COPYRIGHT(C)2000 OUR-EXISTENCE.NET ALL RIGHTS RESERVED   TOP   Mail  

PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS

    In this book, this "PARTICULAR THINGS AND GENERAL THINGS" is also called "This Book". This book, "EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "DETAILS OF EXISTENCE AND LIBERTY", "SEPARATING EACH STATE POWER INTO THE TWO SYSTEMS OF THAT OF THE RULE OF LAW PROTECTING LIBERAL RIGHTS AND THAT OF THE HUMAN RULE SECURING SOCIAL RIGHTS", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING EGOS", and "A PSYCHOLOGY OF ANIMALS HAVING HABITS" are also called "These Books" in this book.
    This material thing, this body, this human being, I, you, he, she, this space, yesterday, today, tomorrow, the present, this sight, this image, this idea, and so on can be called "Particular Things".
    Things which are not particular things and which particular things have can be called "Properties" of particular things, Properties which particular things have, Properties attributed to particular things. Some particular things share some properties. In addition, some properties are attributed to some particular things. For example 1, universal gravitation, velocity, acceleration, energy, and so on are the properties attributed to every material thing. For example 2, colors and brightness are the properties attributed to every sight, that is, everything appearing on a visual sensation.
    Some sets of particular things having some properties have already been designated by some common nouns. For example, the set of particular things having some properties of being included in things in themselves, having spatial and temporal extents and the smaller particles like molecules, atoms, electrons, nuclei, positrons, neutrons, and so on's coming into and going out of themselves is designated by some common nouns] like "material things", "matter", "substances", and so on. A set of particular things having some properties can be called a "Set of General (Common Noun)s", a Set of (Common Noun)s, General (Common Noun)s, or (Common Noun)s. For example, the set of particular things having the properties which was enumerated above is also called a set of general material things, a set of material things, general material things, or material things.
    In contrast, the other sets of particular things having some properties have not been designated by any common nouns yet. For example, the set of particular things having some properties of being included in appearing things, having spatial and temporal extents have not been designated by any common nouns yet. Each of such sets can be called a "Set of General (Noun Phrase designating some of its properties)s", a Set of (Noun Phrase)s, General (Noun phrase)s, or (Noun phrase)s. For example, the set of particular things having properties of being included in appearing things, having spatial and temporal extents can be called a set of general appearing spatial and temporal things, a set of appearing spatial and temporal things, general appearing spatial and temporal things, or appearing spatial and temporal things.
    After all, each of the sets of the particular things having some properties can be called a Set of General (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, a Set of (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s, or the (Common noun or Noun Phrase)s. However, such presentations are complicated. Accordingly, such (Common noun or Noun Phrase designating some of its properties)s is also represented as XXXs, YYYs, and so on in this book.
    In contrast to general XXXs, each of the particular things which is an element of a set of general XXXs can be called a "Particular XXX". For example, each of the particular things which is an element of the set of general material things is also called a particular material thing.
    Of course, in mathematics, a lot of sets of general XXXs are defined with some properties. Such properties can be called the "Necessary Properties" of XXXs. The necessary properties are the properties whose XXXs could no more be XXXs if any of the properties were changed.
    The above definitions can be called "Definitions with Properties". However, some things designated by some common nouns are impossible to present their necessary properties. For example, time and space are impossible to do so. Such a thing has no choice but to be defined by some samples that never designate any other things. For example, the past, the present, and the future can be called the time. Such definition should not omit the future. That is because the time would become the past and the present if the future was omitted. In addition, such a definition should not omit the present. That is not only because the time would become the past and the future but also because there would be no moments. Such a definitions can be called "Definitions with Samples". For example, in "A PSYCHOLOGY OF THE ANIMALS HAVING MEMORIES", the sights, sounds, smells, dizziness, tastes, pains, hotness, coldness, palpitation, dyspnea, hunger, thirst, nausea, images, ideas, and so on are called "Appearing Things". Surely, it has no choice but to define an appearing things in such a way.
    The set(A) having some necessary properties (a) includes the set (B) having the necessary properties (a) and some other necessary properties (b), the set (B) includes the set (C) having the necessary properties (a and b) and some other necessary properties, and the same are repeated. For example, the set of general material things having the necessary properties of being included in things themselves, having spatial and temporal extents, and some smaller particles' coming into and going out of themselves include the set of general living things having the above necessary properties, and having some other necessary properties of consisting of macromolecules like proteins, lipids, saccharides, and so on, and of reproducing some other material things which have the same necessary properties.
    A set of general XXXs can also be called a "Set of XXXs as a Kind," XXXs as a Kind, or a Kind of XXX.
    A set of general XXXs can also be called "the Whole or All of the XXXs", All XXXs. A set of general A's including other sets of general B, C, and so on can also be called A's Including B, C, and so on (as a kind) or B, C, and so on's being Parts of A (as a kind). Above all, one set of general B's being included in another set of general A can also called B's being a Kind of A. For example, the set of general living things' being included in the set of general material things can also called the living things' being a kind of material thing.
    That a set of general A include sets of general B, C, and so on, that none of B, C, and so on meet, none of B, C, and so on include any others, and that sum of B, C, and so on are A can be called A's being "(Completely) Divided" into B, C, and so on (as a Kind) in these books. For example, the things excluding the time can be divided into appearing things and things themselves. In contrast, A's including B, C, and so on is also called A's being "distinguished" into B, C, and so on or A's Consisting of B, C, and so on (as Kinds) in these books. That is, even if there are some product sets or empty ones, the words of distinction, composition, and so on are used in these books.
    The sum of all the sets of general XXXs can also be called a "Set of General Things," General Things, Things, a Set of Things as Kinds, Things as Kinds.
    When the word of things is replaced by the word of XXXs, that is, a (common noun) or a (noun phrase designating some of its properties), XXXs are included in things. For example, material things are included in things. When the word of things are modified by some modifiers, what the noun phrase involving the modifiers designate are included in things. For example, when the word of things is modified by the modifier "appearing", appearing things are included in things. By the way, sights, sounds, tastes, pains, and so on are included in appearing things. When the word of things in a noun phrase is replaced by XXX, what the changed phrase designate are included in what the unchanged designate. For example, when the word of things in the phrase of things appearing on sensations is replaced by tables, tables appearing on sensations is included in things appearing on sensations. When some modifiers are added to a noun phrase, what the unchanged phrase designates include the changed. For example, tables appearing on a visual sensation include tables appearing on a visual sensation with both eyes.
    Sets, elements, including, being included, the whole, parts, divisions, distinction, consisting of, and so on include those as kinds, those of the space, those of the time, those of space and time. For example, solids, liquids, and gasses are the whole of the material things as kinds, and each of them is a part of the material things as a kind. And, the sea, land, underworld, and atmosphere are the spatial whole of the earth, and each of them is a spatial part. And, the past earth, the present earth, the future earth are the temporal whole of the earth, and each of them is a temporal part. However, when the modifiers like "as kinds," "spatial," "temporal," "spatial and temporal," and so on are always used, the sentences are complicated. In addition, it is usually clear which of kinds, space, and time, and so on are designated in the contexts without such modifiers. Accordingly, such modifiers will be omitted in these books.
    Though things include appearing things, things themselves, their properties, their functions, things explained in this book is all the same about all of them.

Mail   TOP   COPYRIGHT(C)2000 OUR-EXISTENCE.NET ALL RIGHTS RESERVED