially limiting function (SLF), and the other functions which treat (E) are a Limiting Ego (LE).
  In the case (C1), a limited ego's capability of being caused is that of arising (This capability is called (AA) here), and in the case (C2), it is that of arising before the arousal and that of being caused while exclusing the others (EA) after the arousal. A limited ego's capabilities of being caused in such cases in such situations can be called the limited ego's Capability, Ability, or "Habit" (of being caused). In addition, the matrix of the habits of limited egos belonging to the set (E) in a certain situation (S1) can be called the Habit of Limiting ego (in the situation (S1)).
  Limited egos habits can be quantified by the activities of the neural groups and ways involved and the earliness, the broadness, and the length of their excitements and transmissions theoretically. However, it is impossible practically.
  As was explained earlier, limited egos can be classified into outlines. If the habits of limited egos belonging to an outline could be quantified, their average could be the habit of the outline of limited egos. However, that quantification is impossible practically as was explained above.
  However, caused intentional functions can be observed and can be classified into their outlines. In addition, the intensity, duration, or frequency of the intentional functions belonging to an outline can be quantified. After doing that, limited egos, which cause intentional functions directly, can be classified into their outlines, and the intensity, duration, or frequency of the limited egos belonging to an outline can be quantified. The intensity, duration, or frequency of the limited egos belonging to an outline can be called The Habit (of the Outline) (of Limited Egos) In addition, the matrix of the habits of outlines can be called the Habit (of the Outlines) (of the Limiting Ego). It can be quantified and mathematized like, for example, (the habit of adherence, that of showing off the self, that of control, that of destruction, ...) = (58, 61, 65, 57, ...)
  The habit of the limited egos which belong to the same outline is formed together by their similarity. That is, that habit is formed making an outline a unit. For example, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", showing off the self is an outline of egos. Though those who have an intense habit to show off the self do so in various ways, they make the same impression in any interpersonal relation.
  An outline of egos has (1)(2) explained earlier as properties. Moreover, as was explained in this section, they have (3) that limited egos' habits are formed making it a unit as a property.
  Seemingly, the habit of a limiting ego equals what is called personality. It is true that the former is the most important part of the latter, but the latter includes the habits of emotions, those of perceptions and associations, and the abilities of intentional functions, and the abilities and habits of thinkings, too.
  Because the habit of a limiting ego is the matrix of the habits of the outlines of limited egos, the former include the latter. However, if they are always distinguished, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, when the distinction is clear or unnecessary, the former or the latter are called "Habits of Egos" in these books.

FORMATION OF HABITS OF EGOS

  What mainly forms egos' habits? That is, what decides them decisively? That is, what decides which outline of limited egos is caused?
  The activities of image to function neural ways hardly decrease, and which image to function neural ways are activated how much hardly decide the habits of egos. We can start any intentional function as long as we have the motivation to do it. If we cannot, it is usually because we do not have that motivation. For example, those who cannot swim can intend to swim and jump in pools, and some of their image to function neural ways are exciting and transmitting. The rason why they cannot do more than it is because the function to function neural ways involved in swimming are not activated well, and the ability of intentional function to relax muscular tension and to float on the water has not been formed yet. That is, it is the problem not the activities of image to function neural ways but those of function to function neural ways, and it is the problem not of the formation of egos' habits but that of intentional functions' abilities. For example, the latter decide no more than the skill to talk, and they do not decide who to talk with or what to talk about.
  It seems to be important which functional images are recollected from grasped situations. As is a metaphor used again and again, The functions from grasps to functional images' recollection, that is, the first half of the rational system propose some ways, and the emotional system decide which of them is adopted and carried out. Those which are not proposed cannot be decided or carried out.
  However, even if a functional image is recollected, if it does not cause the most intense functional impulse, the ego containing it only arises and is not caused, and it does not cause the intentional function. After all, the most important is what has the decision-making authority.
  If only a few functional images were recollected, they could still be important. Practically, however, many and various functional images are recollected in a second. That is because we are told various ways in homes, schools, and offices. That is because we are taught various practical, ethical, and legal ways in homes, schools, and offices and unethical and illegal ones in the society.
  Accordingly, it is in emotional systems that are decisive for the formations of egos' habits. Let us trace back to what is decisive in an emotional system. The most intense functional impulse and the image to functions neural ways' excitements and transmission cause the functional neural groups' excitements and transmissions and cause the intentional function. When the intentional function is caused in this way, the whole of the limited ego has already been caused. It is the autonomic sensation with the most intense pleasure that cause the most intense functional impulse. So that such an autonomic sensation can be caused in an ego, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images' sources to it need to be activated, and the activities need to be maintained to a degree. In order to be so, the following (1) is caused intensely, continuously, or continually. (1) That is, an intentional function is caused, the intentional function causes some pleasure emotions, the pleasure emotions contain or cause some pleasure autonomic sensations, the image to emotion neural ways from the functional images of that intentional function to that pleasure autonomic sensations are activated, and the activities are maintained to a degree. Again, the above (1) needs to be caused intensely, continuously, or continually.
  The activities of all the neural cells and groups decrease sooner or later. So do those of image to emotion neural ways. Accordingly, things similar to being forgotten, which was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES" are caused. In order to prevent such things, those image to functional neural ways need to be activated intensely, continuously, or continually.
  Of course, (2) functional images need to be recollected intensely, continuously, continually, the neural groups and ways which were explained in "a psychology of animals having egos" need to be activated, and the activities need to be maintained to a degree. However, as was explained earlier, this is not decisive for the formation of egos' habits. In addition, (3) image to function neural ways need to excite and transmit intensely, continuously, or continually, they need to be activated, and their activities need to maintained to a degree. However, as was explained earlier, this has something to do with the formation of intentional functions' abilities.
  After all, what mainly forms egos' habits is which image to emotion neural ways are activated how much and how intensely, continuously, or continually the intentional functions cause the pleasure emotions. For example, in the latter half of the infant period, when a child enter interpersonal relations other than its home and enjoyed them without alienation almost everyday for months, the egos' habits which cause interpersonal functions with few interpersonal escapes. In this example, the image to emotional neural ways from the functional images of interpersonal functions to some pleasure autonomic sensations like expectation are activated, and those activities will be maintained for months.

FUNCTIONAL IMAGES IN EGOS, EGOS' OUTLINES, OBJECTIVE IMAGES IN DESIRES

  It may be thought that functional images in egos resemble objective images in desires. However, from the beginning, functional images can directly cause both the excitements and transmissions of image to function neural ways and those of image to emotion ones. In contrast, objective images in desires can directly cause only the former. From the beginning, while functional images are contained in egos, objective images are not. From the beginning, while functional images are generated by the perceptions of intentional functions themselves, objective images are generated through those of their object, means, and so on.
  While the objective images in desires are general and abstract ones, the functional images in egos are particular and concrete ones. For example, the objective images in desires to work consist of the images of making his or her or his or her family's living, gaining experience, and so on. In contrast, the functional images in egos to work consist of the images of meeting certain persons in a certain place at a certain time, drawing up this document now, and so on.
  It may be thought that outlines of egos resemble objective images in desires in another way. It is true that they are abstractive. However, outlines of intentional functions can classify intentional functions, and outlines of egos can classify limited egos. In addition, though both outlines of egos and objective images in desires can cause functional images indirectly, the latter do so more indirectly.
  As a result, functional images, egos, egos' outlines are more difficult to grasp in an individual and to talk about among individuals than objective images and desires are. Accordingly, though egos' habits are the most important in what is called personality and though they are at least more important than desires', we sometimes lose sight of egos' outlines behind desires' objects. We need to pay attention not to do this.

GENERAL IMPULSES AND FUNCTIONAL ONES

  For example, when we are stunned by some sudden changes of the situation, our egos hardly function, and such an impulse needs to be distinguished from functional impulses in egos. It can be thought that such an impulse diffuses into the first half of the rational system, confuse it, and forces the ego hardly to function.

EGOS TAKING STEPS

  For example, even if an ego intends to see its boy or girl friend, it cannot do that at once. Some egos need to call him or her, to arrange when and where to meet, to take a shower, to make up, to dress up, and to lock the door of his or her house. Some egos intend to get on a train, but they needs to walk to the station to do that. Walking, some egos should stop at some traffic signals or ignore them. In this case, some egos need to function to stop at them, and some need to function to ignore them more intensely. While walking some egos think what to do after they get to his or her house. If a thinking finished in vain, another ego needs to start another thinking. After getting to the station, some egos need to get a ticket and in order to do that, a lot of egos need to get to the vending machines, to take his or her purse out of his or her pocket or bug, to take some coins, bills, or a card out of it, to put them into the slot of the machine, to take the change, and to head for the gate. In this way, a lot of egos functions before seeing him or her and even before getting on a train. In such a way, egos need to take steps in situations, and most of our daily life is steps.
  Anyway, as long as we are awaken, some current egos are being caused continuously.

THE PHYLOGENESIS AND ONTOGENESIS OF EGOS

  In human ontogenesis, in general, the human beings in the adolescent period or later have the most clear and intense egos. However, there are some immature egos in the pre-adolescent, infant, and baby period. Though it may be unthinkable that fetuses have any egos, it would be no wonder if they had. For example, they might intend to go out of here.
  In animal phylogenesis, it is probable that such higher mammals as apes, dogs, cats, and so on have some immature egos.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  Intentional functions will be specified before some other things about egos are explained. That is because the understanding of the former will help that of the latter.
  Egos have been defined in the above way, intentional functions are defined as the functions which can be caused directly by egos.
  An ego and the intentional functions caused by it can be called an "Ego and Intentional Function" or Intending to Do Intentional Functions and Doing Intentional Functions.
  When we want to make sure whether or not a function is an intentional function, let us examine whether or not we can do it instantly by intending to do it. For example, we can bend the elbow joints instantly by intending to do so, and so bending the elbow joints is an intentional function and is included in unitary voluntary movements which was explained earlier. In addition, not only unitary but also complex voluntary movements are included in intentional functions. For example, though we cannot walk instantly when we sit down, we can stand up instantly, and we can walk instantly after we stand up. Accordingly, standing up and walking are intentional functions. In such a way, voluntary movements including unitary and complex ones are included in intentional functions. However, not only voluntary movements but also the following are intentional functions. For example, when a circle and a square are recollected to us, we can inscribe the former into the latter or inscribe the latter into the former instantly by intending to do so. Doing those are intentional functions and are included in manipulations of images which will be explained later. In contrast, for example, feelings like anxiety and fear cannot be felt instantly by intending to feel, and so they are not intentional functions.
  Intentional functions are divided into voluntary movements and synthetic functions as were defined earlier and manipulations of images and thinkings as will be explained later. Manipulations of images include combining, dissolving, transforming, and so on. Thinkings are divided into ones in a narrow sense, retracings, forecastings, and daydreamings. Human synthetic functions include speaking words, writing words, eating, drinking, sexual functions, studying, working, playing, interpersonal functions, and so on. In human beings, even sexual functions are included in synthetic functions and in intentional functions. For example, in human beings, sexual drives cannot cause sexual functions directly. They usually need to agree to do them and to take off their clothes. Even putting on and taking off their clothes are included in synthetic functions and in intentional functions.

SPONTANEOUS PURE MENTAL FUNCTIONS

  Voluntary movements and synthetic functions are all intentional functions. In contrast, in pure mental functions, sensations, perceptions, associations, feelings, desires, complex emotions are not directly caused by any egos. Though they are sometimes caused indirectly by some egos, they are usually caused without egos what is called "spontaneously". Accordingly, they can be called "Spontaneous" Pure Mental Functions.
  In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are pure mental intentional functions as will be defined later.

MANIPULATIONS OF IMAGES

  Intentional functions include not only voluntary movements and synthetic functions as were explained earlier but also manipulations of images as will be defined in this section and thinkings as will be defined in the next section.
  The following are caused at least in human beings.
(1)How to manipulate some recollected images (ri) are sometimes recollected as functional images (fi),
(2)the ego which involve (fi) are caused,
(3)and (ri) are manipulated in the way of (fi). Such (3) is an intentional function. Such (3) can be called a "Manipulation of Images" or Manipulating Images, and (1)(2)(3) can be called an Ego's Manipulating Images.
  More complicated pure mental intentional functions like thinking, retracing, forecasting, daydreaming, and so on consist of some associations and manipulations of images.
  Manipulations of images include the following. Simple examples of them will be taken. Please try.

(1)Combining images
Circumscribing two circles' images which were separated.
(2)Dissolving images
Separating two circles' images which were circumscribed.
(3)Transforming images
Transforming a circle's image into an ellipse's.
(4)Bringing images closer
Bringing a person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.
(5)Taking images farther
Taking a person's face's image farther which was recollected closer.
(6)Switching images
Taking a person's face's image farther or extinct which was recollected closer by bringing another person's face's image closer which was recollected farther.

  As was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the recollection of an image has comparative quantity, and an image is recollected comparatively "intensely or faintly". However, because such quantity is easy to understand with visual images, being intense or faint is also called being "Close or Far" visually and metaphorically in these books. Each ego can bring images more intensely (closer) which was recollected more faintly (farther). This is also called Bringing images Closer, and the contrary is also called Taking Images farther in these books. However, the latter is harder than the former. Far from that, the harder an ego tries to take images farther, the closer they will get, and the more persistently they will be recollected. From the beginning, it is impossible for each ego to directly make unrecollected images recollected. In addition, it is hard or impossible to directly make recollected images unrecollected, that is, to extinguish them completely. In addition, a limited number (n) or less of images are recollected at once. When some images are recollected intensely, (n) gets smaller, and the other images are recollected faintly or are not recollected. On those grounds, each ego takes some images farther by bringing some other images closer. This can be called an ego's "Switching" images from some images to some other images. It is hard or impossible for each ego to what is called "repress" images. Each ego usually switches images.
  Without any manipulations of images by egos, complex images are generated only in memories as was explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". However, by egos' combining images, dissolving them, transforming them, combining them again and again, more complicated complex images are generated.
  In addition, the images manipulated by egos are memorized intensely. Simply, the things which we pay some attention to are memorized, and the contrary are not.

THINKINGS

  As was explained earlier, sensations, recollections, perceptions, and associations, are spontaneous pure mental functions, and they are caused without egos. In contrast, manipulations of images and thinkings are not spontaneous ones but intentional ones. They can be called "Pure Mental Intentional Functions".
  Human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings almost always contain some lingual images. However, if the phrase of "containing or containing some lingual images" was always used, the sentence would be complicated. Accordingly, it is usually omitted in these books.
  At least in each human being, an ego intends to think about A and proposes A as a theme, some images are recollected in an association from A, the ego manipulates some of the recollected images, modifies A to A', and propose A' as a theme, and the same are repeated. Such collaboration of egos and associations can be called a "Thinking". Egos intend to think of something and think of it. Thinkings are included in pure mental intentional functions. For example, I, the writer of this book, intend to think of the contents of this section and think of them.
  Thinking where recollections of the real, the past, the future, or the unreal are dominant can be called Thinkings in a narrow sense, "Retracings", "Forecastings", or "Daydreamings" respectively.
  Thinkings include those where egos are dominant and those where associations are dominant. In the latter, thinkings seem to be caused spontaneously. What is called "thinking random things and then coming to myself" is that the latter change into the former.

MENTAL FUNCTIONS AND LANGUAGE

  Again, images almost always contain some lingual images in human recollections of images, perceptions, associations, egos, manipulations of images, and thinkings. If no language had been generated, no complicated mental functions could have been generated. In contrast to complicated ones, simple ones can be generated. For example, in newborns, who have not acquired a single word, feelings like anxiety, fear, expectation, and so on occur. In such a way, feelings and desires sometimes contain no lingual images.
  In addition, it seems that thinkings are the most complicated, and that language is the most dominant in them. However, it is not always true. For example, after an ego manipulated lingual images, some words are sometimes recollected according to acquired grammar and usage in associations for seconds. Language is more dominant in associations than in egos in this case.

CONSTRUCTIONS, DISSOLUTIONS, BEING FORGOTTEN OF COMPLEX IMAGES

  Some complex images are combined, dissolved, or transformed through egos' manipulations of images in a thinking, and memorized, stored, and recollected in a memory, and again combined, dissolved, or transformed, and the same are repeated. In such a way, some complex images get more complicated when combinations are dominant, some get simpler when dissolutions are dominant, and some are simply forgotten in the way that were explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES". In thinkings of an individual, a complex image's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its "Construction" or Being Constructed, its getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its "Dissolution" or Being Dissolved, and a complex image's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its "Reconstruction" or Being Reconstructed.
  Dissolutions and reconstructions are harder and more important functions than constructions are. For example, the dissolution of the Creation and the reconstruction of evolutionism were hard or impossible for some people in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, and even now. However, from the beginning, the complex images which are rarely manipulated or thought by egos are usually not dissolved but forgotten simply.

IDEAS=THOUGHTS

  Some of the complex images' sources are not only constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual in the way that was explained in the above section but also transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on in the human society and history, some of them are again constructed, dissolved, and forgotten in each individual, transmitted by spoken words, written words, arts, and so on, and the same are repeated. Each of such constructed, dissolved, forgotten, and transmitted complex images or their sources can be called an "Idea" or "Thought".
  By being manipulated, thought, and transmitted, an idea's getting more complicated when combinations are dominant can be called its Construction or Being Constructed, an idea's getting simpler when dissolutions are dominant can be called its Dissolution or Being Dissolved, and an idea's being constructed after being dissolved can be called its Reconstruction or Being Reconstructed.
  Dissolutions and reconstructions of ideas in the society and history are harder than those of complex images in each individual. That is because those who have gotten powers and profits through old ideas strive to protect old ones and to destroy new ones. This was typified by the idea of Ptolemaic system against that of Copernican one, the idea of monarchy against that of democracy, and the idea of the Creation against that of evolution.

REALITY

  Without any egos, complex images are all generated only in memories. All the images that have been generated only in memories without any egos are real. More accurately, no reality can be a problem without any egos.
  In contrast, by egos' manipulating images in thinkings, some unreal images are generated, and the reality becomes a problem. In addition, around the reality, some research, dispute, and so on are caused.
  In addition, human beings construct some unreal complex images intentionally in literature, art, and so on. This is a "Fiction".
  Moreover, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal complex images intentionally. This is a "Lie".
  In addition, human beings construct seemingly real and actually unreal images unintentionally. This is close to an "Illusion" or "Misunderstanding".

ABILITIES OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  In the human society, the abilities of intentional functions are so great problems that they seem to be almighty. For example, the abilities to run, to swim, to speak, to write, to think, to calculate, to use computers, and to work and interpersonal abilities are problems.
  Intentional functions are divided into unitary and complex voluntary movements, synthetic functions, and pure metal intentional functions. The abilities of unitary voluntary movements are actually contractile force of striated muscles, and so they seem to be formed innately. However, striated muscles are also weakened when they are not used. Accordingly, some part of the ability of a unitary voluntary movement can be looked upon as being formed acquiredly. As for each of the other kinds of intentional functions, much larger part of it is formed acquiredly.
  As was explained earlier, intensely, continuously, or continually, an intentional function is caused and sensed, its images are generated, memorized, stored, its image to function neural ways are activated, and the ability of that intentional function is formed. The sample of a kind of complex voluntary movement of walking was enumerated earlier.

EGOS U

EGOS IN THINKINGS

  What associations and manipulations of images by egos compose as a function in unity is a thinking, such egos in thinkings have specialized in thinkings. Such egos specialize the most in logical, philosophical, scientific, and professional, and so on thinkings.
  We cannot deny that the thinkings by the philosophers before G. W. F. Hegel were biased toward thinkings and egos in thinkings. We should not neglect to think of the follwing egos starting thinkings and egos involving thinkings.

EGOS STARTING THINKINGS

  There are egos starting thinkings. For example, the egos of a researcher starting technical thinkings with desire to become a professor are included in them. Though out of duty, the egos of a commander starting strategical or tactical thinkings are included in them. General egos intending to think of breakthroughs in tough situations are included in them. General egos starting thinkings with curiosity are included in them. The "philosophy" (love of knowledge) of ancient Greek philosophers might have been included in them.
  Of course, even if egos start thinkings, they are not always completed. For example, even if we start to think of some breakthroughs in tough situations, they are rarely found.

EGOS INVOLVING THINKINGS

  Usually in each of the egos of human beings, egos manipulate and think of the situations recollected as images, manipulate and think of the ways, that is, "how to do" recollected as images, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and they cause some pleasure and displeasure sensation, the whole of the ego, and the intentional function. Such an ego involves thinkings containing egos and is a multiple ego. It can be said that it involve thinkings. Accordingly, such an ego can be called an "Ego Involving Thinkings". Such egos and thinkings are different from such specialized egos and thinkings as were explained in the above sections and are daily states of human beings. It is only in such a sense that human beings are thinking reeds.
  Such egos involving thinkings are functions fit for individuals and the species of human beings to exist, and sometimes seem to be the fittest. They seem to be functions at human beings' best. In addition, human beings seem to be free for the first time through such egos involving thinkings.
  Anyway, usually, egos are involving thinkings in such a way. However, if that is always explained, sentences will be complicated. Accordingly, that explanation is usually omitted, and egos involving thinkings are merely called egos in these books.
  Now, I should enumerate some examples showing that human beings are not so fit or free in the following sections.

EMOTIONS AS INTERNAL SITUATIONS FOR EGOS

  As was explained earlier, in general, the situations of bodily functions in an individual are divided into external situations and internal situations. So are those of egos.
  The most important of egos' external situations are, of course, interpersonal relations. They are important in order to live, to work, to study, and to play.
  The most important of egos' internal situations are the self's emotions.
  Emotions are perceived, egos think how to increase or maintain pleasure and to reduce displeasure in situations, some functional images are recollected from those ways, and egos cause some intentional functions. For example 1, when intense hunger is perceived, of course, egos think the way to eat something. For example 2, when we perceive some fear of or anxiety about something, we think how to escape it and prevent danger. Reducing the pain of fear and anxiety is a way to prevent danger, too. In such ways, the reference both to external situations and to internal ones, above all, to emotions seems to be the fittest function.

EGOS' HABITS AND IMMATURITY OF INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS' ABILITIES

  Let us take the most important example. When a child suffers violence, neglect, alienation, and so on in its home or its periphery in the infant period, intense interpersonal anxiety continues thereafter. As a result, ever if interpersonal functions are recollected as functional images, they cause intense displeasure autonomic sensations similar to interpersonal anxiety. In contrast, when interpersonal escapes are recollected as functional images, they cause slight pleasure ones similar to expectation. When most of the autonomic sensations are intense displeasure, such slight pleasure causes the most intense functional impulse and cause a personal escape. Personal escapes are caused continuously or continually in such a way. As a result egos' habits of interpersonal escapes are formed. As a result, few interpersonal functions other than escapes are caused, the abilities of interpersonal functions are hardly formed, and they remain immature. This is a vicious circle.

EXCAPES FROM IMAGES

  Recollected images can cause some image to emotion neural ways' excitements and transmissions and some pleasure or displeasure autonomic sensations. That is a feeling or a desire in short. In addition, recollected functional images can cause some pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations in the same way. That is a part of an ego. Moreover, egos can switch image in such a way as was explained in the section "Manipulations of images". Surprisingly, egos can switch from images causing displeasure ones to some others and can reduce displeasure ones temporarily. This is not a special function of egos but is usual in our daily life. For example, we sometimes try not to think of our own shameful deeds, and this is it.
  However, it is only mental pain that can reduce in such a way. Physical pain can never be reduced by switching images. From the beginning, egos can only change mental emotions, which are caused by recollected images, temporarily and indirectly by manipulating images. An ego's reducing mental pain temporarily and indirectly by switching from images causing some pain to some other images can be called the ego's Escape or Escaping from the images.
  The most serious is that egos escape from the self's falling habits recollected as images, as will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS". Because the self's falling habits like those of adherence, showing off the self, and so on recollected as images cause intense pain like self-hatred, shame, anxiety, and so on, egos switch from them to those of their powers, appearance, and so on and escape from them. As a result, falling habits are hardly reduced.

INTENSITIES OF LIMITED EGOS AND LIMITING EGOS

  More than one ego (e1, e2, …) is sometimes caused at once. For example, when we are thinking while walking, the limited ego intending to think and that intending to walk are caused at once. In such a case, there are some comparative differences among the intensities and clearnesses of the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of (e1, e2,…). For example, when we are thinking of a complicated thing (e1) while walking on a familiar street (e2), those of e1 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of e2. In such a case, e1 can be called an "Intense Limited Ego" and e2 a "Faint Limited Ego".
  Moreover, it is probable that the functional images of e3 are recollected the most clearly and intensely and that the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of e4 are caused the most intensely and clearly. For example, when we are walking on a steep path (e3) though we are thinking of changing the route (e4), the functional images of e4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of e3, and the pleasure and displeasure sensations and functional images of e3 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of e4. In such a case e3 can be called a "Limited Ego with Intense Emotion" or an Emotional Limited Ego, and e4 a "Limited Ego with Intense Rationality" or a Rational Limited Ego.
  In addition, the same applies to the limited egos being caused one after another in seconds or minutes. For example, when we are home (et1) and then going out on a holiday (et2), the recollections of functional images, the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of et2 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of et1. In this case, et1 can be called a faint limited ego, and et2 an intense limited ego. When we begin to destory something with fury (et3) and refrain from doing that (et4), the functional images of et4 are recollected more clearly and intensely than those of et3, and the pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations and functional impulses of et3 are caused more intensely and clearly than those of et4. In this case, et3 can be called a limited ego with intense emotion or an emotional ego, and et4 a limited ego with intense rationality or a rational limited ego.
  When there are such differences among outlines of egos which were explained earlier, such differences are caused by habits of egos which were explained earlier, and most of them are formed aquiredly. In addition, when there are such differences among sets of outlines, such differences are caused by falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS", and most of them are formed aquiredly.
  Not depending on such outlines or their sets, if there are some differences among the intensities and clearnesses of the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses of general limited egos, the following (1)-(4) are thinkable.
(1) depends on some functional or organic disorders of the neural system including the ego. For example, drugs abuse.
(2) depends on some natural changes of the neural system including the ego. For example, just after awakening or before falling asleep.
(3) depends on the confusion of the rational system by the intense impulses caused by some intense emotions. An example was taken earlier.
(4) depends on the seeming intensity and clearness by representing the self's thinkings and emotions intensely and clearly. This is not the intensity or clearness of egos in themselves.

INERTIAL INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS

  For example, egos can think of a boy or girl friend of theirs, walking to the station, and carrying a bag. Thinking (1), walking (2), and carrying (3) are all intentional functions. In such a way, it is possible that more than one ego and intentional function is caused at once. However, (2)(3) can be looked upon as going on as, it were, "automatically". In addition, the limited egos of (2)(3) are functioning faintly and, as it were, in the background. However, such intentional functions as can go on automatically are confined to unitary and complex voluntary movements. Synthetic functions and pure metal intentional functions cannot do so. In the above example, (1) cannot do so. Such intentional functions as can go on automatically can be called "Semi-automatic" Intentional Functions.
  The word "automatic" was modified by the prefix "semi-" for the following reason.
  Egos are functioning actively when they begin semi-automatic intentional functions and when some great changes concerning the intentional functions are caused in the situation. For example 1, when we are beginning to walk, egos do so while thinking which route to take. For example 2, when the bag is slipping off the hand or shoulder, egos hold it while thinking how to prevent slipping.
  In addition, also when the complex voluntary movements which are being formed are caused, egos are functioning actively. For example, when a baby walks, its immature egos almost always intend to walk. In addition, even in adults, in order to cause hard semi-automatic intentional functions, egos are almost always functioning. For example, when we are walking in the darkness, our egos are almost always functioning.
  By the way, thinkings often seem to go on automatically. However, thinkings consist of associations and manipulations of images by egos. Though the thinkings where associations are dominant often seem to go on automatically, associations are not intentional functions but spontaneous mental functions. Such spontaneousness and automaticity need to be distinguished. While spontaneousness is spontaneous from the beginning, automaticity was intentional at the beginning.

INTENTIONAL FUNCTIONS AS STEPS OR MEANS

  In real situations, most intentional functions cannot instantly be carried out, they need to take steps. In addition, egos see that, and the functional images of steps or means are recollected and cause intentional functions as steps or means. For example, though it was taken earlier, when I intend to see a boy or girl friend of mine, I cannot see him or her instantly. I need to call him or her and to make an appointment to see him or her. Moreover, in order to go to the appointed place, I need to get on a train. In order to do that, I need to walk to the station. In order to do that, I need to go out. In order to do that, I need to take a shower, to make up, and to dress up, and the same are repeated. Most of our daily life is steps or means in such a way.
  Here can be the multilayer formation as follows. Functional images from general and abstract ones to particular and concrete ones are recollected, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations from weak and vague ones to intense and clear ones are caused, and functional impulses from broad and weak ones to narrow and intense ones are caused. In addition, the original general and abstract images keep recollected as, as it were, backgrounds.

INERTIAL EGOS

  As was explained in the above sections, when more than one limited ego is caused, when semi-automatic intentional functions are caused, when intentional functions as steps or means are caused, and so on, egos where the recollections of functional images, pleasure and displeasure autonomic sensations, and functional impulses are faint and vague. Such limited egos can be called "Inertial" Limited Egos.
  When there is no intense pain or no great change in the situation, usually, most of the limited egos caused in a limiting ego are inertial in the time from seconds to hours. Such a limiting ego can be called an Inertial (Limiting) Ego. Simply, most of our daily life is inertial.

EGOS' LIBERTY

  Now, we find that seemingly free egos indulge themselves with their own habits, emotions, and inertia and are not so free. Moreover, egos indulge themselves with their own falling habits which will be explained in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS". However, in the way that will be explained in that same book, egos can decrease their own falling habits. When egos do that, they get the closest to freedom.

References

A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES
A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS
EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY

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